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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743164/decisions-to-attend-and-drink-at-party-events-the-effects-of-incentives-and-disincentives-and-lifetime-alcohol-and-antisocial-problems
#1
Peter R Finn, Kyle Gerst, Allison Lake, Tim Bogg
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are associated with patterns of impulsive/risky decision making on behavioral economic decision tasks, but little is known about the factors affecting drinking-related decisions. METHODS: The effects of incentives and disincentives to attend and drink at hypothetical alcohol-related party events as a function of lifetime (LT) alcohol and antisocial problems were examined in a sample of 434 young adults who varied widely in LT alcohol and antisocial problems...
July 25, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743040/prenatal-exposure-to-organophosphorus-pesticides-and-childhood-neurodevelopmental-phenotypes
#2
Melissa A Furlong, Amy Herring, Jessie P Buckley, Barbara D Goldman, Julie L Daniels, Lawrence S Engel, Mary S Wolff, Jia Chen, Jim Wetmur, Dana Boyd Barr, Stephanie M Engel
Prenatal exposure to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) has been associated with different neurodevelopmental outcomes across different cohorts. A phenotypic approach may address some of these differences by incorporating information across scales and accounting for the complex correlational structure of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Additionally, Bayesian hierarchical modeling can account for confounding by collinear co-exposures. We use this framework to examine associations between prenatal exposure to OPs and behavior, executive functioning, and IQ assessed at age 6-9 years in a cohort of 404 mother/infant pairs recruited during pregnancy...
July 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742414/neural-correlates-of-depressive-symptoms-in-smokers-a-systematic-review-of-imaging-studies
#3
Michele de Oliveira Gonzalez, Anna E Goudriaan, Cíntia de Azevedo-Marques Périco, Marcela Waisman Campos, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, Dinesh Bhugra, João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia
This review aims to summarize neuroimaging studies in order to better understand the neural correlates of depressive symptoms in tobacco smokers. Using the keywords "depressive OR depression" AND "tobacco OR nicotine OR smok(*) OR cigarette" AND "neuroimage OR magnetic resonance OR smri OR structural magnetic resonance OR fmri OR functional magnetic resonance OR pet OR positron emission tomography", literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and PsycINFO databases. The first and the last author read the abstracts of all the studies found in the search (n = 179)...
July 25, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742277/the-immediate-and-short-term-effects-of-real-time-knee-adduction-moment-feedback-on-the-peak-and-cumulative-knee-load-during-walking
#4
Brennan Jackson, Keith E Gordon, Alison H Chang
The peak external knee adduction moment (pKAM), KAM impulse, and peak knee flexion moment (pKFM) during gait are important loading variables in medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. We evaluated the effects of gait modification, using real-time pKAM visual feedback, on pKAM, KAM impulse, and pKFM; and whether participants could maintain the KAM-reducing gait after feedback removal. Eleven healthy individuals performed a series of walking trials on a split-belt instrumented treadmill under 4 conditions of Baseline, Feedback, No Feedback Early, and No Feedback Late...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742115/mind-wandering-during-attention-performance-effects-of-adhd-inattention-symptomatology-negative-mood-ruminative-response-style-and-working-memory-capacity
#5
Lisa M Jonkman, C Rob Markus, Michael S Franklin, Jens H van Dalfsen
OBJECTIVE: In adulthood, depressive mood is often comorbid with ADHD, but its role in ADHD-inattentiveness and especially relations with mind wandering remains to be elucidated. This study investigated the effects of laboratory-induced dysphoric mood on task-unrelated mind wandering and its consequences on cognitive task performance in college students with high (n = 46) or low (n = 44) ADHD-Inattention symptomatology and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity symptoms in the normal range. METHODS: These non-clinical high/low ADHD-Inattention symptom groups underwent negative or positive mood induction after which mind wandering frequency was measured in a sustained attention (SART), and a reading task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742052/a-semi-analytical-model-of-time-reversal-cavity-for-high-amplitude-focused-ultrasound-applications
#6
Justine Robin, Mickael Tanter, Mathieu Pernot
Time reversal cavities (TRC) have been proposed as an efficient approach for 3D ultrasound therapy. They indeed allow precise spatio-temporal focusing of high power ultrasound pulses within a large region of interest with a low number of transducers. Leaky TRCs are usually built by placing a multiple scattering medium such as a random rods forest in a reverberating cavity, and the final peak pressure gain of the device only depends on the temporal length of its impulse response. Such multiple scattering in a reverberating cavity is a complex phenomenon, and the optimization of the device's gain is usually a cumbersome process, mostly empirical, and requiring numerical simulations with extremely long computational times...
