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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346785/impulsivity-and-saliva-cortisol-in-patients-with-suicide-attempt-and-controls
#1
Ute Lewitzka, Michael Bauer, Bettina Ripke, Thomas Bronisch, Lydia Günther
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to prove concepts in the characterization of suicidal patients and the possible usefulness of those markers to potentially identify patients with a higher risk for suicidality. METHODS: Patients with a recent suicide attempt were compared with patients suffering from depression, adjustment disorder, anxiety, or eating disorders without suicidality, healthy controls and remitted patients with a history of at least 1 suicide attempt (≥1 year)...
January 18, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346701/identifying-prevalence-and-characteristics-of-behavioral-health-education-in-family-medicine-clerkships-a-cera-study
#2
Mario P DeMarco, Renée M Betancourt, Kelly M Everard, Kent D W Bream
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many patients with behavioral health disorders do not seek or receive adequate care for their conditions. Among those that do, most will receive care in a primary care setting. To best meet this need, clinicians will need to demonstrate proficiency of behavioral health skills and evidence-based practices. We sought to explore the degree to which these skills are being taught in family medicine clerkships. METHODS: The Council of Academic Family Medicine's (CAFM) Educational Research Alliance (CERA) 2016 survey of clerkship directors (CDs) was sent to 141 CDs at US and Canadian medical schools with a required family medicine run course...
January 2018: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346213/self-esteem-and-anger-in-borderline-patients-with-self-injury-behavior
#3
Carla Maria Almeida, Maria Purificação Horta
Anger and low self-esteem characterize borderline individuals, yet little is known about their role and impact in the presence or absence of self-injury behavior. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of anger and self-esteem in borderline patients and whether these variables distinguish these patients with and without self-injury. Patients were recruited from a psychiatric service and were evaluated for self-esteem and anger. Additionally, impulsivity and symptoms were assessed. Two groups were compared, one with self-injurious behavior (n = 18) and another one without it (n = 23)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345542/effects-of-late-night-training-on-slow-wave-sleep-episode-and-hour-by-hour-derived-nocturnal-cardiac-autonomic-activity-in-female-soccer-players
#4
Júlio A Costa, João Brito, Fábio Y Nakamura, Eduardo M Oliveira, António N Rebelo
PURPOSE: To assess the sensitivity of nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) monitoring methods to the effects of late-night soccer training sessions in female athletes. METHODS: Eleven female soccer players competing in the 1st division of the Portuguese soccer league wore HR monitors during night-sleep throughout a one-week competitive in-season microcycle, after late-night training sessions (n = 3) and rest days (n = 3). HRV was analyzed through "slow-wave sleep episode" (SWSE; 10 min duration) and "hour-by-hour" (all the RR intervals recorded throughout the hours of sleep)...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343456/eeg-dynamics-and-neural-generators-in-implicit-navigational-image-processing-in-adults-with-adhd
#5
A Leroy, G Petit, D Zarka, A M Cebolla, E Palmero-Soler, J Strul, B Dan, P Verbanck, G Cheron
In contrast to childhood ADHD that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, most adults with ADHD predominantly exhibit inattention. We used a new oddball paradigm using implicit navigational images and analysed EEG dynamics with swLORETA inverse modelling of the evoked potential generators to study cortical processing in adults with ADHD and age-matched controls. In passive observation, we demonstrated that P350 amplitude, alpha-beta oscillation event-related synchronization (ERS) anticipation, and beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) were significantly smaller in ADHD...
January 14, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343228/problematic-internet-use-and-psychiatric-co-morbidity-in-a-population-of-japanese-adult-psychiatric-patients
#6
Hille T de Vries, Takashi Nakamae, Kenji Fukui, Damiaan Denys, Jin Narumoto
BACKGROUND: Many studies reported the high prevalence of problematic internet use (PIU) among adolescents (13-50%), and PIU was associated with various psychiatric symptoms. In contrast, only a few studies investigated the prevalence among the adult population (6%). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of PIU and psychiatric co-morbidity among adult psychiatric patients. METHODS: Three hundred thirty-three adult psychiatric patients were recruited over a 3-month period...
