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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445686/when-a-relationship-is-imperative-will-young-women-knowingly-place-their-sexual-health-at-risk-a-sample-of-african-american-adolescent-girls-in-the-juvenile-justice-system
#1
Jerris L Raiford, Puja Seth, Amy M Fasula, Ralph J DiClemente
Background: HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (HIV/STIs) are significant contributors to adolescent girls' morbidity in the US. Risks for HIV/STIs are increased among adolescent girls involved in the juvenile justice system, and African American adolescent girls comprise nearly 50% of adolescent girls in detention centres. Although HIV prevention programs focus on HIV/STI knowledge, increased knowledge may not be sufficient to reduce sexual risk. The present study examined the interactive effects of HIV/STI knowledge and the importance of being in a relationship (a relationship imperative) on sexual risk behaviours in a sample of detained African American adolescent girls...
April 27, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445465/assembly-of-functionally-integrated-human-forebrain-spheroids
#2
Fikri Birey, Jimena Andersen, Christopher D Makinson, Saiful Islam, Wu Wei, Nina Huber, H Christina Fan, Kimberly R Cordes Metzler, Georgia Panagiotakos, Nicholas Thom, Nancy A O'Rourke, Lars M Steinmetz, Jonathan A Bernstein, Joachim Hallmayer, John R Huguenard, Sergiu P Paşca
The development of the nervous system involves a coordinated succession of events including the migration of GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric-acid-releasing) neurons from ventral to dorsal forebrain and their integration into cortical circuits. However, these interregional interactions have not yet been modelled with human cells. Here we generate three-dimensional spheroids from human pluripotent stem cells that resemble either the dorsal or ventral forebrain and contain cortical glutamatergic or GABAergic neurons...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442538/peripheral-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-tnf-%C3%AE-modulates-amyloid-pathology-by-regulating-blood-derived-immune-cells-and-glial-response-in-the-brain-of-ad-tnf-transgenic-mice
#3
Evi Paouri, Ourania Tzara, Georgia-Ioanna Kartalou, Sofia Zenelak, Spiros Georgopoulos
Increasing evidence has suggested that systemic inflammation along with local brain inflammation can play a significant role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Identifying key molecules that regulate the crosstalk between the immune and the central nervous system can provide potential therapeutic targets. TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and AD. Recent studies have reported that anti-TNF-α therapy or RA itself can modulate AD pathology, although the underlying mechanism is unclear...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441095/perceived-harms-and-social-norms-in-the-use-of-electronic-cigarettes-and-smokeless-tobacco
#4
Erika A Waters, Georgia Mueller-Luckey, Kelsey LeVault, Wiley D Jenkins
Perceptions of harms and social norms influence the use of conventional tobacco cigarettes, but little research is available about their combined relationship with e-cigarette and smokeless tobacco use. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 309 individuals from central Illinois. We explored (1) demographic predictors of perceived harms and social norms related to e-cigarette and smokeless tobacco use, and (2) whether perceived harms, social norms, or both were important predictors of e-cigarette and smokeless tobacco use...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440925/microplastics-in-the-context-of-regulation-of-commercial-shellfish-aquaculture-operations
#5
Rosalind A Schoof, Jesse DeNike
Shellfish aquaculture in the Salish Sea (encompassing the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Puget Sound, and the Georgia Strait) is a major source of clams, oysters, and mussels in the United States and Canada. Plastic gear is necessary for the viability of many of these operations. During the past few years, shellfish farm permits issued in Washington State have been challenged on various bases that have included allegations that the plastic gear is releasing microplastics, commonly defined as particles less than 5 mm in diameter...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440867/the-epileptology-of-koolen-de-vries-syndrome-electro-clinico-radiologic-findings-in-31-patients
#6
Kenneth A Myers, Simone A Mandelstam, Georgia Ramantani, Elisabeth J Rushing, Bert B de Vries, David A Koolen, Ingrid E Scheffer
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to describe the spectrum of epilepsy phenotypes in Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS), a genetic syndrome involving dysmorphic features, intellectual disability, hypotonia, and congenital malformations, that occurs secondary to 17q21.31 microdeletions and heterozygous mutations in KANSL1. METHODS: We were invited to attend a large gathering of individuals with KdVS and their families. While there, we recruited individuals with KdVS and seizures, and performed thorough phenotyping...
