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Marta Leszko
Menopause is a physiological process related to the increasing insufficiency of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian axis. The pool of ovarian follicles capable of synthesizing female sex hormones becomes gradually depleted. In response to the sequence of endocrine changes of premenopause, perimenopause, and postmenopause, systemic somatic and emotional disturbances appear. Skin is the target organ for sex hormones. In women, the trophicity and appearance of the skin are most significantly affected by female sex hormones, estrogens and progesterone...
October 2014: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
Shaun A Tauck, Jesse R Olsen, Jarrod R C Wilkinson, Riley J Wedlake, Kathleen C Davis, James G Berardinelli
BACKGROUND: The physiological mechanism by which bulls stimulate resumption of ovarian cycling activity in postpartum, anovular, suckled cows after calving may involve the concurrent activation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian (HPO) axis and hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, the objectives of this experiment were to determine if characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH) in postpartum, anovular, beef cows are influenced by acute exposure to bulls...
2010: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
A Caraty, I Franceschini, G E Hoffman
The identification of the neural mechanisms controlling ovulation in mammals has long been a 'holy grail' over recent decades, although the recent discovery of the kisspeptin systems has totally changed our views on this subject. Kisspeptin cells are the major link between gonadal steroids and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones. In the female rodent, kisspeptin cells of the preoptic area are involved in the positive-feedback action of oestrogen on GnRH secretion, although the picture appears more complicated in the ewe...
July 2010: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
K A Tokhunts
The aim of the article was the recovery of fertility and realization of reproductive function of women with body mass deficiency (BMD). Thirty seven patients with normogonadotropic ovary deficiency caused by body mass deficiency (12-15% of normal value) underwent pathogenetic treatment, starting from the disorder of hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian system. Pathogenetic therapy was directed to compensate body mass deficit. Hormonal replacement therapy aimed to restore the negative feedback. Compensation of body mass (5-7%) increases the efficiency of hormonal replacement therapy by 16% on average, while the total compensation of the deficiency is manifested in 68% cases of recovery...
April 2007: Georgian Medical News
J D Armstrong, N M Cox, J H Britt
Lactating primiparous sows were used to examine relationships among hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), serum, and anterior pituitary gonadotropins and follicular development after weaning or after administering GnRH pulses (1.5 ug) once hourly for 72 h before weaning. Control sows were either slaughtered at 0 or 72 h after weaning or were cannulated for collection of blood samples until 24 h after estrus. Sows pulsed with GnRH were either slaughtered 72 h after beginning of GnRH treatment or were cannulated for collection of blood samples until 24 h after estrus...
March 1987: Theriogenology
Paolo N Catalano, María Marta Bonaventura, Patricia Silveyra, Bernhard Bettler, Carlos Libertun, Victoria A Lux-Lantos
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been implicated in the control of hypophyseal functions. We evaluated whether the constitutive loss of functional GABA(B) receptors in GABA(B1) knockout (GABA(B1)(-/-)) mice alters hormonal levels, under basal and stimulated conditions, and reproductive function. The serum hormone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay, the estrous cyclicity was evaluated by vaginal lavages, and the mating behavior was determined by the presence of vaginal plugs. A moderate hyperprolactinemic condition was observed, in which prolactin increase and thyroid-stimulating hormone decrease were similar between genotypes...
2005: Neuroendocrinology
Camil Castelo-Branco, Maria Jesús Cancelo, Jose Villero, Francisco Nohales, Maria Dolores Juliá
The involution of the female genital tract seems to reflect a built-in biological life expectancy, inter-related with the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian axis. Lower levels of oestradiol have a number of adverse effects, including on the lower urinary tract. The major universal change is vaginal atrophy. The vaginal mucosa becomes thinner and dry, which can produce vaginal discomfort, dryness, burning, itching, and dyspareunia. The vaginal epithelium may become inflamed, contributing to urinary symptoms such as frequency, urgency, dysuria, incontinence, and/or recurrent infections...