January 17, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342222/mechano-electric-feedback-effects-in-a-three-dimensional-3d-model-of-the-contracting-cardiac-ventricle
#7
Ani Amar, Sharon Zlochiver, Ofer Barnea
Mechano-electric feedback affects the electrophysiological and mechanical function of the heart and the cellular, tissue, and organ properties. To determine the main factors that contribute to this effect, this study investigated the changes in the action potential characteristics of the ventricle during contraction. A model of stretch-activated channels was incorporated into a three-dimensional multiscale model of the contracting ventricle to assess the effect of different preload lengths on the electrophysiological behavior...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342022/association-between-altered-hip-extension-and-kinetic-gait-variables
#8
Elizabeth C Wonsetler, Ellie L Miller, Katherine L Huey, Sarah E Frye, Mark G Bowden
Kinematic and kinetic outcome measures are tightly linked in walking. Although altering motor output is a major goal of gait rehabilitation, little is understood regarding the relationship between altering a single kinematic variable and kinetic outcome changes. We designed a strategy to isolate hip extension alterations during walking on a treadmill to assess the change in kinetic outcomes. Ten healthy individuals walked on an instrumented split-belt treadmill with motion capture to calculate hip extension and kinetic outcomes at the following five different randomized cadences: self-selected cadence, self-selected ± 10%, and self-selected ± 20%...
February 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341214/cue-reactivity-habituation-and-eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-in-children-with-loss-of-control-eating-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Anja Hilbert, Susanne Kurz, Daniela Dremmel, Susann Weihrauch Blüher, Simone Munsch, Ricarda Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: Childhood loss of control (LOC) eating and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid conditions and present with disordered eating behaviors, such as overeating. This study sought to delineate shared and specific abnormalities in physiological, cognitive-motivational, and behavioral components of food-specific impulsivity in children with LOC eating and ADHD. Specifically, children's reactivity and habituation to food and eating in the absence of hunger were examined...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341203/food-specific-inhibitory-control-under-negative-mood-in-binge-eating-disorder-evidence-from-a-multimethod-approach
#10
Elisabeth J Leehr, Kathrin Schag, Thomas Dresler, Moritz Grosse-Wentrup, Martin Hautzinger, Andreas J Fallgatter, Stephan Zipfel, Katrin E Giel, Ann-Christine Ehlis
OBJECTIVE: Inhibitory control has been discussed as a developmental and maintenance factor in binge-eating disorder (BED). The current study is the first aimed at investigating inhibitory control in a negative mood condition on a psychophysiological and behavioral level in BED with a combination of electroencephalography (EEG) and eye tracking (ET). METHOD: We conducted a combined EEG and ET study with overweight individuals with BED (BED+, n = 24, mean age = 31, mean BMI = 35 kg/m2 ) and without BED (BED-, n = 23, mean age = 28, mean BMI = 35 kg/m2 ) and a normal-weight (NWC, n = 26, mean age 28, mean BMI = 22 kg/m2 ) control group...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341113/prospective-emotion-enables-episodic-prospection-to-shift-time-preference
#11
Shunmin Zhang, Juan Peng, LingLing Qin, Tao Suo, Tingyong Feng
The episodic effect suggests that episodic prospection (imagining future events) can effectively reduce time discounting, the propensity to discount the value of delayed rewards relative to immediate ones. However, less clear is how episodic prospection modulates time preference. As engagement in episodic prospection usually evokes prospective emotions, it was proposed that episodic prospection might work by inducing prospective emotions. Although one previous study has attempted to provide evidence to the emotional account of the episodic effect, shortcomings in its experimental design make its conclusion questionable...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338494/neural-correlates-of-response-inhibition-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-during-acute-vs-remitted-phase
#12
Juliane Kopf, Stefan Glöckner, Martin Schecklmann, Thomas Dresler, Michael M Plichta, Julia Veeh, Sarah Kittel-Schneider, Andreas Reif
OBJECTIVE: Elevated behavioral impulsivity has been shown to be a core feature of bipolar disorder. However, no study has so far investigated impulsivity-related brain activation in patients with BD during acute vs. remitted phase. To address the question whether elevated behavioural impulsivity and its differential neural pathways is a state or trait marker of BD, we employed a combined stop-signal-go/nogo task in 30 controls, 37 depressed and 15 remitted patients who were retested. METHODS: Frontal brain activation was recorded using near-infrared spectroscopy...
January 17, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337891/modeling-of-dynamic-behavior-of-carbon-fiber-reinforced-polymer-cfrp-composite-under-x-ray-radiation
#13
Kun Zhang, Wenhui Tang, Kunkun Fu
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have been increasingly used in spacecraft applications. Spacecraft may encounter highenergy-density X-ray radiation in outer space that can cause severe damage. To protect spacecraft from such unexpected damage, it is essential to predict the dynamic behavior of CFRP composites under X-ray radiation. In this study, we developed an in-house three-dimensional explicit finite element (FEM) code to investigate the dynamic responses of CFRP composite under X-ray radiation for the first time, by incorporating a modified PUFF equation-of-state...
