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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773665/hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-and-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-from-e-cigarette-use
#1
Casey G Sommerfeld, Daniel J Weiner, Andrew Nowalk, Allyson Larkin
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, or "vaping," is gaining widespread popularity as an alternative to conventional cigarettes among adolescents. Little is known of the health risks of e-cigarette use, especially in children and adolescents. We present a Case Report of a previously healthy 18-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea, cough, and pleuritic chest pain after e-cigarette use. She developed respiratory failure with hypoxia and was intubated, and ultimately met diagnostic criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome...
May 17, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772812/change-and-continuity-in-vaping-and-smoking-by-young-people-a-qualitative-case-study-of-a-friendship-group
#2
Neil McKeganey, Marina Barnard
This paper reports a qualitative case study of a small friendship group ( n = 8) in Glasgow, Scotland. Interviewed twice at six months apart, these 16 to 17 year olds reported a substantial change in their use of and attitudes towards e-cigarettes and tobacco. At time 1, vaping generated much excitement and interest, with six out of eight individuals having their own vape device. At time 2, only two young people still vaped, with the others no longer professing any interest in continued vaping. The two regular smokers, who had been smoking before they first vaped, now only vaped privately and to reduce their tobacco intake...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767777/prison-staff-and-prisoner-views-on-a-prison-smoking-ban-evidence-from-the-tobacco-in-prisons-study
#3
Ashley Brown, Helen Sweeting, Greig Logan, Evangelia Demou, Kate Hunt
Introduction: In jurisdictions permitting prisoner smoking, rates are high (c75%), with smoking embedded in prison culture, leading to secondhand smoke exposures among staff and prisoners and challenges for smoking cessation. Momentum is building to ban smoking in prisons, but research on staff and prisoner views is lacking. We address this gap, providing evidence on staff and prisoner views throughout all Scottish prisons. Methods: Data were collected prior to announcement of a (November 2018) prison smoking ban throughout Scotland...
May 15, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765089/e-cigarettes-can-emit-formaldehyde-at-high-levels-under-conditions-that-have-been-reported-to-be-non-averse-to-users
#4
James C Salamanca, Jiries Meehan-Atrash, Shawna Vreeke, Jorge O Escobedo, David H Peyton, Robert M Strongin
E-cigarette aerosol emission studies typically focus on benchmarking toxicant levels versus those of cigarettes. However, such studies do not fully account for the distinct chemical makeup of e-liquids and their unique properties. These approaches often conclude that there are fewer and lower levels of toxins produced by e-cigarettes than by cigarettes. In 2015, we reported the discovery of new hemiacetals derived from the reaction of formaldehyde and the e-liquid solvents. The main finding was that they constituted a significant proportion of potentially undetected formaldehyde...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764355/regulating-e-cigarettes-in-australia-implications-for-tobacco-use-by-young-people
#5
Colin P Mendelsohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763848/prevalence-and-correlates-of-adolescents-e-cigarette-use-frequency-and-dependence
#6
Erin A Vogel, Danielle E Ramo, Mark L Rubinstein
BACKGROUND: Understanding predictors of e-cigarette use among adolescents in the context of wide availability and extreme popularity of these products is important for prevention and treatment. This study identifies correlates of e-cigarette use frequency and dependence among adolescent users. METHODS: Adolescent e-cigarette users (N = 173) were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. Participants reported demographic and psychosocial characteristics, e-cigarette use behaviors, and cigarette use...
May 8, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763683/sexual-and-gender-minority-cigarette-smoking-disparities-an-analysis-of-2016-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system-data
#7
Leah Hoffman, Janine Delahanty, Sarah E Johnson, Xiaoquan Zhao
We examined the association between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) identity, cigarette and e-cigarette use, and potential risk factors in the United States. Using data from 198,057 adults in 26 states in the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we estimated the prevalence of cigarette use, e-cigarette use, and potential risk factors by gender identity and sexual identity. Overall and sex-stratified bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions examined whether the relationship between sexual and gender identity and cigarette and e-cigarette use persisted after adjusting for demographics, socio-economic status, and other unhealthy behaviors...
