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Exosome mirna

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912528/extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-t-regulatory-cells-suppress-t-cell-proliferation-and-prolong-allograft-survival
#1
Sistiana Aiello, Federica Rocchetta, Lorena Longaretti, Silvia Faravelli, Marta Todeschini, Linda Cassis, Francesca Pezzuto, Susanna Tomasoni, Nadia Azzollini, Marilena Mister, Caterina Mele, Sara Conti, Matteo Breno, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Marina Noris, Ariela Benigni
We have previously shown that rat allogeneic DC, made immature by adenoviral gene transfer of the dominant negative form of IKK2, gave rise in-vitro to a unique population of CD4(+)CD25(-) regulatory T cells (dnIKK2-Treg). These cells inhibited Tcell response in-vitro, without needing cell-to-cell contact, and induced kidney allograft survival prolongation in-vivo. Deep insight into the mechanisms behind dnIKK2-Treg-induced suppression of Tcell proliferation remained elusive. Here we document that dnIKK2-Treg release extracellular vesicles (EV) riched in exosomes, fully accounting for the cell-contact independent immunosuppressive activity of parent cells...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906477/microrna-signaling-in-embryo-development
#2
REVIEW
Nicole Gross, Jenna Kropp, Hasan Khatib
Expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is essential for embryonic development and serves important roles in gametogenesis. miRNAs are secreted into the extracellular environment by the embryo during the preimplantation stage of development. Several cell types secrete miRNAs into biological fluids in the extracellular environment. These fluid-derived miRNAs have been shown to circulate the body. Stable transport is dependent on proper packaging of the miRNAs into extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes. These vesicles, which also contain RNA, DNA and proteins, are on the forefront of research on cell-to-cell communication...
September 14, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904856/mir-101-inhibits-ovarian-carcinogenesis-by-repressing-the-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#3
Ying Xu, Lei Xu, Jianbin Zheng, Lei Geng, Shuping Zhao
Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal malignant gynecological tumors as a result of difficulties in early-stage detection and a lack of effective treatments for patients with advanced or recurrent cancer. In the present study, we aimed to explore whether some of the microRNA (miRNA) content of serum might be related to ovarian cancer, as well as the role of these miRNAs and their intercellular transport via exosomes in ovarian cancer. We first detected the expression of six candidate miRNAs in ovarian cancer tissues and adjacent nontumor ovarian samples from 36 patients and confirmed the altered expression of four miRNAs...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900608/comparative-analysis-of-microrna-expression-among-benign-and-malignant-tongue-tissue-and-plasma-of-patients-with-tongue-cancer
#4
Guilherme Rabinowits, Michaela Bowden, Ludmila M Flores, Sigitas Verselis, Victoria Vergara, Vickie Y Jo, Nicole Chau, Jochen Lorch, Peter S Hammerman, Tom Thomas, Laura A Goguen, Donald Annino, Jonathan D Schoenfeld, Danielle N Margalit, Roy B Tishler, Robert I Haddad
BACKGROUND: Identification of a microRNA (miRNA) pattern to be used as a biomarker for HNSCC is challenging given the heterogeneity of the disease and different methodologies used. To better define the field, we performed a prospective analysis of blood, tumor, and paired benign tissues in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients. METHODS: Plasma samples were collected prior to surgery, and paired tumor and benign tissue blocks were collected from tongue cancer resections...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898757/extracellular-matrix-derived-extracellular-vesicles-promote-cardiomyocyte-growth-and-electrical-activity-in-engineered-cardiac-atria
#5
Minae An, Kihwan Kwon, Junbeom Park, Dong-Ryeol Ryu, Jung-A Shin, Jihee Lee Kang, Ji Ha Choi, Eun-Mi Park, Kyung Eun Lee, Minna Woo, Minsuk Kim
Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a critical role in the provision of the necessary microenvironment for the proper regeneration of the cardiac tissue. However, specific mechanisms that lead to ECM-mediated cardiac regeneration are not well understood. To elucidate the potential mechanisms, we investigated ultra-structures of the cardiac ECM using electron microscopy. Intriguingly, we observed large quantities of micro-vesicles from decellularized right atria. RNA and protein analyses revealed that these contained exosomal proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs), which we referred to herein as ECM-derived extracellular vesicles (ECM-EVs)...
September 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895404/exosomes-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-medicinal-signaling-cells-a-review
#6
U Altanerova, J Jakubechova, V Repiska, C Altaner
In this review, we intend to explore the potential therapeutic effects of exosomes released from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). MSCs gained credibility as a therapeutic tool due to their potential to differentiate into many cell types like osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, muscular, endothelial, cardiovascular, and neurogenic cells. They possess potent wound healing activity due to their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. MSCs are tested in large number of clinical trials for treatment of diseases, which do not have adequate therapy at present...
