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Irma Dumbryte, Jurate Vebriene, Laura Linkeviciene, Mangirdas Malinauskas
Objectives: To evaluate and compare the enamel microcracks (EMCs) characteristics (qualitative and quantitative) in the form of tooth damage before and after debonding from human teeth of in vitro studies. Eligibility criteria: Laboratorial studies evaluating EMCs characteristics before and after debonding metal and ceramic brackets from human teeth with intact buccal enamel. Information sources: An electronic search of four databases (all databases of the Cochrane Library, CA Web of Science, MEDLINE via PubMed, and Google Scholar) and additional manual searches were carried out, without language restrictions...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
Hongliang Tang, Xiongjiang Wang, Zhangsong Nong, Kailong Wang, Jun Pang
The design of a clip-on moxibustion instrument which could adjust the directions and absorb harmful granules of moxa smoke was introduced in this paper. It was designed to solve the problems in home health care and clinical treatment, such as the inconvenience of adjustment of moxibustion directions and temperature, more dust and granules of moxa smoke and inconvenience of moxibustion placement. The main part of moxibustion instrument was made up of moxibustion box, bracket and base clamp. The moxibustion box could fix moxa stick and absorb smoke granules; the bracket could be twisted to adjust the direction of moxibustion box; the base clamp was aimed to fix moxibustion box on the edge of the object to save space...
February 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Johanna Schmid, Daniel Brenner, Wolfgang Recheis, Philipp Hofer-Picout, Martin Brenner, Adriano G Crismani
Background and objectives: Indirect bonding (IDB) proved to be an effective method for appropriate bracket positioning in patients. Different methods and materials are available for fabricating transfer trays. This in vitro study was designed to measure and compare the transfer accuracy of two common IDB methods. Materials and methods: Sixty stone models were fabricated and separated in two groups of 30 models each (15 working models, 15 patient models). After placing brackets on the working models, 30 IDB trays were made: 15 silicone (method I) and 15 double-vacuum forms (method II)...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
Yi Zhong, Herbert Gross
It is well known that freeform surfaces are used to improve the resolution in systems without rotational symmetry. For Scheimpflug systems, the tilted object plane leads to variant magnification in the system imaging. Thus, the system suffers from non-rotationally symmetric aberrations, non-uniform resolution, and non-uniform intensity distribution. In this paper, the paraxial imaging condition of Scheimpflug systems is discussed. From the classical viewpoint, the aberration theory is used to understand, balance, and improve the system performance for variant object distance...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Akshay A Narkhede, James H Crenshaw, Riley M Manning, Shreyas S Rao
Breast cancer brain metastasis marks the most advanced stage of breast cancer no longer considered curable with a median survival period of ∼ 4-16 months. Apart from the genetic susceptibility (subtype) of breast tumors, brain metastasis is also dictated by the biophysical/chemical interactions of tumor cells with native brain microenvironment, which remain obscure, primarily due to the lack of tunable biomimetic in vitro models. To address this need, we utilized a biomimetic hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel platform to elucidate the impact of matrix stiffness on the behavior of MDA-MB-231Br cells, a brain metastasizing variant of the triple negative breast cancer line MDA-MB-231...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Bo Zhao, Mahalia A C Serrano, Meizhe Wang, Tianying Liu, Mallory R Gordon, S Thayumanavan, Richard W Vachet
Polymeric reverse micelles can be used to selectively extract peptides from complex mixtures via a two-phase extraction approach. In previous work, we have shown that the charge polarity of the hydrophilic functional group that is in the interior of the reverse micelle dictates the extraction selectivity. To investigate how the extraction is influenced by the inherent pKa of the functional group, we designed and tested a series of polymeric reverse micelles with variations in the hydrophilic functional group...
February 22, 2018: Analyst
Paul D McGreevy, Mark D Griffiths, Frank R Ascione, Bethany Wilson
Recent studies have cast doubt on the effectiveness of whipping horses during races and this has led to questions concerning its continuing justification. Furthermore, it has been argued that whipping tired horses in racing is the most televised form of violence to animals. The present study used de-identified data from a recent independent Australian poll (n = 1,533) to characterise the 26% of respondents (113 females and 271 males) who support the whipping of racehorses and the 10% of racing enthusiasts in the sample (44 females and 63 males) who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned...
