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Exosome mirna

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544786/mir-122-modification-enhances-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-against-liver-fibrosis
#1
Guohua Lou, Ying Yang, Feifei Liu, Bingjue Ye, Zhi Chen, Min Zheng, Yanning Liu
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation alone may be insufficient for treatment of liver fibrosis because of complicated histopathological changes in the liver. Given that miR-122 plays an essential role in liver fibrosis by negatively regulating the proliferation and transactivation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), this study investigated whether miR-122 modification can improve the therapeutic efficacy of adipose tissue-derived MSCs in treating liver fibrosis. MiR-122-modified AMSCs (AMSC-122) were constructed through lentivirus-mediated transfer of pre-miR-122...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536328/-microrna-in-various-aspects-of-cancer-development
#2
Sho Nambara, Koshi Mimori
MicroRNAs(miRNAs)are small(18-25 nucleotides)noncoding RNA molecules that bind to partially complementary mRNA sequences, resulting in target degradation or translation inhibition. A single miRNA can influence the expression of hundreds of target genes, and miRNAs have been implicated as key molecules in various diseases, including cancer. Many studies have shown that the miRNAs play an important role in cancer cells and tumor microenvironment and may be biomarkers for early detection and therapeutic targets for various cancers...
May 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533110/excretory-secretory-products-from-the-gastrointestinal-nematode-trichuris-muris
#3
Lucienne Tritten, Mifong Tam, Mireille Vargas, Armando Jardim, Mary M Stevenson, Jennifer Keiser, Timothy G Geary
To better control gastrointestinal nematode infections in humans and animals, it is important to understand the strategies used by these parasites to modulate the host immune system. In this regard, molecules released by parasites have been attributed crucially important roles in host-parasite negotiations. We characterized the excretory/secretory (E/S) microRNA (miRNA) and protein profiles from the mouse gastrointestinal nematode parasite Trichuris muris. Released miRNAs were subjected to miRNA sequencing and E/S proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry...
May 19, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515465/gender-specific-differential-expression-of-exosomal-mirna-in-synovial-fluid-of-patients-with-osteoarthritis
#4
Ravindra Kolhe, Monte Hunter, Siyang Liu, Ravirajsinh N Jadeja, Chetan Pundkar, Ashis K Mondal, Bharati Mendhe, Michelle Drewry, Mumtaz V Rojiani, Yutao Liu, Carlos M Isales, Robert E Guldberg, Mark W Hamrick, Sadanand Fulzele
The pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) is poorly understood, and therapeutic approaches are limited to preventing progression of the disease. Recent studies have shown that exosomes play a vital role in cell-to-cell communication, and pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Molecular profiling of synovial fluid derived exosomal miRNAs may increase our understanding of OA progression and may lead to the discovery of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In this article we report the first characterization of exosomes miRNAs from human synovial fluid...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514744/characterization-of-mouse-serum-exosomal-small-rna-content-the-origins-and-their-roles-in-modulating-inflammatory-response
#5
Xin Zhou, Zinan Jiao, Juling Ji, Shuyuan Li, Xiaodi Huang, Xiaoshuang Lu, Heng Zhao, Jingwen Peng, Xinya Chen, Qiuhong Ji, Yuhua Ji
In the last decade, although studies on exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) derived from serum and other body fluids have increased dramatically; the contents and biological significance of serum exosomes under normal conditions remain unclear. In the present study, we profiled the small RNA content of mouse serum exosomes (mSEs) using small RNAseq and found that fragments of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and miRNAs were the two predominant exosomal RNA species, accounting for approximately 60% and 10% of mapped reads, respectively...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508366/isolation-and-proteomic-analysis-of-microvesicles-and-exosomes-from-ht22-cells-and-primary-neurons
#6
Richard Witas, Dale Chaput, Hirah Khan, Stanley M Stevens, David Kang
Exosomes and microvesicles are extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by most cell types. The role of EVs as a method of intercellular communication has led to these vesicles becoming a major area of interest in a variety of scientific fields including neuroscience. Emerging evidence is now demonstrating that the biomolecular composition of EVs, especially exosomes, can play a role in the progression of disease including various neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. In addition to the miRNA profiles of EVs, these vesicles also show interesting changes in protein expression profiles under different physiological and pathological conditions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505322/exosomes-in-toxicology-relevance-to-chemical-exposure-and-pathogenesis-of-environmentally-linked-diseases
#7
Dilshan S Harischandra, Shivani Ghaisas, Dharmin Rokad, Anumantha G Kanthasamy
Chronic exposure to environmental toxins has been known to initiate or aggravate various neurological disorders, carcinomas and other adverse health effects. Uptake by naïve cells of pathogenic factors such as danger-associated molecules, mRNAs, miRNAs or aggregated proteins leads to disruption in cellular homeostasis further resulting in inflammation and disease propagation. While early research tended to focus solely on exosomal removal of unwanted cellular contents, more recent reports indicate that these nano-vesicles play an active role in intercellular signaling...