September 12, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893694/altered-expression-of-microrna-15a-and-kruppel-like-factor-4-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-plasma-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#7
Yuichiro Kikkawa, Takeshi Ogura, Hiroyuki Nakajima, Toshiki Ikeda, Ririko Takeda, Hiroaki Neki, Shinya Kohyama, Fumitaka Yamane, Ryota Kurogi, Toshiyuki Amano, Akira Nakamizo, Masahiro Mizoguchi, Hiroki Kurita
BACKGROUND: Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is a major determinant of prognosis in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Alteration in the vascular phenotype contributes to development of CVS. However, little is known about the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the phenotypic alteration after SAH. We investigated the expression profile of miRNAs and the chronological changes in the expression of microRNA-15a (miR-15a) and Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), a potent regulator of vascular phenotype modulation that modulates the expression of miR-15a, in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of SAH patients...
September 8, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881252/bone-derived-exosomes
#8
REVIEW
Jin Liu, Defang Li, Xiaohao Wu, Lei Dang, Aiping Lu, Ge Zhang
Exosomes are endosomal-derived vesicles secreted by a wide range of cell types for transporting functional proteins, microRNAs (miRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNA) from their parental cells to affect the recipient cells. Emerging evidence indicates that exosomes also play an important role in the intercellular communication among the bone cells, that is, osteoblasts, osteoclasts and bone marrow stromal cells, within bone microenvironment. Here, we reviewed the local and systemic effects of bone-derived exosomes, and discussed the potential of exosomes as targeted delivery systems for molecular therapy in skeletal disorders...
September 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880477/exosomes-as-new-players-in-metabolic-organ-cross-talk
#9
REVIEW
Claudiane Guay, Romano Regazzi
Blood glucose homeostasis requires a constant communication between insulin-secreting and insulin-sensitive cells. A wide variety of circulating factors, including hormones, cytokines and chemokines work together to orchestrate the systemic response of metabolic organs to changes in the nutritional state. Failure in the coordination between these organs can lead to a rise in blood glucose levels and to the appearance of metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are produced via the endosomal pathway and are released from the cells upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane...
September 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860826/mirna-221-of-exosomes-originating-from-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promotes-oncogenic-activity-in-gastric-cancer
#10
Min Ma, Shilin Chen, Zhuo Liu, Hailong Xie, Hongyu Deng, Song Shang, Xiaohong Wang, Man Xia, Chaohui Zuo
Worldwide, gastric cancer (GC) is one of the deadliest malignant tumors of the digestive system. Moreover, microRNAs (miRNAs) of exosomes harbored within cancer cells have been determined to induce inflammatory conditions that accelerate tumor growth and metastasis. Interestingly, the oncogenic role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in the modulation of immunosuppression, tumor invasion, and metastasis was discovered to be partly mediated through the secretion of exosomes. In this article, high expression of miRNA-221 (miR-221) in exosomes of the peripheral blood was determined to be positively correlated with the poor clinical prognosis of GC, especially with respect to tumor, node, and metastases stage...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859135/identification-of-mir-16-as-an-endogenous-reference-gene-for-the-normalization-of-urinary-exosomal-mirna-expression-data-from-ckd-patients
#11
Tim Lange, Sylvia Stracke, Rainer Rettig, Uwe Lendeckel, Jana Kuhn, Rabea Schl├╝ter, Volkhard Rippe, Karlhans Endlich, Nicole Endlich
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a severe disorder with an increasing incidence worldwide. An early detection may help to prevent its progression and to minimize the risk of cardiovascular diseases as one of the major comorbidities. Recently, extracellular miRNAs like urinary exosomal miRNAs became of great interest as non-invasive biomarkers which can be determined by RT-qPCR. But until now, there is no consensus regarding the normalization of miRNAs isolated from body fluids. The present study analyzed the miRNAs miR-16, miR-92a, miR-21, miR-124a and the small nuclear RNA RNU6B for their applicability as an endogenous reference gene in expression studies of exosomal miRNAs isolated from CKD patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855213/exosomes-from-glioma-associated-mesenchymal-stem-cells-increase-the-tumorigenicity-of-glioma-stem-like-cells-via-transfer-of-mir-1587
#12
Javier Figueroa, Lynette M Phillips, Tal Shahar, Anwar Hossain, Joy Gumin, Hoon Kim, Andrew J Bean, George A Calin, Juan Fueyo, Edgar T Walters, Raghu Kalluri, Roel G Verhaak, Frederick F Lang
Tumor-stromal communications impact tumorigenesis in ways that are incompletely understood. Here we show that Glioma Associated-human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (GA-hMSCs), a newly identified stromal component of glioblastoma, release exosomes that increase the proliferation and clonogenicity of tumor-initiating Glioma Stem-like Cells (GSCs). This event leads to a significantly greater tumor burden and decreased host survival compared with untreated GSCs in orthotopic xenografts. Analysis of the exosomal content identified miR-1587 as a mediator of the exosomal effects on GSCs, in part via down-regulation of the tumor suppressive nuclear receptor co-repressor NCOR1...