April 25, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440858/treatment-with-disease-modifying-drugs-for-people-with-a-first-clinical-attack-suggestive-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
REVIEW
Graziella Filippini, Cinzia Del Giovane, Marinella Clerico, Omid Beiki, Miriam Mattoscio, Federico Piazza, Sten Fredrikson, Irene Tramacere, Antonio Scalfari, Georgia Salanti
BACKGROUND: The treatment of multiple sclerosis has changed over the last 20 years. The advent of disease-modifying drugs in the mid-1990s heralded a period of rapid progress in the understanding and management of multiple sclerosis. With the support of magnetic resonance imaging early diagnosis is possible, enabling treatment initiation at the time of the first clinical attack. As most of the disease-modifying drugs are associated with adverse events, patients and clinicians need to weigh the benefit and safety of the various early treatment options before taking informed decisions...
April 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440678/involvement-of-primary-care-physicians-in-the-decision-making-and-care-of-patients-with-breast-cancer
#8
Lauren P Wallner, Paul Abrahamse, Jaspreet K Uppal, Christopher R Friese, Ann S Hamilton, Kevin C Ward, Steven J Katz, Sarah T Hawley
Purpose Collaborative care between cancer specialists and primary care providers (PCPs) may improve the delivery of high-quality cancer care. Yet, patient perspectives about how involved the PCPs were in their breast cancer care and treatment decisions remain unknown. Patients and Methods A weighted random sample of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2013 to 2014, as reported to the SEER registries in Los Angeles, California, and Georgia, were sent a survey approximately 6 months after diagnosis (N = 2,279, 71% response rate)...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439188/next-generation-sequencing-reveals-high-prevalence-of-brca1-and-brca2-variants-of-unknown-significance-in-early-onset-breast-cancer-in-african-american-women
#9
Luisel Ricks-Santi, J Tyson McDonald, Bert Gold, Michael Dean, Nicole Thompson, Muneer Abbas, Bradford Wilson, Yasmine Kanaan, Tammey J Naab, Georgia Dunston
BACKGROUND: Variants of unknown significance (VUSs) have been identified in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and account for the majority of all identified sequence alterations. Notably, VUSs occur disproportionately in people of African descent hampering breast cancer (BCa) management and prevention efforts in the population. Our study sought to identify and characterize mutations associated with increased risk of BCa at young age. METHODS: In our study, the spectrum of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 was enumerated in a cohort of 31 African American women of early age at onset breast cancer, with a family history of breast or cancer in general and/or with triple negative breast cancer...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438920/conservation-of-biodiversity-as-a-strategy-for-improving-human-health-and-well-being
#10
REVIEW
A Marm Kilpatrick, Daniel J Salkeld, Georgia Titcomb, Micah B Hahn
The Earth's ecosystems have been altered by anthropogenic processes, including land use, harvesting populations, species introductions and climate change. These anthropogenic processes greatly alter plant and animal communities, thereby changing transmission of the zoonotic pathogens they carry. Biodiversity conservation may be a potential win-win strategy for maintaining ecosystem health and protecting public health, yet the causal evidence to support this strategy is limited. Evaluating conservation as a viable public health intervention requires answering four questions: (i) Is there a general and causal relationship between biodiversity and pathogen transmission, and if so, which direction is it in? (ii) Does increased pathogen diversity with increased host biodiversity result in an increase in total disease burden? (iii) Do the net benefits of biodiversity conservation to human well-being outweigh the benefits that biodiversity-degrading activities, such as agriculture and resource utilization, provide? (iv) Are biodiversity conservation interventions cost-effective when compared to other options employed in standard public health approaches? Here, we summarize current knowledge on biodiversity-zoonotic disease relationships and outline a research plan to address the gaps in our understanding for each of these four questions...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437756/local-dynamic-stability-and-gait-variability-during-attentional-tasks-in-young-adults
#11
Rina Márcia Magnani, Georgia Cristina Lehnen, Fábio Barbosa Rodrigues, Gustavo Souto de Sá E Souza, Adriano de Oliveira Andrade, Marcus Fraga Vieira
Cell phone use while walking may be a cognitive distraction and reduce visual and motor attention. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify the effects of attentional dual-tasks while using a cell phone in different conditions. Stability, regularity, and linear variability of trunk kinematics, and gait spatiotemporal parameters in young adults were measured. Twenty young subjects of both genders were asked to walk on a treadmill for 4min under the following conditions: (a) looking forward at a fixed target 2...