2018: PloS One
M A Postnikov, D A Trunin, N V Pankratova, A M Nesterov, M I Sadykov, S A Ostankov
The diagnostics and treatment of malocclusion Class III in patients aged 6-12 is an vital problem in orthodontics. Method of orthodontic treatment of malocclusion Class III in patients with the help of improved and patented orthodontic construction - 'Postnikov appliance' - and face mask and bracket system is analysed in the article. Orthodontic treatment of malocclusion Class III was examined in 24 patients aged 6-12 by the suggested method. All patients were examined clinically and with the help af additional diagnostic methods: head cephalometry in lateral position with further data analysis in Dolphin Imaging (USA)...
2018: Stomatologii︠a︡
Martin Riemer, Thomas Wolbers
In time reproduction tasks, the reaction time of motor responses is intrinsically linked to the measure of perceptual timing. Decisions are based on a continuous comparison between elapsed time and a memory trace of the to-be-reproduced interval. Here, we investigate the possibility that negative reproduction errors can be explained by the tendency to prefer earlier over later response times, or whether the whole range of possible response times is shifted. In experiment 1, we directly compared point reproduction (participants indicate the exact time point of equality) and range reproduction (participants bracket an interval containing this time point)...
February 19, 2018: Psychological Research
Erika Ozawa, Ei-Ichi Honda, Kulthida Nunthayanon Parakonthun, Hiroko Ohmori, Kazuo Shimazaki, Tohru Kurabayashi, Takashi Ono
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to study configurations of speech organs in the resting state. However, MRI is sensitive to metals, and numerous types of metallic appliances, most of which have a large magnetic susceptibility, are used in orthodontic treatment and may cause severe artifacts on MRI. We have developed techniques for obtaining MRI movies of the oral region, to evaluate articulatory changes, especially movement of the tongue, palate, and teeth, pre- and post-orthodontic/orthognathic treatment...
February 19, 2018: Progress in Orthodontics
Murilo Matias, Marcos Roberto de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore de Freitas, Guilherme Janson, Rodrigo Hitoshi Higa, Manoela Fávaro Francisconi
Coated archwires and ceramic brackets have been developed to improve facial esthetics during orthodontic treatment. However, their mechanical behavior has been shown to be different from metallic archwires and brackets. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the deflection forces in coated nickel-titanium (NiTi) and esthetic archwires combined with ceramic brackets. Material and Methods Non-coated NiTi (NC), rhodium coated NiTi (RC), teflon coated NiTi (TC), epoxy coated NiTi (EC), fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP), and the three different conventional brackets metal-insert polycrystalline ceramic (MI-PC), polycrystalline ceramic (PC) and monocrystalline ceramic (MC) were used...
2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
David K DeForest, Robert W Gensemer, Joseph W Gorsuch, Joseph S Meyer, Robert C Santore, Burt K Shephard, Jean M Zodrow
There is concern whether regulatory criteria for copper (Cu) are protective against chemosensory and behavioral impairment in aquatic organisms. We compiled Cu toxicity data for these and other sublethal endpoints in 35 tests with saltwater organisms and compared the Cu toxicity thresholds to biotic ligand model (BLM)-based estimated chronic limits (ECL values, which are EC20 values [20% effect concentrations] for the embryo-larval life stage of the blue mussel [Mytilus edulis]-a sensitive saltwater species to Cu that has historically been used to derive saltwater Cu criteria)...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Stephanie de Oliveira, Richard E Nisbett
Averaging independent numerical judgments can be more accurate than the average individual judgment. This "wisdom of crowds" effect has been shown with large, diverse samples, but the layperson wishing to take advantage of this may only have access to the opinions of a small, more demographically homogeneous "convenience sample." How wise are homogeneous crowds relative to diverse crowds? In simulations and survey studies, we demonstrate three necessary conditions under which small socially diverse crowds can outperform socially homogeneous crowds: Social identity must predict judgment, the effect of social identity on judgment must be at least moderate in size, and the average estimates of the social groups in question must "bracket" the truth being judged...