May 12, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755639/pilot-experiment-the-effect-of-added-flavorants-on-the-taste-and-pleasantness-of-mixtures-of-glycerol-and-propylene-glycol
#8
Pradnya D Rao, Husile Nanding, Andrew A Strasser, Paul M Wise
Introduction: The US Food and Drug Administration banned most "sweet" flavorants for use in cigarettes due to the concern that sweet flavors appeal to young, beginning smokers. However, many of the same flavors, including fruity and confection-associated aromas (e.g. vanilla) are still used in e-cigarettes. Sweet flavors may have a number of effects, including enhancement of the taste of other ingredients. The current work focused on the impact of model flavorants on the taste of a mixture of propylene glycol and vegetable glycerine, solvents used in most e-cigarettes and related products...
April 2018: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754582/altered-lung-biology-of-healthy-never-smokers-following-acute-inhalation-of-e-cigarettes
#9
Michelle R Staudt, Jacqueline Salit, Robert J Kaner, Charleen Hollmann, Ronald G Crystal
BACKGROUND: Little is known about health risks associated with electronic cigarette (EC) use although EC are rising in popularity and have been advocated as a means to quit smoking cigarettes. METHODS: Ten never-smokers, without exposure history to tobacco products or EC, were assessed at baseline with questionnaire, chest X-ray, lung function, plasma levels of endothelial microparticles (EMP), and bronchoscopy to obtain small airway epithelium (SAE) and alveolar macrophages (AM)...
May 14, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753155/assessing-nicotine-dependence-in-adolescent-e-cigarette-users-the-4-item-patient-reported-outcomes-measurement-information-system-promis-nicotine-dependence-item-bank-for-electronic-cigarettes
#10
Meghan E Morean, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Stephanie S O'Malley
BACKGROUND: Adolescent e-cigarette use (i.e., "vaping") likely confers risk for developing nicotine dependence. However, there have been no studies assessing e-cigarette nicotine dependence in youth. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Nicotine Dependence Item Bank for E-cigarettes (PROMIS-E) for assessing youth e-cigarette nicotine dependence and examined risk factors for experiencing stronger dependence symptoms...
April 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751076/tobacco-specific-nitrosamines-a-literature-review
#11
Evangelia Konstantinou, Foteini Fotopoulou, Athanasios Drosos, Nektaria Dimakopoulou, Zoi Zagoriti, Athanasios Niarchos, Dimitra Makrynioti, Dimitrios Kouretas, George Lagoumintzis, Konstantinos Poulas
Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of chemicals, including several tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA). Most TSNA are formed in tobacco during the post-harvest period, while a number are produced when a cigarette is burned. Considerable evidence supports the role of TSNA important causative factors for cancers of the lung, pancreas, esophagus, and oral cavity in people who use tobacco products. Of the known TSNA, nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are the most carcinogenic...
May 8, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744375/counterfeit-electronic-cigarette-products-with-mislabeled-nicotine-concentrations
#12
Esther E Omaiye, Iliana Cordova, Barbara Davis, Prue Talbot
Objectives: We compared nicotine concentrations in one brand of refill fluids that were purchased in 4 countries and labeled 0 mg of nicotine/mL. We then identified counterfeit e-cigarette products from these countries. Methods: Overall, 125 e-cigarette refill fluids were purchased in Nigeria, the United States (US), England, and China. Nicotine concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography and compared to labeled concentrations. Refill fluids were examined to identify physical differences and grouped into authentic and counterfeit products...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742683/efficiency-and-adverse-events-of-electronic-cigarettes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-prisma-compliant-article
#13
Xing Liu, Wan Lu, Sheng Liao, Zhongliang Deng, Zhongrong Zhang, Yun Liu, Weizhong Lu
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a prevalent smoking cessation aid worldwide; however, a consensus regarding their efficacy and safety has yet to be reached. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature from related studies written in English or Chinese and published between January 1, 2003, and July 30, 2017. Eligible studies reporting the number of smokers who reduced or quit smoking and suffered from adverse events after e-cigarette use were selected according to predefined criteria; pertinent data were then extracted for a meta-analysis...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742227/symptomatic-bradycardia-due-to-nicotine-intoxication
#14
Jin Hui Paik, Soo Kang, Areum Durey, Ji Hye Kim, Ah Jin Kim
Nicotine is a dangerous substance extracted from tobacco leaves. When nicotine is absorbed in excessive amounts, it can lead to respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. The commercialization of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has allowed users to directly handle e-cigarette liquid. Consequently, the risk of liquid nicotine exposure has increased. We describe our experience of managing the case of a patient who orally ingested a high concentration of liquid nicotine from e-cigarette liquid. The patient presented with bradycardia and hypotension, which are symptoms of parasympathetic stimulation, together with impaired consciousness...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741713/electronic-cigarette-and-cigarette-social-environments-and-ever-use-of-each-product-a-prospective-study-of-young-adults-in-southern-california
#15
Robert Urman, Rob McConnell, Jennifer B Unger, Tess Boley Cruz, Jonathan M Samet, Kiros Berhane, Jessica L Barrington-Trimis
Background: A supportive youth cigarette social environment, e.g. friends' approval of use, leads to cigarette use initiation, and cigarette users develop a more supportive social environment. Whether there is a bidirectional relationship of e-cigarette social environment with e-cigarette use has not been studied. Methods: Prospective data were collected from 1441 Children's Health Study participants in 2014 (median age=17.3 years) and at follow-up 1.5 years later...