January 16, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337585/narrative-theory-ii-self-generated-and-experimenter-provided-negative-income-shock-narratives-increase-delay-discounting
#14
Alexandra M Mellis, Sarah E Snider, Warren K Bickel
Reading experimenter-provided narratives of negative income shock has been previously demonstrated to increase impulsivity, as measured by discounting of delayed rewards. We hypothesized that writing these narratives would potentiate their effects of negative income shock on decision-making more than simply reading them. In the current study, 193 cigarette-smoking individuals from Amazon Mechanical Turk were assigned to either read an experimenter-provided narrative or self-generate a narrative describing either the negative income shock of job loss or a neutral condition of job transfer...
January 15, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337234/electrophysiological-activity-prior-to-self-initiated-movements-is-related-to-impulsive-personality-traits
#15
A Rossi, F Giovannelli, G Gavazzi, S Righi, M Cincotta, M P Viggiano
Electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies suggest that our actions are initiated by unconscious mental processes long before awareness of intention to act. The time window between the awareness of the intention to move and the movement onset, which normally permits to exert a conscious "veto" on the impending action, is modulated by individual differences in trait impulsivity. In particular, trait impulsive people show a delayed awareness of the intention to act, probably exceeding the "point of no return", after which the action can no longer be inhibited...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336775/neural-correlates-of-emotional-action-control-in-anger-prone-women-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#16
Katja Bertsch, Karin Roelofs, Paul Jonathan Roch, Bo Ma, Saskia Hensel, Sabine C Herpertz, Inge Volman
BACKGROUND: Difficulty in controlling emotional impulses is a crucial component of borderline personality disorder (BPD) that often leads to destructive, impulsive behaviours against others. In line with recent findings in aggressive individuals, deficits in prefrontal amygdala coupling during emotional action control may account for these symptoms. METHODS: To study the neurobiological correlates of altered emotional action control in individuals with BPD, we asked medication-free, anger-prone, female patients with BPD and age- and intelligence-matched healthy women to take part in an approach-avoidance task while lying in an MRI scanner...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336774/altered-cortical-thickness-and-attentional-deficits-in-adolescent-girls-and-women-with-bulimia-nervosa
#17
Laura A Berner, Mihaela Stefan, Seonjoo Lee, Zhishun Wang, Kate Terranova, Evelyn Attia, Rachel Marsh
BACKGROUND: Frontostriatal and frontoparietal abnormalities likely contribute to deficits in control and attentional processes in individuals with bulimia nervosa and to the persistence of dysregulated eating across development. This study assessed these processes and cortical thickness in a large sample of adolescent girls and women with bulimia nervosa compared with healthy controls. METHODS: We collected anatomical MRI data from adolescent girls and women (ages 12-38 yr) with full or subthreshold bulimia nervosa and age-matched healthy controls who also completed the Conners Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336136/international-clinical-protocol-on-vestibular-disorders-dizziness
#18
Kostiantyn Trinus, Claus-Frenz Claussen
26-28 May at 43 Congress of Neurootological and Equilibriometric Society (Budapest, Hungary) International Clinical Protocol on Vestibular Disorders (Dizziness) being discussed and accepted as Consensus Document. Cochrane reports estimates that dizziness has prevalence of 22.9% in the last 12 months and an incidence of 3.1%. Only 1.8% of adults consulted a physician in the last 12 months. Cochrane reviews suggest that the evidence base for dizziness evaluation is weak, thus necessitates the creation of evidence-based document...
December 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334675/effects-of-running-retraining-on-biomechanical-factors-associated-with-lower-limb-injury
#19
Marcus D Dunn, David B Claxton, Graham Fletcher, Jonathan S Wheat, David M Binney
Injury risk is an important concern for runners; however, limited evidence exists regarding changes to injury risk following running style retraining. Biomechanical factors, such as absolute peak free moment, knee abduction impulse, peak foot eversion and foot eversion excursion, have been shown to predict lower limb injury. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Pose running retraining on biomechanical factors associated with lower limb running injury. Twenty uninjured recreational runners were pair-matched based on their five km run time performance and randomly assigned to control (n = 10) and intervention (three 2-h Pose running retraining sessions) groups (n = 10)...
January 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332255/profiling-attention-and-cognition-enhancing-drugs-in-a-rat-touchscreen-based-continuous-performance-test
#20
Zhiyong Ding, Jordan W Brown, Lynne E Rueter, Eric G Mohler
RATIONALE: A novel rodent continuous performance test (CPT) was developed as one of the goals of the NEWMEDS (Novel Methods leading to New Medications in Depression and Schizophrenia) consortium to improve its translatability to the CPT test used in human subjects. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of attention and cognition enhancing drugs in rodent CPT. METHODS: A single cohort of rats were trained to asymptotic performance in the test...
January 13, 2018: Psychopharmacology
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