April 18, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437165/survey-for-listeria-monocytogenes-in-and-on-ready-to-eat-foods-from-retail-establishments-in-the-united-states-2010-through-2013-assessing-potential-changes-of-pathogen-prevalence-and-levels-in-a-decade
#12
John B Luchansky, Yuhuan Chen, Anna C S Porto-Fett, Régis Pouillot, Bradley A Shoyer, Rachel Johnson-DeRycke, Denise R Eblen, Karin Hoelzer, William K Shaw, Jane M van Doren, Michelle Catlin, Jeehyun Lee, Rohan Tikekar, Daniel Gallagher, James A Lindsay, Sherri Dennis
A multiyear interagency Listeria monocytogenes Market Basket Survey was undertaken for selected refrigerated ready-to-eat foods purchased at retail in four FoodNet sites in the United States. Food samples from 16 food categories in six broad groups (seafood, produce, dairy, meat, eggs, and combination foods) were collected weekly at large national chain supermarkets and independent grocery stores in California, Maryland, Connecticut, and Georgia for 100 weeks between December 2010 and March 2013. Of the 27,389 total samples, 116 samples tested positive by the BAX PCR system for L...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436984/genomic-analyses-identify-hundreds-of-variants-associated-with-age-at-menarche-and-support-a-role-for-puberty-timing-in-cancer-risk
#13
Felix R Day, Deborah J Thompson, Hannes Helgason, Daniel I Chasman, Hilary Finucane, Patrick Sulem, Katherine S Ruth, Sean Whalen, Abhishek K Sarkar, Eva Albrecht, Elisabeth Altmaier, Marzyeh Amini, Caterina M Barbieri, Thibaud Boutin, Archie Campbell, Ellen Demerath, Ayush Giri, Chunyan He, Jouke J Hottenga, Robert Karlsson, Ivana Kolcic, Po-Ru Loh, Kathryn L Lunetta, Massimo Mangino, Brumat Marco, George McMahon, Sarah E Medland, Ilja M Nolte, Raymond Noordam, Teresa Nutile, Lavinia Paternoster, Natalia Perjakova, Eleonora Porcu, Lynda M Rose, Katharina E Schraut, Ayellet V Segrè, Albert V Smith, Lisette Stolk, Alexander Teumer, Irene L Andrulis, Stefania Bandinelli, Matthias W Beckmann, Javier Benitez, Sven Bergmann, Murielle Bochud, Eric Boerwinkle, Stig E Bojesen, Manjeet K Bolla, Judith S Brand, Hiltrud Brauch, Hermann Brenner, Linda Broer, Thomas Brüning, Julie E Buring, Harry Campbell, Eulalia Catamo, Stephen Chanock, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Tanguy Corre, Fergus J Couch, Diana L Cousminer, Angela Cox, Laura Crisponi, Kamila Czene, George Davey Smith, Eco J C N de Geus, Renée de Mutsert, Immaculata De Vivo, Joe Dennis, Peter Devilee, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva, Alison M Dunning, Johan G Eriksson, Peter A Fasching, Lindsay Fernández-Rhodes, Luigi Ferrucci, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Lude Franke, Marike Gabrielson, Ilaria Gandin, Graham G Giles, Harald Grallert, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Pascal