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Exosome mirna

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213378/prognostic-role-of-circulating-exosomal-mirnas-in-multiple-myeloma
#1
Salomon Manier, Chia-Jen Liu, Hervé Avet-Loiseau, Jihye Park, Jiantao Shi, Federico Campigotto, Karma Z Salem, Daisy Huynh, Siobhan V Glavey, Bradley Rivotto, Antonio Sacco, Aldo M Roccaro, Juliette Bouyssou, Stéphane Minvielle, Philippe Moreau, Thierry Facon, Xavier Leleu, Edie Weller, Lorenzo Trippa, Irene M Ghobrial
Exosomes, secreted by several cell types, including cancer cells, can be isolated from the peripheral blood and have been shown to be powerful markers of disease progression in cancer. In this study, we examined the prognostic significance of circulating exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) in multiple myeloma (MM). A cohort of 156 patients with newly diagnosed MM, uniformly treated and followed, was studied. Circulating exosomal miRNAs were isolated and used to perform small RNA sequencing analysis on 10 samples and a qRT-PCR array on 156 samples...
February 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211508/mvp-mediated-exosomal-sorting-of-mir-193a-promotes-colon-cancer-progression
#2
Yun Teng, Yi Ren, Xin Hu, Jingyao Mu, Abhilash Samykutty, Xiaoying Zhuang, Zhongbin Deng, Anil Kumar, Lifeng Zhang, Michael L Merchant, Jun Yan, Donald M Miller, Huang-Ge Zhang
Exosomes are emerging mediators of intercellular communication; whether the release of exosomes has an effect on the exosome donor cells in addition to the recipient cells has not been investigated to any extent. Here, we examine different exosomal miRNA expression profiles in primary mouse colon tumour, liver metastasis of colon cancer and naive colon tissues. In more advanced disease, higher levels of tumour suppressor miRNAs are encapsulated in the exosomes. miR-193a interacts with major vault protein (MVP)...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208686/identification-of-autophagy-related-genes-and-their-regulatory-mirnas-associated-with-celiac-disease-in-children
#3
Sergio Comincini, Federico Manai, Cristina Meazza, Sara Pagani, Carolina Martinelli, Noemi Pasqua, Gloria Pelizzo, Marco Biggiogera, Mauro Bozzola
Celiac disease (CD) is a severe genetic autoimmune disorder, affecting about one in 100 people, where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine. Diagnosing CD is quite complex and requires blood tests and intestinal biopsy examinations. Controversy exists regarding making the diagnosis without biopsy, due to the large spectrum of manifesting symptoms; furthermore, small-intestinal gastroscopy examinations have a relatively complex management in the pediatric population. To identify novel molecular markers useful to increase the sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of pediatric CD patients, the expression levels of two key autophagy executor genes (ATG7 and BECN1) and their regulatory validated miRNAs (miR-17 and miR-30a, respectively) were analyzed by relative quantitative real-time-PCR on a cohort of confirmed CD patients compared to age-related controls...
February 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208010/circulating-plasma-and-exosomal-micrornas-as-indicators-of-drug-induced-organ-injury-in-rodent-models
#4
Young-Eun Cho, Sang-Hyun Kim, Byung-Heon Lee, Moon-Chang Baek
This study was performed to evaluate whether microRNAs (miRNAs) in circulating exosomes may serve as biomarkers of drug-induced liver, kidney, or muscle-injury. Quantitative PCR analyses were performed to measure the amounts of liver-specific miRNAs (miR-122, miR-192, and miR-155), kidney-specific miR-146a, or muscle-specific miR-206 in plasma and exosomes from mice treated with liver, kidney or muscle toxicants. The levels of liver-specific miRNAs in circulating plasma and exosomes were elevated in acetaminophen-induced liver injury and returned to basal levels by treatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine...
