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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166658/episodic-future-thinking-reduces-temporal-discounting-in-healthy-adolescents
#1
Uli Bromberg, Maria Lobatcheva, Jan Peters
Episodic Future Thinking has proven efficient in reducing impulsive behavior in several adult populations. Whether it also has a beneficial impact on decision making in adolescents is not known. Here the impact of episodic future thinking on discounting behavior was investigated in a sample of healthy adolescents (n = 44, age range 13-16 years). Discounting behavior in trials including episodic future thinking was significantly less impulsive than in control trials (t = 2.74, p = .009, dz = .44). In a subsample we controlled for executive function, alcohol use and developmental measures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166213/relationship-of-ptsd-with-impulsivity-dimensions-while-controlling-the-effect-of-anxiety-and-depression-in-a-sample-of-inpatients-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#2
Cuneyt Evren, Gokhan Umut, Muge Bozkurt, Bilge Evren
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with impulsivity dimensions while controlling the effect of anxiety and depression in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). METHODS: Participants were 190 male patients admitted to a specialized center for substance use disorders within a six month period. Participants were evaluated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11-SF), the Traumatic Experiences Checklist (TEC) and PTSD Checklist Civilian version (PCL-C)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166202/the-effectiveness-of-distraction-cartoon-patterned-clothes-and-bubble-blowing-on-pain-and-anxiety-in-preschool-children-during-venipuncture-in-the-emergency-department
#3
Made Pande Lilik Lestari, Dessie Wanda, Happy Hayati
In preschool children, venipuncture is considered a bodily threat that can cause pain and anxiety, as well as being a traumatic experience. If the pain and anxiety felt by a child during a venipuncture is not addressed properly, it can result in a traumatic experience, and traumatic events in childhood can have long-term consequences. Atraumatic treatment in the emergency department has been little explored in previous research; therefore, the present study assessed the effectiveness of using the distractions of cartoon-patterned clothes and bubble-blowing on the pain and anxiety of preschool children during venipuncture in the emergency department...
2017: Compr Child Adolesc Nurs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165401/systematic-overview-of-bacopa-monnieri-l-wettst-dominant-poly-herbal-formulas-in-children-and-adolescents
#4
REVIEW
James D Kean, Luke A Downey, Con Stough
Background: The Ayurvedic medicinal system employs a holistic approach to health, utilising the synergistic properties of organic resources. Research into the Ayurvedic herb Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (B.monnieri) has reported improvements in cognitive outcomes in child and adult populations. The aim of current review is to systematically assess and critically summarize clinical trials investigating B.monnieri-dominant poly-herbal formulas and their effects on the cognition, memory, learning, and behaviour in children and adolescents...
November 22, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164126/overweight-and-cognitive-performance-high-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-impairment-in-reactive-control-during-task-switching
#5
Laura Steenbergen, Lorenza S Colzato
The prevalence of weight problems is increasing worldwide. There is growing evidence that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and deficits in cognitive control. The present study aims to clarify the association between weight status and the degree of impairment in cognitive flexibility, i.e., the ability to efficiently switch from one task to another, by disentangling the preparatory and residual domains of task switching. Twenty-six normal weight (BMI < 25, five males) and twenty-six overweight (BMI ≥ 25, seven males) university students performed a task-switching paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of proactive vs...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163350/differential-diagnosis-of-vertigo-in-the-emergency-department-a-prospective-validation-study-of-the-standing-algorithm
#6
Simone Vanni, Rudi Pecci, Jonathan A Edlow, Peiman Nazerian, Rossana Santimone, Giuseppe Pepe, Marco Moretti, Andrea Pavellini, Cosimo Caviglioli, Claudia Casula, Sofia Bigiarini, Paolo Vannucchi, Stefano Grifoni
Objective: We investigated the reliability and accuracy of a bedside diagnostic algorithm for patients presenting with vertigo/unsteadiness to the emergency department. Methods: We enrolled consecutive adult patients presenting with vertigo/unsteadiness at a tertiary hospital. STANDING, the acronym for the four-step algorithm we have previously described, based on nystagmus observation and well-known diagnostic maneuvers includes (1) the discrimination between SponTAneous and positional nystagmus, (2) the evaluation of the Nystagmus Direction, (3) the head Impulse test, and (4) the evaluation of equilibrium (staNdinG)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163303/attentional-orientation-patterns-toward-emotional-faces-and-temperamental-correlates-of-preschool-oppositional-defiant-problems-the-moderating-role-of-callous-unemotional-traits-and-anxiety-symptoms
#7
Georgiana Susa Erdogan, Oana Benga, Crina Marină
The present study examined the independent contributions and the interaction effects of oppositional defiant problems (ODD), callous unemotional traits (CU) and anxiety symptoms on attentional orienting to emotional faces, in a community sample of preschoolers. Additionally, based on Rothbart's (2007) model of temperament, we analyzed whether fine-grained dimensions of reactivity (fear, anger, discomfort, sadness, activity level, approach, high intensity pleasure, impulsivity) and self-regulation (attentional shifting, attentional focusing, inhibitory control), as well as the higher order temperamental factors of negative affectivity, surgency and effortful control are associated with CU traits and ODD-related problems...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163267/binge-eating-but-not-other-disordered-eating-symptoms-is-a-significant-contributor-of-binge-drinking-severity-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-study-among-french-students
#8
Benjamin Rolland, Mickael Naassila, Céline Duffau, Hakim Houchi, Fabien Gierski, Judith André