July 25, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741623/effects-of-suvorexant-a-dual-orexin-hypocretin-receptor-antagonist-on-impulsive-behavior-associated-with-cocaine
#7
Taylor A Gentile, Steven J Simmons, Mia N Watson, Krista L Connelly, Eugen Brailoiu, Yanan Zhang, John W Muschamp
Hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) peptides mediate arousal, attention, and reward processing. Fibers containing orexins project to brain structures that govern motivated behavior, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA). A number of psychiatric conditions, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders, are characterized by deficits in impulse control, however the relationship between orexin and impulsive behavior is incompletely characterized. The effects of systemic or centrally administered orexin receptor (OXR) antagonists on measures of impulsive-like behavior in rats were evaluated using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and delay discounting procedures...
July 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741403/comparative-study-between-the-caloric-vestibular-and-the-video-head-impulse-tests-in-unilateral-meni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#8
Jonathan Andrés Cordero-Yanza, Edna Verónica Arrieta Vázquez, Juan Carlos Hernaiz Leonardo, Jimena Mancera Sánchez, Mario Sabas Hernández Palestina, Nicolás Pérez-Fernández
OBJECTIVE: Compare the caloric vestibular test (CVT) and the video head impulse test (vHIT) in the evaluation of Meniere's disease (MD) and to analyze their diagnostic accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of CVT and vHIT performed in MD patients at a tertiary care referral center in Spain. RESULTS: A total of 88 patients were reviewed. The CVT was abnormal in 67% (n = 59) of patients, while the vHIT was abnormal in 66% (n = 58) of them...
July 25, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741291/is-personality-associated-with-secondhand-harm-from-drinking
#9
Parnell Davis MacNevin, Kara Thompson, Michael Teehan, Heather Stuart, Sherry Stewart
BACKGROUND: Prior research suggests more than 70% of undergraduates have experienced harm from other students' drinking. This study built on the literature by, first, investigating whether secondhand harm cluster into latent factors that reflect distinct but related types of harm. Second, given the paucity of research examining factors that increase students' vulnerability to secondhand harm, we examined dimensions from Castellanos-Ryan and Conrod's 4-factor personality model for alcohol disorders (impulsivity [IMP], sensation seeking [SS], hopelessness [HOP], anxiety sensitivity [AS]) as predictors of secondhand harm exposure...
July 24, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741044/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-asenapine-compared-with-olanzapine-in-borderline-personality-disorder-an-open-label-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Paola Bozzatello, Paola Rocca, Maria Uscinska, Silvio Bellino
BACKGROUND: Asenapine is a new second-generation antipsychotic that is understudied in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Only one study investigating the use of the drug in this indication (an open-label pilot study) has been conducted to date. OBJECTIVE: The present open-label, randomized, controlled trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of asenapine in comparison with olanzapine, the most broadly studied antipsychotic in BPD. METHODS: A total of 51 outpatients aged between 18 and 50 years with a diagnosis of BPD based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria were assigned for 12 weeks to asenapine (5-10 mg/day) or olanzapine (5-10 mg/day)...
July 24, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741032/elevated-alcohol-consumption-following-alcohol-cue-exposure-is-partially-mediated-by-reduced-inhibitory-control-and-increased-craving
#11
Matt Field, Andrew Jones
RATIONALE: Exposure to alcohol-related cues leads to increased alcohol consumption, and this may be partially attributable to momentarily impaired impulse control. OBJECTIVES: We investigated if exposure to alcohol cues would impair inhibitory control and if the extent of this impairment would partially mediate the effect of alcohol cues on subsequent voluntary alcohol consumption. METHODS: We recruited 81 heavy drinkers (50 female) who completed baseline measures of inhibitory control (stop-signal task) and subjective craving before random allocation to an alcohol cue exposure or control group...
July 25, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740854/clinical-implications-of-oscillatory-lung-function-during-methacholine-bronchoprovocation-testing-of-preschool-children
#12
Sun Hee Choi, Youn Ho Sheen, Mi Ae Kim, Ji Hyeon Baek, Hey Sung Baek, Seung Jin Lee, Jung Won Yoon, Yeong Ho Rha, Man Yong Han
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the repeatability and safety of measuring impulse oscillation system (IOS) parameters and the point of wheezing during bronchoprovocation testing of preschool children. METHODS: Two sets of methacholine challenge were conducted in 36 asthma children. The test was discontinued if there was a significant change in reactance (Xrs5) and resistance (Rrs5) at 5 Hz (Condition 1) or respiratory distress due to airway obstruction (Condition 2)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739730/comparison-of-different-muscle-relaxant-anesthetics-on-growth-migration-and-invasion-of-gastric-cancer-cells
#13
Aihua Jiang, Huishan Zhao, Xiaofei Liu, Mingwei Yu, Jian Chen, Wen G Jiang
BACKGROUND/AIM: Muscle relaxants, also known as neuromuscular blocking agents, can block nerve impulses to the muscles and are always used in surgery for general anesthesia. However, the effect of muscle-relaxant anesthetics on cell activity in gastric cancer is currently unknown. The present study aimed to examine and compare the role of three different muscle-relaxant anesthetics in gastric cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gastric cancer cells (SGC7901 and BGC 823) were treated with a different dose of muscle-relaxant anesthetics, Rocuronium bromide (Rb), Vecuronium bromide (Vb) and Cisatracurium Besilate (CB)...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739098/effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-energy-homeostasis
#14
REVIEW
Wei Li, Denis Richard
Bariatric surgery represents the most efficient therapy for severe obesity. It reduces the size of fat stores or the amount of body fat gain. The bariatric surgery procedures currently used include Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy, which are the most commonly performed procedures. Other procedures are laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and biliopancreatic diversion. The latter represents the most effective surgery for treatment of severe obesity as well as type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery reduces energy intake by restricting the size of the stomach reservoir and causing malabsorption, as in the case of biliopancreatic diversion...