August 30, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851377/exosomal-mirnas-and-mirna-dysregulation-in-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#13
REVIEW
Fengming Yang, Zhiqiang Ning, Ling Ma, Weitao Liu, Chuchu Shao, Yongqian Shu, Hua Shen
PURPOSE: The present review aimed to assess the role of exosomal miRNAs in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), normal fibroblasts (NFs), and cancer cells. The roles of exosomal miRNAs and miRNA dysregulation in CAF formation and activation were summarized. METHODS: All relevant publications were retrieved from the PubMed database, with key words such as CAFs, CAF, stromal fibroblasts, cancer-associated fibroblasts, miRNA, exosomal, exosome, and similar terms. RESULTS: Recent studies have revealed that CAFs, NFs, and cancer cells can secrete exosomal miRNAs to affect each other...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851367/role-of-exosomal-proteins-in-cancer-diagnosis
#14
REVIEW
Weihua Li, Chuanyun Li, Tong Zhou, Xiuhong Liu, Xiaoni Liu, Xiuhui Li, Dexi Chen
Exosomes are emerging as a new type of cancer biomarkers. Exosome is a bilayered nano-sized vesicle secreted by various living cells in all body fluids. Based on the expanding albeit incomplete knowledge of their biogenesis, secretion by cells and cancer cell-specific molecular and genetic contents, exosomes are viewed as promising, clinically-relevant surrogates of cancer progression and response to therapy. Preliminary proteomic, genetic and functional profiling of cancer cell-derived or cancer plasma-derived exosomes confirms their unique characteristics...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844885/glioma-progression-through-the-prism-of-heat-shock-protein-mediated-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#15
REVIEW
Y Rajesh, Angana Biswas, Mahitosh Mandal
Glial tumor is one of the intrinsic brain tumors with high migratory and infiltrative potential. This essentially contributes to the overall poor prognosis by circumvention of conventional treatment regimen in glioma. The underlying mechanism in gliomagenesis is bestowed by two processes- Extracellular matrix (ECM) Remodeling and Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Heat Shock Family of proteins (HSPs), commonly known as "molecular chaperons" are documented to be upregulated in glioma. A positive correlation also exists between elevated expression of HSPs and invasive capacity of glial tumor...
August 26, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838855/exosomes-damps-and-mirna-features-of-stress-physiology-and-immune-homeostasis
#16
REVIEW
Monika Fleshner, Camille R Crane
Psychological/physical stressors and local tissue damage increase inflammatory proteins in tissues and blood in humans and animals, in the absence of pathogenic disease. Stress-evoked cytokine/chemokine responses, or sterile inflammation, can facilitate host survival and/or negatively affect health, depending on context. Recent evidence supports the hypothesis that systemic stress-evoked sterile inflammation is initiated by the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in the elevation of exosome-associated immunostimulatory endogenous danger/damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and a reduction in immunoinhibitory miRNA, which are carried in the circulation to tissues throughout the body...
August 21, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837697/herpesviruses-shape-tumour-microenvironment-through-exosomal-transfer-of-viral-micrornas
#17
Ohad Yogev, Stephen Henderson, Matthew John Hayes, Sara Sofia Marelli, Yifat Ofir-Birin, Neta Regev-Rudzki, Javier Herrero, Tariq Enver
Metabolic changes within the cell and its niche affect cell fate and are involved in many diseases and disorders including cancer and viral infections. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). KSHV latently infected cells express only a subset of viral genes, mainly located within the latency-associated region, among them 12 microRNAs. Notably, these miRNAs are responsible for inducing the Warburg effect in infected cells. Here we identify a novel mechanism enabling KSHV to manipulate the metabolic nature of the tumour microenvironment...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828665/extracellular-vesicle-mirna-detection-using-molecular-beacons
#18
Won Jong Rhee, Seunga Jeong
Many studies have recently focused on extracellular vesicles. Extracellular vesicles including exosomes are nanosized vesicles that are produced and secreted by cells. Extracellular vesicles contain various types of nucleic acid biomarkers, including microRNAs (miRNAs ) from their parent cells. As high concentrations of extracellular vesicles are found in most body fluids, miRNA detection of exosomes in body fluids, including blood and urine, enables early and easy disease diagnosis. In this context, the in situ detection method of extracellular vesicles miRNA using molecular beacons is described here...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827728/reference-mirnas-for-colorectal-cancer-analysis-and-verification-of-current-data
#19
E Danese, A M Minicozzi, M Benati, E Paviati, G Lima-Oliveira, M Gusella, F Pasini, G L Salvagno, M Montagnana, G Lippi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) hold great promise in cancer research. The use of appropriate reference miRNAs for normalization of qPCR data is crucial for accurate expression analysis. We present here analysis and verification of current data, proposing a workflow strategy for identification of reference miRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed a systematic review of studies aimed to identify stable reference miRNAs in CRC through high-throughput screening. Among the candidate miRNAs selected from the literature we excluded those predicted to target oncogenes or tumor suppressor gene...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816640/exosomal-microrna-communication-between-tissues-during-organogenesis
#20
Toru Hayashi, Matthew P Hoffman
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are required to coordinate cell proliferation, patterning, and functional differentiation of multiple cell types in a developing organ. This exquisite coordination is dependent on various secreted molecules that provide developmental signals to mediate these tissue interactions. Recently, it was reported that mature mesenchymal-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in the fetal mouse salivary gland are loaded into exosomes, and transported to the epithelium where they influence progenitor cell proliferation...
August 17, 2017: RNA Biology
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