February 17, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203568/mirna-sequence-indicates-that-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-exosomes-have-similar-mechanism-to-enhance-cardiac-repair
#5
Lianbo Shao, Yu Zhang, Beibei Lan, Juanjuan Wang, Zhiwei Zhang, Lulu Zhang, Pengli Xiao, Qingyou Meng, Yong-Jian Geng, Xi-Yong Yu, Yangxin Li
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) repair infarcted heart through paracrine mechanism. We sought to compare the effectiveness of MSCs and MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exo) in repairing infarcted hearts and to identify how MSC-Exo mediated cardiac repair is regulated. In a rat myocardial infarction model, we found that MSC-Exo inhibited cardiac fibrosis, inflammation, and improved cardiac function. The beneficial effects of MSC-Exo were significantly superior compared to that of MSCs. To explore the potential mechanisms underlying MSC-Exo's effects, we performed several in vitro experiments and miRNA-sequence analysis...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202367/exosomes-therapy-delivery-tools-and-biomarkers-of-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Lucio Barile, Giuseppe Vassalli
Virtually all cells in the organism secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), a heterogeneous population of lipid bilayer membrane-enclosed vesicles that transport and deliver payloads of proteins and nucleic acids to recipient cells, thus playing central roles in cell-cell communications. Exosomes, nanosized EVs of endosomal origin, regulate many pathophysiological processes including immune responses and inflammation, tumour growth, and infection. Healthy subjects and patients with different diseases release exosomes with different RNA and protein contents into the circulation, which can be measured as biomarkers...
February 12, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199304/adipose-derived-circulating-mirnas-regulate-gene-expression-in-other-tissues
#7
Thomas Thomou, Marcelo A Mori, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, Masahiro Konishi, Masaji Sakaguchi, Christian Wolfrum, Tata Nageswara Rao, Jonathon N Winnay, Ruben Garcia-Martin, Steven K Grinspoon, Phillip Gorden, C Ronald Kahn
Adipose tissue is a major site of energy storage and has a role in the regulation of metabolism through the release of adipokines. Here we show that mice with an adipose-tissue-specific knockout of the microRNA (miRNA)-processing enzyme Dicer (ADicerKO), as well as humans with lipodystrophy, exhibit a substantial decrease in levels of circulating exosomal miRNAs. Transplantation of both white and brown adipose tissue-brown especially-into ADicerKO mice restores the level of numerous circulating miRNAs that are associated with an improvement in glucose tolerance and a reduction in hepatic Fgf21 mRNA and circulating FGF21...
February 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198592/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-exosomes-promote-survival-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-through-mirna-dependent-mechanisms
#8
Ben Mead, Stanislav Tomarev
The loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and their axons is one of the leading causes of blindness and includes traumatic (optic neuropathy) and degenerative (glaucoma) eye diseases. Although no clinical therapies are in use, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have demonstrated significant neuroprotective and axogenic effects on RGC in both of the aforementioned models. Recent evidence has shown that MSC secrete exosomes, membrane enclosed vesicles (30-100 nm) containing proteins, mRNA and miRNA which can be delivered to nearby cells...
February 15, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197964/up-regulated-exosomal-mirna-140-3p-in-cml-patients-with-musculoskeletal-pain-associated-with-discontinuation-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#9
Michiyo Asano, Tomohiro Umezu, Seiichiro Katagiri, Chiaki Kobayashi, Tetsuzo Tauchi, Moritaka Gotoh, Keiko Ando, Seiichi Okabe, Junko H Ohyashiki, Kazuma Ohyashiki
We analyzed the exosomal miRNA from peripheral blood from CML patients with musculoskeletal pain after stopping tyrosine kinase inhibitors to identify possible factors related to this manifestation. Exosomal miRNA profiling using TaqMan low-density array revealed that exosomal miR-140-3p was significantly elevated in CML patients showing musculoskeletal pain, when compared to those without such pain (P = 0.0336) or healthy individuals (P = 0.0022). All five CML patients with musculoskeletal pain and increased exosomal miR-140-3p levels sustained deep molecular responses: four of them achieved symptom relief and a significant decrease in exosomal miR-140-3p levels was evident...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186701/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-exosomes-promote-survival-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-through-mirna-dependent-mechanisms
#10
Ben Mead, Stanislav Tomarev
The loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and their axons is one of the leading causes of blindness and includes traumatic (optic neuropathy) and degenerative (glaucoma) eye diseases. Although no clinical therapies are in use, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have demonstrated significant neuroprotective and axogenic effects on RGC in both of the aforementioned models. Recent evidence has shown that MSC secrete exosomes, membrane enclosed vesicles (30-100 nm) containing proteins, mRNA and miRNA which can be delivered to nearby cells...