May 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501497/the-micro-managing-fat-exosomes-as-a-new-messenger
#8
Xiao-Wei Chen, Siming Li, Jiandie D Lin
Brown fat secretes endocrine factors and exerts metabolic effects beyond thermogenesis. In addition to protein factors and bioactive lipids, recent work has revealed brown fat-derived miRNAs carried by exosomes as a new means of interorgan crosstalk, with potentially important implications for metabolic physiology and disease.
May 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499455/bovis-bacillus-calmette-guerin-bcg-infection-induces-exosomal-mirna-release-by-human-macrophages
#9
Shamila D Alipoor, Esmaeil Mortaz, Payam Tabarsi, Parissa Farnia, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Johan Garssen, Masoud Movassaghi, Ian M Adcock
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global health concern and its diagnosis is challenging due to the limitations in the specificity and sensitivity of the current diagnostic tests. Exosomes are bioactive 30-100 nm vesicles produced by most cell types and are found in almost all human body fluids. Exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) can transfer biological information between cells and tissues and may act as potential biomarkers in many diseases. In this pilot study, we assessed the miRNA profile of exosomes released from human monocyte-derived macrophages upon infection with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494740/nucleic-acids-based-nanotherapeutics-crossing-the-blood-brain-barrier
#10
Noha Nafee, Noha Gouda
The restless endeavors revealing the molecular pathways underlying many neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumors have paved the way for the introduction of the selective exogenous gene-based therapeutics. The implicated active biomolecules encompass mainly negatively-charged nucleic acids ranging from DNA, mRNA, non-coding RNAs (small-interfering RNA, siRNA, and microRNA, miRNA), to antisense oligonucleotides. They selectively interfere with the genes translational and/or transcriptional processes. Although many reviews previously addressed brain targeting, a thorough correlation between the molecular properties of these biomacromolecules, the nature of blood brain barrier (BBB) in the accompanying pathological condition, the intracellular targets, as well as the design of the delivery system which will transport the bioactive cargo to the target cells attempting efficient delivery to the active sites in the brain will be appraised...
May 10, 2017: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490541/exosomes-as-mediators-of-the-systemic-adaptations-to-endurance-exercise
#11
Adeel Safdar, Mark A Tarnopolsky
Habitual endurance exercise training is associated with multisystemic metabolic adaptations that lower the risk of inactivity-associated disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Identification of complex systemic signaling networks responsible for these benefits are of great interest because of their therapeutic potential in metabolic diseases; however, specific signals that modulate the multisystemic benefits of exercise in multiple tissues and organs are only recently being discovered...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488707/emergent-properties-of-extracellular-vesicles-a-holistic-approach-to-decode-the-complexity-of-intercellular-communication-networks
#12
REVIEW
Yong Song Gho, Changjin Lee
Shedding of nano-sized bilayered extracellular vesicles and extracellular vesicle-mediated intercellular communication are evolutionarily conserved biological processes. Communication between cells and the environment is an essential process in living organisms and dysregulation of intercellular communication leads to various diseases. Thus, systematic studies on extracellular vesicles, also known as exosomes, microvesicles, and outer membrane vesicles, are critical for a deeper understanding of intercellular communication networks that are crucial for decoding the exact causes of various difficult-to-cure diseases...
May 10, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473886/unique-molecular-profile-of-exosomes-derived-from-primary-human-proximal-tubular-epithelial-cells-under-diseased-conditions
#13
Xiangju Wang, Ray Wilkinson, Katrina Kildey, Jeremy Potriquet, Jason Mulvenna, Richard J Lobb, Andreas Möller, Nicole Cloonan, Pamela Mukhopadhyay, Andrew J Kassianos, Helen Healy
Human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) of the kidney are known to respond to and mediate the disease process in a wide range of kidney diseases, yet their exosomal production and exosome molecular cargo remain a mystery. Here we investigate, for the first time, the production and molecular content of exosomes derived from primary human PTEC cultured under normal and diseased conditions representing a spectrum of in vivo disease severity from early inflammation, experienced in multiple initial kidney disease states, through to hypoxia, frequently seen in late stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to fibrosis and vascular compromise...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473453/in-silico-target-network-analysis-of-de-novo-discovered-tick-saliva-specific-micrornas-reveals-important-combinatorial-effects-in-their-interference-with-vertebrate-host-physiology
#14
Michael Hackenberg, David Langenberger, Alexandra Schwarz, Jan Erhart, Michail Kotsyfakis
The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is an important disease vector whose salivary secretions mediate blood feeding success on vertebrate hosts, including humans. Here we describe the expression profiles and downstream analysis of de novo discovered microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed in I. ricinus salivary glands and saliva. Eleven tick-derived libraries were sequenced to produce 67,375,557 Illumina reads. De novo prediction yielded 67 bona-fide miRNAs out of which 35 are currently not present in miRBase. We report for the first time the presence of microRNAs in tick saliva obtaining furthermore molecular indicators that those might be of exosomal origin...