Guénel, Per Hall, Emily Hallberg, Ute Hamann, Tamara B Harris, Catharina A Hartman, Gerardo Heiss, Maartje J Hooning, John L Hopper, Frank Hu, David J Hunter, M Arfan Ikram, Hae Kyung Im, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Peter K Joshi, David Karasik, Manolis Kellis, Zoltan Kutalik, Genevieve LaChance, Diether Lambrechts, Claudia Langenberg, Lenore J Launer, Joop S E Laven, Stefania Lenarduzzi, Jingmei Li, Penelope A Lind, Sara Lindstrom, YongMei Liu, Jian'an Luan, Reedik Mägi, Arto Mannermaa, Hamdi Mbarek, Mark I McCarthy, Christa Meisinger, Thomas Meitinger, Cristina Menni, Andres Metspalu, Kyriaki Michailidou, Lili Milani, Roger L Milne, Grant W Montgomery, Anna M Mulligan, Mike A Nalls, Pau Navarro, Heli Nevanlinna, Dale R Nyholt, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Tracy A O'Mara, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Aarno Palotie, Nancy Pedersen, Annette Peters, Julian Peto, Paul D P Pharoah, Anneli Pouta, Paolo Radice, Iffat Rahman, Susan M Ring, Antonietta Robino, Frits R Rosendaal, Igor Rudan, Rico Rueedi, Daniela Ruggiero, Cinzia F Sala, Marjanka K Schmidt, Robert A Scott, Mitul Shah, Rossella Sorice, Melissa C Southey, Ulla Sovio, Meir Stampfer, Maristella Steri, Konstantin Strauch, Toshiko Tanaka, Emmi Tikkanen, Nicholas J Timpson, Michela Traglia, Thérèse Truong, Jonathan P Tyrer, André G Uitterlinden, Digna R Velez Edwards, Veronique Vitart, Uwe Völker, Peter Vollenweider, Qin Wang, Elisabeth Widen, Ko Willems van Dijk, Gonneke Willemsen, Robert Winqvist, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Jing Hua Zhao, Magdalena Zoledziewska, Marek Zygmunt, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, Dorret I Boomsma, Marina Ciullo, Francesco Cucca, Tõnu Esko, Nora Franceschini, Christian Gieger, Vilmundur Gudnason, Caroline Hayward, Peter Kraft, Debbie A Lawlor, Patrik K E Magnusson, Nicholas G Martin, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Ellen A Nohr, Ozren Polasek, David Porteous, Alkes L Price, Paul M Ridker, Harold Snieder, Tim D Spector, Doris Stöckl, Daniela Toniolo, Sheila Ulivi, Jenny A Visser, Henry Völzke, Nicholas J Wareham, James F Wilson, Amanda B Spurdle, Unnur Thorsteindottir, Katherine S Pollard, Douglas F Easton, Joyce Y Tung, Jenny Chang-Claude, David Hinds, Anna Murray, Joanne M Murabito, Kari Stefansson, Ken K Ong, John R B Perry
The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genotype data in up to ∼370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for age at menarche, a milestone in female pubertal development. In Icelandic data, these signals explain ∼7.4% of the population variance in age at menarche, corresponding to ∼25% of the estimated heritability. We implicate ∼250 genes via coding variation or associated expression, demonstrating significant enrichment in neural tissues...