January 26, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177881/a-panel-of-microrna-signature-in-serum-for-colorectal-cancer-diagnosis
#11
Mingxia Zhu, Zebo Huang, Danxia Zhu, Xin Zhou, Xia Shan, Lian-Wen Qi, Lirong Wu, Wenfang Cheng, Jun Zhu, Lan Zhang, Huo Zhang, Yan Chen, Wei Zhu, Tongshan Wang, Ping Liu
Dysregulated expression of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) in serum has been recognised as promising diagnostic biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC). In the initial screening phase, a total of 32 differentially expressed miRNAs were selected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) based Exiqon panel with 3 CRC pool samples and 1 normal control (NC) pool. Using qRT-PCR, selected serum miRNAs were further confirmed in training (30 CRC VS. 30 NCs) and testing stages (136 CRC VS...
February 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173719/exo-mir-15a-transfer-from-the-pancreas-augments-diabetic-complications-by-inducing-oxidative-stress
#12
Tengku Ain Kamalden, Anne M Macgregor-Das, Sangeetha M Kannan, Brittany Dunkerly-Eyring, Nurliza Khaliddin, Zhenhua Xu, Anthony P Fusco, Syatirah Abu Yazib, Rhuen Chiou Chow, Elia J Duh, Marc K Halushka, Charles Steenbergen, Samarjit DAS
AIMS: Mi(cro)RNAs, one type of non-coding RNA, modulate post-transcriptional gene expression in various pathogenic pathways in type-2-diabetes (T2D). Currently, little is known about how miRNAs influence disease pathogenesis by targeting cells at a distance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of exosomal miRNAs during T2D. RESULTS: We show that miR-15a is increased in the plasma of diabetic patients, correlating with disease severity. miR-15 plays an important role in insulin production in pancreatic-β-cells...
February 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167681/mir-450a-5p-within-rat-adipose-tissue-exosome-like-vesicles-promotes-adipogenic-differentiation-by-targeting-wisp2
#13
Yan Zhang, Mei Yu, Minjia Dai, Chang Chen, Qi Tang, Wei Jing, Hang Wang, Weidong Tian
Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that could secrete a wide number of factors to regulate adipogenesis via paracrine signals. In addition to soluble proteins in adipose tissue, microRNAs (miRNAs) enriched in extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes or microvesicles, could modulate intercellular communications. In this study, we demonstrated that exosome-like vesicles derived from adipose tissue (Exo-AT) were internalized by adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), then induced adipogenesis...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163101/identification-of-mirnas-as-biomarkers-for-acquired-endocrine-resistance-in-breast-cancer
#14
Penn Muluhngwi, Carolyn M Klinge
Therapies targeting estrogen receptor α (ERα) including tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and aromatase inhibitors (AI), e.g., letrozole, have proven successful in reducing the death rate for breast cancer patients whose initial tumors express ERα. However, about 40% of patients develop acquired resistance to these endocrine treatments. There is a critical need to develop sensitive circulating biomarkers that accurately identify signaling pathways altered in breast cancer patients resistant to endocrine therapies...
February 2, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161213/new-perspective-of-host-micrornas-in-the-control-of-prrsv-infection
#15
REVIEW
Fang Liu, Yinping Du, Wen-Hai Feng
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most important diseases in pigs, leading to significant economic losses in swine industry worldwide. PRRS virus (PRRSV) is an enveloped positive single-stranded RNA virus, which mainly infects cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs and have emerged as important regulators of virus-host cell interactions. In the past several years, scientists have been trying to understand the interaction between host miRNAs and PRRSV infection...