Many studies have suggested the co-occurrence of eating disorders and alcohol use disorders but in which extent binge eating (BE) and other disordered eating symptoms (DES) are associated with the severity of binge drinking (BD) remains unknown. We conducted a online cross-sectional study among 1,872 French students. Participants were asked their age, gender, tobacco and cannabis use status. They completed the Alcohol Use Questionnaire (AUQ), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and UPPS impulsive behavior questionnaire...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163234/a-comparison-of-treatment-seeking-behavioral-addiction-patients-with-and-without-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Anne Sauvaget, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Roser Granero, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Samuel Bulteau, Pascal Derkinderen, Jean M Vanelle, Anders Hakansson, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Trevor Steward, José M Menchón
The administration of dopaminergic medication to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with addictive behaviors and impulse control disorders. Little is known, however, on how PD patients differ from other patients seeking treatments for behavioral addictions. The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of behavioral addiction patients with and without PD. N = 2,460 treatment-seeking men diagnosed with a behavioral addiction were recruited from a university hospital. Sociodemographic, impulsivity [Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11)], and personality [Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R)] measures were taken upon admission to outpatient treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163086/adolescent-exposure-to-methylphenidate-increases-impulsive-choice-later-in-life
#10
Zarish Abbas, Arwen Sweet, Giovanni Hernandez, Andreas Arvanitogiannis
Background: The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is known to temporarily reduce impulsive choice and promote self-control. What is not sufficiently understood is how repeated treatment with MPH affects impulsive choice in the long run, and whether any such effect is contingent on exposure at certain developmental stages. Methods: Using an animal model for impulsive choice, we examined first whether giving MPH through early adolescence alters delay discounting, an operational measure of impulsive choice, later in adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163079/neural-correlates-of-rewarded-response-inhibition-in-youth-at-risk-for-problematic-alcohol-use
#11
Brenden Tervo-Clemmens, Alina Quach, Beatriz Luna, William Foran, Tammy Chung, Michael D De Bellis, Duncan B Clark
Risk for substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with poor response inhibition and heightened reward sensitivity. During adolescence, incentives improve performance on response inhibition tasks and increase recruitment of cortical control areas (Geier et al., 2010) associated with SUD (Chung et al., 2011). However, it is unknown whether incentives moderate the relationship between response inhibition and trait-level psychopathology and personality features of substance use risk. We examined these associations in the current project using a rewarded antisaccade (AS) task (Geier et al...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163062/difference-in-perseverative-errors-during-a-visual-attention-task-with-auditory-distractors-in-alpha-9-nicotinic-receptor-subunit-wild-type-and-knock-out-mice
#12
Pascal Jorratt, Paul H Delano, Carolina Delgado, Alexies Dagnino-Subiabre, Gonzalo Terreros
The auditory efferent system is a neural network that originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the cochlear receptor through olivocochlear (OC) neurons. Medial OC neurons make cholinergic synapses with outer hair cells (OHCs) through nicotinic receptors constituted by α9 and α10 subunits. One of the physiological functions of the α9 nicotinic receptor subunit (α9-nAChR) is the suppression of auditory distractors during selective attention to visual stimuli. In a recent study we demonstrated that the behavioral performance of alpha-9 nicotinic receptor knock-out (KO) mice is altered during selective attention to visual stimuli with auditory distractors since they made less correct responses and more omissions than wild type (WT) mice...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162175/reward-sensitivity-impulse-control-and-social-cognition-as-mediators-of-the-link-between-childhood-family-adversity-and-externalizing-behavior-in-eight-countries
#13
Jennifer E Lansford, Jennifer Godwin, Marc H Bornstein, Lei Chang, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Laura Di Giunta, Kenneth A Dodge, Patrick S Malone, Paul Oburu, Concetta Pastorelli, Ann T Skinner, Emma Sorbring, Laurence Steinberg, Sombat Tapanya, Liane Peña Alampay, Liliana Maria Uribe Tirado, Suha M Al-Hassan, Dario Bacchini
Using data from 1,177 families in eight countries (Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States), we tested a conceptual model of direct effects of childhood family adversity on subsequent externalizing behaviors as well as indirect effects through psychological mediators. When children were 9 years old, mothers and fathers reported on financial difficulties and their use of corporal punishment, and children reported perceptions of their parents' rejection. When children were 10 years old, they completed a computerized battery of tasks assessing reward sensitivity and impulse control and responded to questions about hypothetical social provocations to assess their hostile attributions and proclivity for aggressive responding...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162001/a-single-continuously-applied-control-policy-for-modeling-reaching-movements-with-and-without-perturbation
#14
Zhe Li, Pietro Mazzoni, Sen Song, Ning Qian
It has been debated whether kinematic features, such as the number of peaks or decomposed submovements in a velocity profile, indicate the number of discrete motor impulses or result from a continuous control process. The debate is particularly relevant for tasks involving target perturbation, which can alter movement kinematics. To simulate such tasks, finite-horizon models require two preset movement durations to compute two control policies before and after the perturbation. Another model employs infinite- and finite-horizon formulations to determine, respectively, movement durations and control policies, which are updated every time step...