April 24, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436542/intercontinental-telehealth-coaching-of-therapists-to-improve-verbalizations-by-children-with-autism
#14
Ana Barkaia, Trevor F Stokes, Tamar Mikiashvili
This study examined the effects of intercontinental telehealth coaching on the mastery of therapists' skills and improvements in verbalizations by children with autism, testing whether telehealth can be a solution for underserved communities in developing countries such as Georgia-Sakartvelo in Eastern Europe. Three therapists delivering and three children with autism receiving early-intervention services from the nongovernmental organization Children of Georgia in Tbilisi participated. Experimenters provided coaching from Virginia, USA to therapists in Georgia-Sakartvelo...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436458/development-of-a-fluorescent-asfv-strain-that-retains-the-ability-to-cause-disease-in-swine
#15
Manuel V Borca, Vivian O'Donnell, Lauren G Holinka, Brent Sanford, Paul A Azzinaro, Guillermo R Risatti, Douglas P Gladue
African swine fever is a contagious and often lethal disease for domestic pigs with a significant economic impact for the swine industry. The etiological agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly structurally complex double stranded DNA virus. No effective vaccines or antiviral treatment are currently commercially available. We present here the development of a strain of ASFV that has been shown to retain its ability to cause disease in swine, efficiently replicate in swine macrophage and that is fluorescently tagged...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432171/ascites-in-a-patient-with-episodic-angio-oedema-and-eosinophilia-thinking-outside-the-box
#16
Eirini I Rigopoulou, Maria Ioannou, Georgia Papadamou, Georgios N Dalekos
Episodic angio-oedema with eosinophilia (EAE) or Gleich's syndrome is a rare condition characterised by recurrent episodes of oedema and eosinophilia, accompanied by urticaria, fever and weight gain. The presence of ascites has not been reported so far. We report a 21-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with marked ocular oedema and ascites. Laboratory evaluation revealed marked eosinophilia. During the last 3 months, three episodes of facial and neck oedema were reported, which resolved spontaneously over a period of 3-5 days...
April 21, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431399/muc2-mucin-deficiency-alters-inflammatory-and-metabolic-pathways-in-the-mouse-intestinal-mucosa
#17
Selamawit Tadesse, Georgia Corner, Elena Dhima, Michele Houston, Chandan Guha, Leonard Augenlicht, Anna Velcich
The mucus layer in the intestine affects several aspects of intestinal biology, encompassing physical, chemical protection, immunomodulation and growth, thus contributing to homeostasis. Mice with genetic inactivation of the Muc2 gene, encoding the MUC2 mucin, the major protein component of mucus, exhibit altered intestinal homeostasis, which is strictly dependent on the habitat, likely due to differing complements of intestinal microbes. Our previous work established that Muc2 deficiency was linked to low chronic inflammation resulting in tumor development in the small, large intestine including the rectum...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430893/congeneric-predaceous-diving-beetle-species-fail-to-segregate-in-a-floodplain-system-a-case-of-amplified-sympatry
#18
Courtney Holt McDaniel, Joseph V McHugh, Darold P Batzer
Coexistence of closely related species has long been a focus of biologists in their efforts to explain mechanisms that drive community assembly. Dytiscidae (predaceous diving beetles) are a group that shows a particularly high affinity for sympatry despite their relatedness. Our objective was to investigate the degree of overlap among Neoporus (Guignot) species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in floodplains of the southeastern United States. We sampled two floodplain habitats (permanent oxbow lakes and temporarily flooded pools) of the Altamaha River (Georgia, USA) for Neoporus species over three years...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428969/targeted-lung-cancer-treatments-and-eye-metastasis
#19
REVIEW
Paul Zarogoulidis, Sofia Baka, Sofia Labaki, George Lazaridis, Georgia Trakada
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of death due to cancer. We do not have effective tools for the early detection of lung cancer, so patients are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. However, novel therapies based on molecular pathways (such as those involving the epidermal growth factor receptor, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, serine/threonine-protein kinase B-Raf, proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase ROS, c-Met proto-oncogene protein, and RET proto-oncogene protein) are now commonly used in the treatment of lung cancer...
2017: Medical Hypothesis, Discovery and Innovation in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426652/cheminformatics-aided-discovery-of-small-molecule-protein-protein-interaction-ppi-dual-inhibitors-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-tnf-and-receptor-activator-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ligand-rankl
#20
Georgia Melagraki, Evangelos Ntougkos, Vagelis Rinotas, Christos Papaneophytou, Georgios Leonis, Thomas Mavromoustakos, George Kontopidis, Eleni Douni, Antreas Afantitis, George Kollias
We present an in silico drug discovery pipeline developed and applied for the identification and virtual screening of small-molecule Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) compounds that act as dual inhibitors of TNF and RANKL through the trimerization interface. The cheminformatics part of the pipeline was developed by combining structure-based with ligand-based modeling using the largest available set of known TNF inhibitors in the literature (2481 small molecules). To facilitate virtual screening, the consensus predictive model was made freely available at: http://enalos...
April 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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