January 9, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161058/endogenous-and-exogenous-mir-520c-3p-modulates-cd44-mediated-extravillous-trophoblast-invasion
#16
Hironori Takahashi, Akihide Ohkuchi, Tomoyuki Kuwata, Rie Usui, Yosuke Baba, Hirotada Suzuki, Tha Thu Chaw Kyi, Shigeki Matsubara, Shigeru Saito, Toshihiro Takizawa
INTRODUCTION: Adequate extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion is essential for successful placentation. Although miR-520c-3p plays an important role in CD44-mediated invasion in cancer cells, there is little information on whether miR-520c-3p is involved in the regulatory mechanisms of CD44-mediated EVT invasion. METHODS: We screened first trimester trophoblast cells and trophoblast cell lines for expression of miR-520c-3p using real-time polymerase chain reaction...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160157/a-comparison-of-serum-mirnas-influencing-metastatic-growth-of-emt6-vs-4thm-tumor-cells-in-wild-type-and-cd200r1ko-mice
#17
Reginald M Gorczynski, Fang Zhu, Zhiqi Chen, Ohla Kos, Ismat Khatri
PURPOSE: We investigated whether miRNAs in exosomes from EMT6 or 4THM tumor-bearing mice played a role in regulating inflammatory cytokine expression and/or metastasis in WT mice injected with EMT6 and/or 4THM tumor cells. METHODS: EMT6 tumors in BALB/c CD200R1KO mice resolve following surgical resection of localized tumor and immunization with irradiated EMT6 cells along with CpG as adjuvant. Wild-type (WT) animals treated in the same fashion develop pulmonary and liver metastases within 20 days of surgery...
February 3, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159509/human-pericardial-fluid-contains-exosomes-enriched-with-cardiovascular-expressed-micrornas-and-promotes-therapeutic-angiogenesis
#18
Cristina Beltrami, Marie Besnier, Saran Shantikumar, Andrew I U Shearn, Cha Rajakaruna, Abas Laftah, Fausto Sessa, Gaia Spinetti, Enrico Petretto, Gianni D Angelini, Costanza Emanueli
The pericardial fluid (PF) is contained in the pericardial sac surrounding the heart. MicroRNA (miRNA) exchange via exosomes (endogenous nanoparticles) contributes to cell-to-cell communication. We investigated the hypotheses that the PF is enriched with miRNAs secreted by the heart and that it mediates vascular responses through exosome exchange of miRNAs. The study was developed using leftover material from aortic valve surgery. We found that in comparison with peripheral plasma, the PF contains exosomes enriched with miRNAs co-expressed in patients' myocardium and vasculature...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157838/purification-and-characterization-of-micrornas-within-middle-ear-fluid-exosomes-implication-in-otitis-media-pathophysiology
#19
Stéphanie Val, Stephanie Jeong, Marian Poley, Anna Krueger, Gustavo Nino, Kristy Brown, Diego Preciado
BACKGROUND: Otitis Media (OM) is characterized by acute infection progressing to chronic middle ear effusion (MEE). Extracellular secretion of microRNAs (miRNAs) in exosomes is a newly discovered mechanism for cells exerting distant cell genetic regulation. Whether MEE contains exosomes with specific miRNAs is unknown. This study aimed to purify and characterize the exosomal and miRNA content of MEE. METHOD: MEEs were subjected to Exoquick exosomal purification and EXOCET exosomal quantification...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152040/distinct-repertoires-of-micrornas-present-in-mouse-astrocytes-compared-to-astrocyte-secreted-exosomes
#20
Ana Jovičić, Aaron D Gitler
BACKGROUND: Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system (CNS) and secrete various factors that regulate neuron development, function and connectivity. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs involved in posttranslational gene regulation. Recent findings showed that miRNAs are exchanged between cells via nanovesicles called exosomes. In this study, we sought to define which miRNAs are contained within exosomes secreted by astrocytes. We also explored whether astroglial miRNA secretion via exosomes is perturbed in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease where astrocytes play a crucial role in driving disease progression...
2017: PloS One
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