November 21, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161891/the-significance-of-impulsive-error-in-children-with-adhd
#15
Yu-Chi Liao, Nai-Wen Guo, Shin-Jaw Chen, Hsing-Fang Tsai, Jhih-Hong Fang, Jia-Jin Chen, Bei-Yi Su
A deficit of inhibition ability is a neuropsychological problem in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated whether in children who made impulsive error (IE), less error-related negativity (ERN) would correlate with poorer executive attention functions (EAFs). Ninety children (49 with ADHD and 41 without ADHD) were investigated by a 4-minute simple reaction time task and simultaneous electroencephalogram. When they made IE, the ERN in response-locked event-related potential (ERP) was defined as error awareness...
November 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161872/asymptotic-behavior-of-a-delayed-stochastic-logistic-model-with-impulsive-perturbations
#16
Sanling Yuan, Xuehui Ji, Huaiping Zhu
In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a delayed logistic model with both impulsive and stochastic perturbations. The impulse is introduced at fixed moments and the stochastic perturbation is of white noise type which is assumed to be proportional to the population density. We start with the existence and uniqueness of the positive solution of the model, then establish sufficient conditions ensuring its global attractivity. By using the theory of integral Markov semigroups, we further derive sufficient conditions for the existence of the stationary distribution of the system...
October 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161867/on-the-continuity-of-the-function-describing-the-times-of-meeting-impulsive-set-and-its-application
#17
Sanyi Tang, Wenhong Pang
The properties of the limit sets of orbits of planar impulsive semi-dynamic system strictly depend on the continuity of the function, which describes the times of meeting impulsive sets. In this note, we will show a more realistic counter example on the continuity of this function which has been proven and widely used in impulsive dynamical system and applied in life sciences including population dynamics and disease control. Further, what extra condition should be added to guarantee the continuity of the function has been addressed generally, and then the applications and shortcomings have been discussed when using the properties of this function...
October 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161023/in-vivo-neurochemical-profile-of-selectively-bred-high-responder-and-low-responder-rats-reveals-baseline-cocaine-and-novelty-evoked-differences-in-monoaminergic-systems
#18
Omar S Mabrouk, John L Han, Jenny-Marie T Wong, Huda Akil, Robert T Kennedy, Shelly B Flagel
Relative to bred low-responder (bLR) rats, bred high-responder (bHR) rats have an exaggerated locomotor response to a novel environment, are more risk-taking, more impulsive, and more likely to exhibit compulsive drug-seeking behaviors. These phenotypic differences in addiction-related behaviors and temperament have previously been associated with differences in neurotransmitter signaling, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. In the current study, we applied advanced in vivo microdialysis sampling in the nucleus accumbens of bHRs/bLRs to assess differences in basal and stimulated neurochemical efflux more broadly...
November 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160614/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-clinical-considerations-for-women
#19
REVIEW
Marisa E Marraccini, Lisa L Weyandt, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Danielle R Oster, Alison McCallum
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Women with ADHD represent a particularly vulnerable group, given their increased risk for psychosocial and parenting difficulties. Women's health care clinicians should expect to encounter women with diagnosed and undiagnosed ADHD that may or may not be treated. Pharmacologic intervention, namely, prescription stimulants, is an important consideration for pregnant and breastfeeding women with ADHD, especially because the US Food and Drug Administration has determined that there is not enough information to confirm either harm or lack of harm to the developing fetus following exposure to these drugs...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159857/methylphenidate-for-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Nancy Sturman, Laura Deckx, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently present with inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, which are the cardinal symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The effectiveness of methylphenidate, a commonly used ADHD treatment, is therefore of interest in these children. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of methylphenidate for symptoms of ADHD (inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity) and ASD (impairments in social interaction and communication, and repetitive, restricted or stereotypical behaviours) in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years with ASD...
November 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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