February 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Adcharee Karnjanapiboonwong, Sanjit K Deb, Seenivasan Subbiah, Degeng Wang, Todd A Anderson
Effects of perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in soils contaminated with these compounds at 0.1, 1, 10, 1,000, and 100,000 μg kg -1 dry weight, covering concentration levels found in background, biosolid-amended, and facility-surrounding soils, were investigated. Earthworms were exposed to spiked soil for 21 days. Concentrations of these compounds in earthworms after 21-d exposure ranged from below detection to 127 mg kg -1 wet weight with the rank order of PFNA > PFHxS > PFHpA > PFBS; no mortality of earthworms was observed in all treatments including controls, except PFBS at 1,000 μg kg -1 and all PFASs at 100,000 μg kg -1 ...
February 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Nuné Martiros, Alexandra A Burgess, Ann M Graybiel
Understanding neural representations of behavioral routines is critical for understanding complex behavior in health and disease. We demonstrate here that accentuated activity of striatal projection neurons (SPNs) at the beginning and end of such behavioral repertoires is a supraordinate representation specifically marking previously rewarded behavioral sequences independent of the individual movements making up the behavior. We recorded spike activity in the striatum and primary motor cortex as individual rats learned specific rewarded lever-press sequences, each one unique to a given rat...
February 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Huijie Jianga, Pengzhen Chenga, Donglin Lia, Junqin Lia, Jimeng Wanga, Yi Gaoa, Shuaishuai Zhanga, Tianqing Caoa, Chunmei Wanga, Liu Yanga, Guoxian Peia
Massive bone defects are a challenge in orthopedic research. Defective regeneration leads to bone atrophy, non-union of bone and physical morbidity. Large animals are important models, however, production costs are high, nursing is complex and evaluation methods are limited. A suitable laboratory animal model is required to explore the underlying molecular mechanism and cellular process of bone tissue engineering. We designed a stainless steel plate with eight holes; the middle two holes were used as a guide to create a standardized critical size defect in the femur of anesthetized rats...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Eun-Jeong Yoon, Jung Ok Kim, Dokyun Kim, Hyukmin Lee, Ji Woo Yang, Kwang Jun Lee, Seok Hoon Jeong
Between 2014 and 2015, the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) was becoming endemic in South Korea. To assess this period of transition, we analyzed KPC producers in terms of molecular epidemiology. A total of 362 KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains, including one from 2013, 13 from 2014, and 348 from 2015, were actively collected from 60 hospitals throughout the peninsula. Subtypes of KPC were determined by PCR and direct sequencing, and isotypes of Tn4401 (the transposon flanking the blaKPC gene) were specified by PCR using isotype-specific primers and direct sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sandhya P Naik, Sameer Punathil, Praveena Shetty, Ipsita Jayanti, Md Jalaluddin, Anisha Avijeeta
AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different bristle designs of toothbrushes and the periodontal status among patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) consisted of 45 adolescents (comprising 20 males and 25 females) undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. The study participants were randomly allocated to three groups, each group being assigned a locally available toothbrush with a particular design of toothbrush bristle...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Daniel P Nicolella, Lorena Torres-Ronda, Kase J Saylor, Xavi Schelling
This study aimed to determine the intra- and inter-device accuracy and reliability of wearable athletic tracking devices, under controlled laboratory conditions. A total of nineteen portable accelerometers (Catapult OptimEye S5) were mounted to an aluminum bracket, bolted directly to an Unholtz Dickie 20K electrodynamic shaker table, and subjected to a series of oscillations in each of three orthogonal directions (front-back, side to side, and up-down), at four levels of peak acceleration (0.1g, 0.5g, 1.0g, and 3...
2018: PloS One
Antônio Macêdo Costa Filho, Juliana Vaz de Melo Mambrini, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa, Sérgio Viana Peixoto
This study's objective was to assess the contribution of selected chronic diseases to the prevalence of disability in elderly Brazilians, based on data from the National Health Survey (PNS 2013). Disability was defined as some degree of difficulty in performing ten activities, considering three levels: (i) without disability; (ii) disabled only in some instrumental activity of daily living (IADL); and (iii) disabled in some basic activity of daily living (BADL). The multinomial additive hazards model was the attribution method used to assess the contribution of each self-reported chronic condition (hypertension, diabetes, arthritis, stroke, depression, heart disease, and lung disease) to the prevalence of disability in this population, stratified by sex and age bracket (60 to 74 years and 75 or older)...
February 5, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
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