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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929212/pharmacological-therapies-for-management-of-opium-withdrawal
#1
REVIEW
Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Jaleh Gholami, Laura Amato, Leila Hoseinie, Reza Yousefi-Nooraie, Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili
BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic therapies for management of heroin withdrawal have been studied and reviewed widely. Opium dependence is generally associated with less severe dependence and milder withdrawal symptoms than heroin. The evidence on withdrawal management of heroin might therefore not be exactly applicable for opium. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of various pharmacologic therapies for the management of the acute phase of opium withdrawal...
June 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929206/an-integrated-strategy-to-qualitatively-differentiate-components-of-raw-and-processed-viticis-fructus-based-on-nir-hplc-and-uplc-ms-analysis
#2
Jiayin Diao, Can Xu, Huiting Zheng, Siyi He, Shumei Wang
Viticis Fructus is a traditional Chinese herbal drug processed by various methods to achieve different clinical purposes. Thermal treatment potentially alters chemical composition, which may impact on effectiveness and toxicity. In order to interpret the constituent discrepancies of raw versus processed (stir-fried) Viticis Fructus, a multivariate detection method (NIR, HPLC, and UPLC-MS) based on metabonomics and chemometrics was developed. Firstly, synergy interval partial least squares and partial least squares-discriminant analysis were employed to screen the distinctive wavebands (4319 - 5459 cm-1 ) based on preprocessed near-infrared spectra...
June 21, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929202/-potential-benchmarks-for-successful-interdisciplinary-collaboration-projects-in-germany-a-systematic-review
#3
Marina Weißenborn, Martin Schulz, Manuel Kraft, Walter E Haefeli, Hanna M Seidling
AIM OF THE STUDY: Collaboration between general practitioners and community pharmacists is essential to ensure safe and effective patient care. However, collaboration in primary care is not standardized and varies greatly. This review aims to highlight projects about professional collaboration in ambulatory care in Germany and identifies promising approaches and successful benchmarks that should be considered for future projects. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed based on the PRISMA guidelines to identify articles focusing on professional collaboration between general practitioners and pharmacists...
June 21, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929161/do-spatiotemporal-parameters-and-gait-variability-differ-across-the-lifespan-of-healthy-adults-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Nolan Herssens, Evi Verbecque, Ann Hallemans, Luc Vereeck, Vincent Van Rompaey, Wim Saeys
BACKGROUND: Aging is often associated with changes in the musculoskeletal system, peripheral and central nervous system. These age-related changes often result in mobility problems influencing gait performance. Compensatory strategies are used as a way to adapt to these physiological changes. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this review is to investigate the differences in spatiotemporal and gait variability measures throughout the healthy adult life. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines and registered in the PROSPERO database (no...
June 12, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929154/the-effectiveness-of-cytisine-versus-nicotine-replacement-treatment-for-smoking-cessation-in-the-russian-federation
#5
João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Silvia S Martins, Natalie Walker
BACKGROUND: There is just one study comparing the effectiveness of cytisine and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation. In the Russian Federation, both products are widely available as over-the-counter medications. Data on the real-world use of these medications among the general population would be informative. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from a nationally representative household survey of adults aged ≥ 15 years from the Russian Federation (part of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System Data)...
June 18, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929153/pain-and-anxiety-and-their-relationship-with-medication-doses-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#6
Sunyoung Park, Se Hee Na, Jooyoung Oh, Jong Seok Lee, Seung-Taek Oh, Jae-Jin Kim, Jin Young Park
PURPOSE: Pain and anxiety are understudied despite their importance to the general medical condition. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of pain and anxiety and their relationship to the doses of opioids and anxiolytics administered in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: The subjects included 1349 conscious, critically ill patients admitted to an ICU. Psychiatrists evaluated the patients daily for pain and anxiety. Data regarding the doses of opioids and benzodiazepines administered were gathered...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929126/-how-do-you-know-those-particles-are-from-cigarettes-an-algorithm-to-help-differentiate-second-hand-tobacco-smoke-from-background-sources-of-household-fine-particulate-matter
#7
Ruaraidh Dobson, Sean Semple
BACKGROUND: Second-hand smoke (SHS) at home is a target for public health interventions, such as air quality feedback interventions using low-cost particle monitors. However, these monitors also detect fine particles generated from non-SHS sources. The Dylos DC1700 reports particle counts in the coarse and fine size ranges. As tobacco smoke produces far more fine particles than coarse ones, and tobacco is generally the greatest source of particulate pollution in a smoking home, the ratio of coarse to fine particles may provide a useful method to identify the presence of SHS in homes...