May 8, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741711/engagement-with-online-tobacco-marketing-among-adolescents-in-the-us-2013-2014-to-2014-2015
#16
Samir Soneji, JaeWon Yang, Meghan Bridgid Moran, Andy S L Tan, James Sargent, Kristin E Knutzen, Kelvin Choi
Objective: To assess changes in engagement with online tobacco and electronic cigarette marketing ('online tobacco marketing') among adolescents in the US between 2013 and 2015. Methods: We assessed the prevalence of 6 forms of engagement with online tobacco marketing, both overall and by brand, among adolescents sampled in Wave 1 (2013-2014; N=13,651) and Wave 2 (2014-2015; N=12,172) of the nationally representative Population Assessment for Tobacco and Health Study...
May 5, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734049/e-cigarette-nicotine-content-and-labelling-practices-in-a-restricted-market-findings-from-ontario-canada
#17
Christine D Czoli, Maciej L Goniewicz, Mary Palumbo, Christine M White, David Hammond
BACKGROUND: Although several countries, including Canada, have prohibited the sale of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, there is little evidence examining the impact of such regulatory measures on nicotine content and labelling. METHODS: E-cigarettes were systematically purchased at 80 retail outlets across 4 cities in Ontario, Canada in January-February 2015. Products' nicotine content and labelling accuracy were assessed using gas chromatography. RESULTS: A total of 166 e-cigarette products were purchased, including disposable products (33%), refillable products (14%), and e-liquids (53%)...
May 4, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728989/socioeconomic-disparities-in-health-risk-behavior-clusterings-among-korean-adolescents
#18
Boram Lee, Dong-Chul Seo
PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the socioeconomic disparities in health risk behavior clusterings among Korean adolescents and to assess the mediating role of stress on this association. METHOD: We analyzed the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of Korean middle and high school students aged 12-18 years (N = 68,043). The co-occurrence of multiple health risk behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, drinking, and unprotected sex) was used to operationalize health risk behavior clusterings that ranged from zero to three...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728187/effect-of-electronic-cigarettes-on-human-middle-ear
#19
Jae-Jun Song, Yoon Young Go, Ji Yoen Mun, Sehee Lee, Gi Jung Im, Yoo Yon Kim, Jun Ho Lee, Jiwon Chang
OBJECTIVE: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are the most commonly used electronic nicotine delivery systems and are a relatively new product designed for smoking cessation. The market scale of electronic cigarettes is growing rapidly, but the potential impact of e-cigarettes on public health has not yet been verified. In this study, we examined the effect of e-liquids on a human middle ear epithelial cell (HMEEC) line. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The main components of e-liquids are propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin and flavoring agents with or without nicotine...
June 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728074/the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-combining-varenicline-with-nicotine-e-cigarettes-for-smoking-cessation-in-people-with-mental-illnesses-and-addictions-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Chris Bullen, Marjolein Verbiest, Susanna Galea-Singer, Tomasz Kurdziel, George Laking, David Newcombe, Varsha Parag, Natalie Walker
BACKGROUND: Smoking rates are higher in New Zealand (NZ) adults with mental illnesses and alcohol and other drug (AOD) addictions, compared to the overall population. Quit attempts using "gold standard" smoking cessation treatments often fail in people with these conditions, so more flexible treatment regimens that adapt to a person's responsiveness to treatment are worth investigating. The STATUS trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of combining varenicline with nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation among varenicline non-responders in treatment for mental health illnesses and/or AOD addictions...
May 4, 2018: BMC Public Health
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