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Magdalena Pertynska-Marczewska, Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis
OBJECTIVE: The hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator, the pituitary gonadotropes, the ovaries, and the uterus play a crucial role in female fertility. A decline in reproductive performance represents a complex interplay of actions at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Recently, in the field of female reproductive aging attention is drawn to the carbonyl stress theory. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute directly to protein damage, induce a chain of oxidative stress (OS) reactions, and increase inflammatory reactions...
October 3, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Yael Pecchioli, Lamide Oyewumi, Lisa M Allen, Sari Kives
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Despite the fact that most cases of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in adolescence are due to an immature hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis (HPO), the current approach to investigating adolescents presenting with AUB often includes pelvic ultrasound to exclude rare structural causes. The aim of this study was to determine whether an ultrasound ordered for the investigation of AUB in adolescents detects any significant anatomic pathology or alters diagnosis and management...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Emily A Southmayd, Mary Jane De Souza
Bone growth, development, and remodeling are modulated by numerous circulating hormones. Throughout the lifespan, the extent to which each of the hormones impacts bone differs. Understanding the independent and combined impact of these hormones on controlling bone remodeling allows for the development of more informed decision making regarding pharmacology, specifically the use of hormonal medication, at all ages. Endocrine control of bone health in women is largely dictated by the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis...
September 13, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
J Kline, A Tang, B Levin
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether or not cigarette smoking, alcohol and caffeine intake are related to two indicators of ovarian age-anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 477 women with a recent index spontaneous abortion (SA) (105 trisomic, 93 non-trisomic) or livebirth (LB) (279) with hormones measured on days 2-4 of an apparently normal menstrual cycle after the index pregnancy. RESULTS: Current smoking is associated with about a 15% increase in median FSH (β for ln(FSH)=0...
October 2016: Maturitas
A Buryanov, A Kostrub, V Kotiuk
BACKGROUND: The question of hormonal dysregulation in patients with CRPS I in whole was investigated very scantily. There are only a few studies concerning catecholamines, oestrogens and endorphins independently. Other hormones were studied in patients with different other chronic pain conditions. Considering the accumulation of sufficient knowledge about the role of disadaptation processes in CRPS I pathogenesis and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian systems in the process of adaptation it was logical and consistent to define the role of hormonal dysregulation of these systems in patients with CRPS I...
August 10, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Fang-Nong Lai, Jing-Cai Liu, Lan Li, Jun-Yu Ma, Xue-Lian Liu, Yu-Ping Liu, Xi-Feng Zhang, Hong Chen, Massimo De Felici, Paul W Dyce, Wei Shen
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer which is widely used in the manufacture of plastics. As a common environmental contaminant and recognized endocrine disrupting chemical, DEHP is able to deregulate the functions of a variety of tissues, including the reproductive system both in males and females. In order to investigate the possible effects of DEHP on the first wave of folliculogenesis, occurring in the mouse ovary postnatally, mice were administered 20 or 40 μg/kg DEHP through intraperitoneal injection at days 5, 10 and 15 post partum (dpp)...
July 12, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
R Wang, M Kuang, H Nie, W Bai, L Sun, F Wang, D Mao, Z Wang
Adiponectin, a cytokine secreted typically by adipocytes, has been implicated as a molecular switch between female reproduction and energy balance. The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression of adiponectin system and patterns of genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovary (HPO) axis of food-restricted pre-pubertal ewes. Eighteen 2-month-old female ewes were assigned to 3 groups after a pre-feeding ad libitum for 10 days (six in each group): the control group (C), the low-food-restricted group (LR) and the high-food-restricted group (HR), which were fed with 100%, 70% and 50% of ad libitum food intake, respectively...
October 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
A S Thakur, G P Littaru, I Funahashi, U S Painkara, N S Dange, P Chauhan
In neuroendocrine system the increase in oxidative status is produced by a glucocorticoid-dependent and transcriptional increase in pro-oxidative drive, with concurrent inhibition of the antioxidant defense system, ultimately leading to increased neuronal cell death. Functional hypothalamic disturbances and neuroendocirne aberrations have both short and long term consequences for reproductive health. Understandably, an impaired or diminished hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis leads to anovulation and hypoestrogenism...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Silvia León, Daniela Fernadois, Alexandra Sull, Judith Sull, Michele Calder, Kanako Hayashi, Moshmi Bhattacharya, Stephen Power, George A Vilos, Angelos G Vilos, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Andy V Babwah
Uterine growth and endometrial gland formation (adenogenesis) and function, are essential for fertility and are controlled by estrogens and other regulators, whose nature and physiological relevance are yet to be elucidated. Kisspeptin, which signals via Kiss1r, is essential for fertility, primarily through its central control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, but also likely through peripheral actions. Using genetically modified mice, we addressed the contributions of central and peripheral kisspeptin signaling in regulating uterine growth and adenogenesis...
2016: Scientific Reports
Lisa K Brents
Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles...
June 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Selma Feldman Witchel, Hailey Roumimper, Sharon Oberfield
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a familial heterogeneous disorder affecting 6% to 10% of reproductive-age women. The use of criteria developed for adult women is problematic for the adolescent girl because the clinical features associated with PCOS are normal pubertal events. The recent consensus statement on PCOS in adolescents stated that hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea need to persist for at least 2 years to consider the diagnosis of PCOS. Although insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, and obesity are often associated with PCOS, these features are not considered valid diagnostic criteria...