June 18, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929108/the-adult-motor-phenotype-of-dravet-syndrome-is-associated-with-mutation-of-the-stxbp1-gene-and-responds-well-to-cannabidiol-treatment
#8
Gary Álvarez Bravo, Antonio Yusta Izquierdo
Dravet syndrome is a terrible disease generally caused by mutations of the SCN1A gene. Recently others genes such as STXBP1 have been involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The STXBP1 mutation in patients with Dravet Syndrome may additionally causes several parkinsonian features usually attributed to carriers of the SCN1A mutation. Management continues to be difficult that is why Cannabidiol emerged as valid option for treatment of this condition.
June 13, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929087/an-effort-expenditure-perspective-on-cancer-related-fatigue
#9
Tamara E Lacourt, Elisabeth G Vichaya, Carmen Escalante, Ellen F Manzullo, Brandon Gunn, Kenneth R Hess, Cobi J Heijnen, Robert Dantzer
While fatigue is the most common and debilitating side effect of cancer and cancer treatment it is still poorly understood, partly because it is usually characterized by patient-reported outcomes. As patient-reports are inherently subjective, behavioral correlates of the symptom of fatigue are needed to increase our understanding of the symptom. We focused on motivational effort expenditure as a crucial behavior in cancer-related fatigue, using a validated computerized task contrasting high effort/high reward and low effort/low reward choices under different probabilities of success...
June 9, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929085/schizotypal-traits-and-their-relation-to-rejection-sensitivity-in-the-general-population-their-mediation-by-quality-of-life-agreeableness-and-neuroticism
#10
Preethi Premkumar, Juliana Onwumere, Lucy Betts, Fränze Kibowski, Elizabeth Kuipers
Schizotypal traits are a cluster of personality styles suggesting a potential liability for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Interpersonal schizotypal traits include cognitive disorganisation which consists of social anxiety, and introvertive anhedonia which consists of a lack of pleasure in social activities. Rejection sensitivity is evident all along this continuum. This study aimed to determine whether psychosocial quality of life (QOL), neuroticism and agreeableness mediates the relation between schizotypy and rejection sensitivity...
June 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929084/rna-seq-analysis-of-transcriptome-responses-in-atlantic-cod-gadus-morhua-precision-cut-liver-slices-exposed-to-benzo-a-pyrene-and-17%C3%AE-ethynylestradiol
#11
Fekadu Yadetie, Xiaokang Zhang, Eileen Marie Hanna, Libe Aranguren-Abadía, Marta Eide, Nello Blaser, Morten Brun, Inge Jonassen, Anders Goksøyr, Odd André Karlsen
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) that activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) pathway, and endocrine disruptors acting through the estrogen receptor pathway are among environmental pollutants of major concern. In this work, we exposed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) to BaP (10 nM and 1000 nM), ethynylestradiol (EE2) (10 nM and 1000 nM), and equimolar mixtures of BaP and EE2 (10 nM and 1000 nM) for 48 h, and performed RNA-Seq based transcriptome mapping followed by systematic bioinformatics analyses...
June 7, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929075/optical-microscopy-as-a-new-approach-for-characterising-dust-particulates-in-urban-environment
#12
Silvie Koval, Gregoire Krahenbuhl, Karryn Warren, Graham O'Brien
In urban environments airborne particulates (dust) must be managed to ensure that industry and community coexist in a mutually beneficial and sustainable manner. The composition of the dust is a function of the local environment and industry. In general, there is a view by many community members that a significant proportion of inhalable (PM10 ) and respirable (PM2.5 ) dust in these environments could be coal. Thus there is a need to have an analytical method that provides a quantitative analysis of the amount and size distribution of the different particulates that can be present in air samples...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929064/the-depersonalized-brain-new-evidence-supporting-a-distinction-between-depersonalization-and-derealization-from-discrete-patterns-of-autonomic-suppression-observed-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#13
Hayley Dewe, Derrick G Watson, Klaus Kessler, Jason J Braithwaite
Depersonalization and Derealization are characterised by feelings of detachment from one's bodily self/surroundings and a general emotional numbness. We explored predisposition to trait-based experiences of depersonalization/derealization-type experiences and autonomic arousal toward simulated body-threats, which were delivered to the participant's own body (i.e. Self) and when observed being delivered to another individual (i.e. Other). Ninety participants took part in an "Implied Body-Threat Illusion" task (Dewe, Watson, & Braithwaite, 2016) and autonomic arousal was recorded via standardised skin conductance responses and finger temperature...