August 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738850/brain-biomarkers-and-pre-injury-cognition-are-associated-with-long-term-cognitive-outcome-in-children-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Amy A Wilkinson, Maureen Dennis, Nevena Simic, Margot J Taylor, Benjamin R Morgan, Helena Frndova, Karen Choong, Craig Campbell, Douglas Fraser, Vicki Anderson, Anne-Marie Guerguerian, Russell Schachar, Jamie Hutchison
BACKGROUND: Children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are frequently at risk of long-term impairments of attention and executive functioning but these problems are difficult to predict. Although deficits have been reported to vary with injury severity, age at injury and sex, prognostication of outcome remains imperfect at a patient-specific level. The objective of this proof of principle study was to evaluate a variety of patient variables, along with six brain-specific and inflammatory serum protein biomarkers, as predictors of long-term cognitive outcome following paediatric TBI...
July 24, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738266/adhd-symptoms-impact-smoking-outcomes-and-withdrawal-in-response-to-varenicline-treatment-for-smoking-cessation
#16
L Cinnamon Bidwell, Hollis C Karoly, Kent E Hutchison, Angela D Bryan
INTRODUCTION: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with nicotine dependence and difficulty quitting smoking. Few cessation trials specifically consider the impact of ADHD on treatment outcomes, including those testing established pharmacological therapies, such as varenicline. METHODS: The current study focused on the impact of pretreatment ADHD inattention (IN) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms on treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial of varenicline [N=205, average age=34...
July 18, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738097/impact-of-obsessive-compulsive-personality-disorder-symptoms-in-internet-users
#17
Samuelon R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Dan J Stein, Christine Lochner, Jon E Grant
BACKGROUND: Internet use is pervasive in many cultures. Little is known about the impact of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) symptoms on impulsive and compulsive psychopathologies in people who use the Internet. METHODS: Adult Internet users (N = 1,323) completed an online questionnaire quantifying OCPD symptoms, likely occurrence of select mental disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], problematic Internet use, generalized anxiety disorder), and personality questionnaires of impulsivity and compulsivity...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736339/tfos-dews-ii-pain-and-sensation-report
#18
REVIEW
Carlos Belmonte, Jason J Nichols, Stephanie M Cox, James A Brock, Carolyn G Begley, David A Bereiter, Darlene A Dartt, Anat Galor, Pedram Hamrah, Jason J Ivanusic, Deborah S Jacobs, Nancy A McNamara, Mark I Rosenblatt, Fiona Stapleton, James S Wolffsohn
Pain associated to mechanical and chemical irritation of the eye surface is mediated by trigeminal ganglia mechano- and polymodal nociceptor neurons while cold thermoreceptors detect wetness and reflexly maintain basal tear production and blinking rate. These neurons project into two regions of the trigeminal brain stem nuclear complex: ViVc, activated by changes in the moisture of the ocular surface and VcC1, mediating sensory-discriminative aspects of ocular pain and reflex blinking. ViVc ocular neurons project to brain regions that control lacrimation and spontaneous blinking and to the sensory thalamus...
May 4, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735645/psychiatric-consultation-in-the-collaborative-care-model-the-bipolar-sieve-effect
#19
James R Phelps, James James
Around the world, psychiatrists are in exceptionally short supply. The majority of mental health treatment is delivered in primary care. In the United States, the Collaborative Care Model (CCM) addresses the shortfall of psychiatrists by providing indirect consultation in primary care. A Cochrane meta-analysis affirms the efficacy this model for depression and anxiety. However, our experience with the CCM suggests that most patients referred for consultation have problems far more complex than simple depression and anxiety...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735336/acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-arfi-elastography-and-serological-markers-in-assessment-of-liver-fibrosis-and-free-portal-pressure-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b
#20
Jun Li, Jie Yu, Xin-Yu Peng, Ting-Ting Du, Jia-Jia Wang, Jin Tong, Gui-Lin Lu, Xiang-Wei Wu
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography, AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and FIB-4 in assessing liver fibrosis and free portal pressure in patients with hepatitis B. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 126 patients with hepatitis B who underwent liver surgery at the General Surgery Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Shihezi University Medical School from February 2013 to August 2015. Preoperatively, shear wave velocity (SWV) of the liver was measured with the Siemens S2000 ultrasound system to reflect liver stiffness...
July 23, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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