June 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
Satu Kuokkanen, Alex J Polotsky, Justin Chosich, Andrew P Bradford, Anna Jasinska, Tzu Phang, Nanette Santoro, Susan E Appt
UNLABELLED: Obesity and malnutrition are associated with decreased fecundity in women. Impaired reproductive capacity in obese women is often attributed to anovulation. However, obese women with ovulatory cycles also have reduced fertility, but the etiology of their impaired reproduction is only partially understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that obesity directly impairs oocyte and embryo quality as well as endometrial receptivity. In obese women, urinary progesterone metabolite excretion is decreased, but in excess of what can be explained by suppressed gonadotropin secretion, suggesting that apart from its central effect obesity may directly affect progesterone (P4) production...
August 2016: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
G A Perry
Puberty is defined as when ovulation is accompanied by visual signs of estrus and subsequent normal luteal function. Age at puberty is an important trait in relation to reproductive success, productive life span, and profitability in beef operations. Although puberty and initiation of normal estrous cycles are complex events that require maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, it has been well documented that nutrition, age, and genetics are regulators of age at puberty. However, their role is mainly as regulators of the endocrine maturation that must occur for sustained ovarian cyclicity to be initiated...
July 1, 2016: Theriogenology
Sae Uchida, Fusako Kagitani
Activation of the sympathetic nerve to the ovary (superior ovarian nerve: SON) decreases ovarian blood flow and estradiol secretion in rats in the estrous phase. The present study examined the effects of long-term estradiol treatment on the sympathetic regulation of both ovarian blood flow and estradiol secretion. Non-pregnant Wistar rats received sustained subcutaneous estradiol (5μg/day) or saline for 4weeks. Chronic estradiol treatment did not affect ovarian blood flow at rest, while changed the basal ovarian estradiol secretion rate, i...
May 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
N Ellissa Baskind, Adam H Balen
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent heterogeneous disorder linked with disturbances of reproductive, endocrine and metabolic function. The definition and aetiological hypotheses of PCOS are continually developing to incorporate evolving evidence of the syndrome, which appears to be both multifactorial and polygenic. The pathophysiology of PCOS encompasses inherent ovarian dysfunction that is strongly influenced by external factors including the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and hyperinsulinaemia. Neuroendocrine abnormalities including increased gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse frequency with consequent hypersecretion of luteinising hormone (LH) affects ovarian androgen synthesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte development...
April 1, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Paulina Radwańska, Urszula Kosior-Korzecka
Kisspeptin and leptin play a crucial role in the puberty of sheep as they initiate the activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Also hormones of thyrotropic axis are probably involved in this process. The aim of study was to analyze the impact of leptin on kisspeptin-10 secretion as well as kisspeptin-1 and G protein-coupled receptor (GPR54) mRNA expression in pituitary cells of pubertal ewes in vitro. The influence of kisspeptin on TSH secretion was also examined. Cells were cultured in McCoy's 5A medium without hormones; with 10(-10)-10(-5)M of leptin; with 10(-11)-10(-5)M of kisspeptin-10; with peptide 234 (10(-7)M, antagonist of GPR54) or 10(-11)-10(-5)M of kisspeptin-10 and peptide 234...
April 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Heather C M Allaway, Emily A Southmayd, Mary Jane De Souza
An energy deficiency is the result of inadequate energy intake relative to high energy expenditure. Often observed with the development of an energy deficiency is a high drive for thinness, dietary restraint, and weight and shape concerns in association with eating behaviors. At a basic physiologic level, a chronic energy deficiency promotes compensatory mechanisms to conserve fuel for vital physiologic function. Alterations have been documented in resting energy expenditure (REE) and metabolic hormones. Observed metabolic alterations include nutritionally acquired growth hormone resistance and reduced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations; hypercortisolemia; increased ghrelin, peptide YY, and adiponectin; and decreased leptin, triiodothyronine, and kisspeptin...
February 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Emídio Vale-Fernandes, Ana Margarida Póvoa, Sandra Soares, Lucinda Calejo, Pedro Xavier, Sónia Sousa, Jorge Beires, Nuno Montenegro
Diseases in end stage typically occur with hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis disorders, with consequent anovulation and infertility. The solid organ transplantation increased survival of patients with end-stage organs disease and the vast majority of women improve their reproductive capacity after transplantation. Although adoption can always be a possibility, the transplanted infertile woman has the right to self-reproductive determination using assisted reproductive techniques. While it is known that pregnancies in transplantedwomen are at high risk, there is no evidence of differences in pregnancy outcome in pregnant transplanted subject to technical, compared with spontaneous pregnancies...
January 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Xiu-Feng Wang, Lei Zhang, Qing-Hua Wu, Jian-Xin Min, Na Ma, Lai-Cheng Luo
Psychological stress has become a common and important cause of premature ovarian failure (POF). Therefore, it is very important to explore the mechanisms of POF resulting from psychological stress. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into control and model groups. Biomolecules associated with POF (β-EP, IL-1, NOS, NO, GnRH, CRH, FSH, LH, E2, P, ACTH, and CORT) were measured in the control and psychologically stressed rats. The regulation relationships of the biomolecules were explored in the psychologically stressed state using support vector regression (SVR)...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Ryan G Steward, Lori A Bateman, Cris Slentz, Frank Z Stanczyk, Thomas M Price
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the effect of a progestogen (depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, DMPA) on resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of young, normal-weight healthy women. We hypothesize an increase in RMR and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) resulting in increased body temperature by DMPA. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a prospective cohort study in 13 subjects tested at baseline, 3weeks and 9weeks after 150mg intramuscular DMPA administration. RMR was determined with indirect calorimetry...
April 2016: Contraception
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