June 18, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929054/the-attention-training-technique-causally-reduces-self-focus-following-worry-provocation-and-reduces-cognitive-anxiety-among-self-focused-individuals
#14
Thomas A Fergus, Nancy E Wheless
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The attention training technique (ATT) is a component of metacognitive therapy developed to interrupt self-focused, threat-based processing underlying anxiety disorders. Whereas extant research supports the benefits of ATT, including in relation to anxiety reduction, study findings lead to equivocal conclusions as to whether ATT causally interrupts self-focused attention (SFA) as intended. An additional gap in the literature relates to investigating if ATT is especially effective for reducing anxiety among individuals experiencing a heightened self-focused state...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929048/biomarkers-of-exposure-to-svocs-in-children-and-their-demographic-associations-the-tesie-study
#15
Kate Hoffman, Stephanie C Hammel, Allison L Phillips, Amelia M Lorenzo, Albert Chen, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Thomas F Webster, Heather M Stapleton
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are used extensively in consumer and personal care products; electronics; furniture; and building materials and are detected in most indoor environments. As a result, human exposure to mixtures of SVOCs is wide-spread. However, very few studies have measured biomarkers of exposure to multiple SVOC classes, and exposure determinants have not been thoroughly explored, particularly for young children. In this study, we investigated biomarkers of exposure to SVOCs among children (age 3-6 years), who may experience higher exposures and be more susceptible to adverse health outcomes than other age groups...
June 18, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929047/isolated-hypospadias-the-impact-of-prenatal-exposure-to-pesticides-as-determined-by-meconium-analysis
#16
Elodie Haraux, Pierre Tourneux, Christelle Kouakam, Erwan Stephan-Blanchard, Bernard Boudailliez, Andre Leke, Celine Klein, Karen Chardon
Although endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs, including pesticides) are thought to increase the risk of hypospadias, no compounds have been formally identified in this context. Human studies may now be possible via the assessment of meconium as a marker of chronic prenatal exposure. The objective of the present study was to determine whether or not prenatal exposure to pesticides (as detected in meconium) constitutes a risk factor for isolated hypospadias. In a case-control study performed between 2011 and 2014 in northern France, male newborns with isolated hypospadias (n = 25) were matched at birth with controls (n = 58)...
June 18, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929034/craniotomy-for-a-large-and-aggressive-de-novo-cavernous-malformation-resection-in-the-basal-ganglia-region
#17
Zhiyong Yan, Shusheng Che, Yingbin Jiao, JianPeng Wang, Xingze Li, Chao Wang
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are present in up to 0.5% of the general population. While CCMs have been considered congenital lesions, numerous reports have observed de novo formations in patients with the familial form of CCM and in patients after cranial radiotherapy. Outside of these circumstances, there is scant evidence as to the potential etiologies of CCM. We present a 48-year-old woman with a medical history of endometrial hyperplasia concomitant endometrial polyps demonstrating a large de novo CCM, which grew to a large size in a period of 20 months...
June 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929027/percutaneous-pedicle-screw-fixation-with-bone-cement-augmentation-under-epidural-anesthesia-for-the-treatment-of-k%C3%A3-mmell-s-disease-at-extremely-old-age-a-case-report
#18
Keun Lee, Nitin Adsul, Hyeun-Sung Kim, Yong-Hun Pee, Kwang Lae Lee, Il-Tae Jang
BACKGROUND: In cases of Kümmell's disease without neuro deficit, percutaneous vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty have achieved short-term favorable outcomes. In the long term, re-collapse of the augmented vertebral body and aggravation of the kyphosis at the index level is often reported. On the other hand, owing to medical comorbidities, the elderly are often not suited for extensive open spine surgery under general anesthesia. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 95-year-old man presented with a one-month history of intractable back pain and gait disturbance...
June 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929024/mri-features-in-solitary-cerebral-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#19
Ju-Hwi Kim, Woo-Youl Jang, Tae-Young Jung, Kyung-Sub Moon, Shin Jung, Kyung-Hwa Lee, In-Young Kim
In this study, we report a case of solitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) without skull or systemic lesions, including reviewing the initial magnetic resonance (MR) findings of cerebral LCH. A 36-year-old male patient presented with generalized tonic-clonic type seizure. Brain MR imaging showed a 3cm mass lesion involving the right frontal lobe. It showed iso-intensity on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images. After gadolinium enhancement, the mass showed heterogeneous enhancement with perilesional edema and additional adjacent leptomeningeal enhancement...
June 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928991/development-and-validation-of-an-improved-diced-electrophoresis-gel-assay-cutter-plate-system-for-enzymomics-studies
#20
Toru Komatsu, Masahiro Shimoda, Yukiko Kawamura, Yasuteru Urano, Tetsuo Nagano
Diced electrophoresis gel (DEG) assay is a methodology to identify enzymes with a specified activity in complex cell or tissue lysates by means of two-dimensional separation using isoelectric focusing and native PAGE, followed by dicing of the gel into small pieces that are assayed separately, and digestion and peptide fingerprinting to identify the protein(s) of interest in positive wells. The existing hand-made system has some disadvantages, and here we describe the development and validation of an improved cutter-plate system that enables simple, reliable and reproducible DEG assay in a 384-well plate-based format with signal readout using fluorometric or LC-MS-based reaction monitoring...
June 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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