May 4, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471327/renal-regenerative-potential-of-different-extra-cellular-vesicle-populations-derived-from-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#15
Stefania Bruno, Marta Tapparo, Federica Collino, Giulia Chiabotto, Maria Chiara Deregibus, Rafael Soares Lindoso, Francesco Neri, Sharad Kholia, Sara Giunti, Sicheng Wen, Peter Quesenberry, Giovanni Camussi
Extra-cellular vesicles (EVs) derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) promote the regeneration of kidneys in different animal models of AKI in a manner comparable to the cells of origin. However, due to the heterogeneity observed in the EVs isolated from MSC, it is unclear which population is responsible for the pro-regenerative effects. We therefore evaluated the effect of various EV-populations separated by differential ultracentrifugation (10K population enriched with microvesicles and 100K population enriched with exosomes) on AKI recovery...
May 4, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471299/interleukin-10-deficiency-impairs-reparative-properties-of-bone-marrow-derived-endothelial-progenitor-cell-exosome-function
#16
Yujia Yue, Venkata Ns Garikipati, Suresh K Verma, David A Goukassian, Raj Kishore
Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-based therapy has immense potential to promote cardiac neovascularization and to attenuate ischemic injury. Functional benefits of EPCs and other adult stem cell therapies largely involve paracrine mechanisms and exosomes secreted by stem cells are emerging as pivotal paracrine entity of stem/progenitor cells. However, modest outcomes after EPC/stem cells based clinical trials suggest that stem cell/exosome function might be modulated by stimuli they encounter in ischemic tissues including systemic inflammation...
May 4, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469780/the-relationship-between-amniotic-fluid-mirnas-and-congenital-obstructive-nephropathy
#17
Juntao Xie, Yi Zhou, Wenzong Gao, Zuoqing Li, Zhe Xu, Li Zhou
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with size of 30-100 nm, which were found in bodily fluids including amniotic fluid and saliva. The biological materials in exosomes, such as proteins and RNA, can be used as novel potential biomarkers for diagnostic assays. The purpose of this study was to assess whether exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) could be used as biomarkers to prenatally diagnose congenital hydronephrosis and to evaluate fetal kidney function. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), flow cytometry (FACS), and western-blot were applied to identify exosomes in the amniotic fluid from fetuses with congenital hydronephrosis and healthy controls...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465350/myostatin-inhibits-osteoblastic-differentiation-by-suppressing-osteocyte-derived-exosomal-microrna-218-a-novel-mechanism-in-muscle-bone-communication
#18
Yiwen Qin, Yuanzhen Peng, Wei Zhao, Jianping Pan, Hanna Ksiezak-Reding, Christopher Cardozo, Yingjie Wu, Paola Divieti Pajevic, Lynda F Bonewald, William A Bauman, Weiping Qin
Muscle and bone are closely associated in both anatomy and function, but the mechanisms that coordinate their synergistic action remain poorly defined. Myostatin, a myokine secreted by muscles, has been shown to inhibit muscle growth, and the disruption of the myostatin gene has been reported to cause muscle hypertrophy and increase bone mass. Extracellular vesicle-exosomes that carry microRNA (miRNA), mRNA, and proteins are known to perform an important role in cell-cell communication. We hypothesized that myostatin may play a crucial role in muscle-bone interactions and may promote direct effects on osteocytes and on osteocyte-derived exosomal miRNAs, thereby indirectly influencing the function of other bone cells...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459998/identification-of-mirna-7-by-genome-wide-analysis-as-a-critical-sensitizer-for-trail-induced-apoptosis-in-glioblastoma-cells
#19
Xiao Zhang, Xiang Zhang, Shijie Hu, Minhua Zheng, Jie Zhang, Jianhui Zhao, Xiaofang Zhang, Bo Yan, Lintao Jia, Jing Zhao, Kaichun Wu, Angang Yang, Rui Zhang
Glioblastoma (GBM) is still one of the most lethal forms of brain tumor despite of the improvements in treatments. TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a promising anticancer agent that can be potentially used as an alternative or complementary therapy because of its specific antitumor activity. To define the novel pathways that regulate susceptibility to TRAIL in GBM cells, we performed a genome-wide expression profiling of microRNAs in GBM cell lines with the distinct sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis...
April 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456604/herpesviruses-hijack-host-exosomes-for-viral-pathogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Sara Sadeghipour, Rommel A Mathias
Herpesviruses are remarkable pathogens possessing elaborate mechanisms to seize various host cellular components for immune evasion, replication, and virion egress. As viruses are dependent upon their hosts, investigating this intricate interplay has revealed that the exosome pathway is utilised by alpha (Herpes Simplex Virus 1), beta (Human Cytomegalovirus, and Human Herpesvirus 6) and gamma (Epstein-Barr Virus, and Kaposi Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus) herpesviruses. Virions and exosomes share similar properties and functions...
April 26, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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