November 15, 2005: Maturitas
H E Miettinen, H Rayburn, M Krieger
Mammalian female fertility depends on complex interactions between the ovary and the extraovarian environment (e.g., the hypothalamic-hypophyseal ovarian axis). The role of plasma lipoproteins in fertility was examined using HDL-receptor SR-BI knockout (KO) mice. SR-BI KO females have abnormal HDLs, ovulate dysfunctional oocytes, and are infertile. Fertility was restored when the structure and/or quantity of abnormal HDL was altered by inactivating the apoAI gene or administering the cholesterol-lowering drug probucol...
December 2001: Journal of Clinical Investigation
C M Telleria, M R Mezzadri, R P Deis
Accumulated evidence indicates that the antigestagen mifepristone affects the reproductive axis acting on hypothalamic, pituitary, ovarian, and uterine tissues. The purpose of this study was to further investigate which reproductive functions are impaired by the antagonist, critically compromising the reproductive process, leading to unsuccessful pregnancy. Circulating pituitary and ovarian hormones, sexual receptivity, ovulation, and implantation rates were studied in cycling rats receiving a single dose of mifepristone (1 or 10 mg/kg subcutaneously) at 12:00 proestrus, before luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulation of the ovulatory process...
October 1997: Contraception
D Marchesoni, B Mozzanega, D Paternoster, T Maggino
After considering the postmenopausal variations in the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian feed-back system, the Authors review the medical literature about ovarian and adrenal contribution to postmenopausal steroidogenesis. Comparisons are made between postmenopausal sex-hormone levels in controls and in endometrial cancer affected patients; estradiol is given the main attention: its higher level in cancer patients seems closely related to their higher mean weight; indeed, no estradiol level difference is found between patients and controls correctly matched as to the body weight...
1981: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
G P Koreneva, F V Shikaeva
L-DOPA effect on the level of dopamine, hypophyseal luteinizing hormone and total estrogen excretion was studied in the treatment of patients with the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome. The data obtained show positive L-DOPA effect on hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian relationships in the majority of patients that makes it useful in therapeutic practice. The short-term course of L-DOPA administration combined with systematic studies of dopamine and hypophyseal luteinizing hormone excretion may be recommended as a functional test for differential diagnosis of central menstrual dysfunction...
1980: Problemy E̊ndokrinologii
O P Modnikov
Radioimmunoassay of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian interrelationships was performed in 87 patients with cervical cancer and 37 practically healthy women. The patients were examined before concomitant radiation therapy, after administration of the half dose to the focus, immediately after irradiation and 3-12 mos. and 2-5 yrs. after it. The basal level of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol as well as their response to the administration of the releasing factor of the hypothalamus (luliberin) were studied...
August 1984: Meditsinskaia Radiologiia
J I Mechanick, W Futterweit
We hypothesize that the Stein-Leventhal syndrome (type 1 polycystic ovarian disease: SLS-PCOD-I) results from an aberrant puberty. Abnormal neural development in the brain decreases the hypophyseal set-point for negative and positive ovarian hormone feedback. This generates a condition whereby hypophyseal luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion is inappropriately elevated compared to hypophyseal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion and is thus termed inappropriate gonadotropin secretion (IGS). The events which create an initial state of IGS are referred to as the "generator" stage...
1984: International Journal of Fertility
V G Garzo, J Liu, A Ulmann, E Baulieu, S S Yen
The impact of the antiprogesterone RU486 [17 beta-hydroxy-11 beta-(4-dimethylaminophenyl) 17 alpha-(1-propynyl)estra- 4,9-dien-3-one] on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian-endometrial axis was examined in normal cycling women during the mid (MLP)- and late (LLP) luteal phases. During the MLP, 10 women received 3 mg/kg RU486 for 3 days. During the LLP, a single dose of 600 mg RU486 was administered to 4 women, and in another 4 women a single dose of 3 mg/kg was given during corpus luteum rescue by hCG. Longitudinal studies with daily and frequent blood samples (every 10 min for 10 h) were conducted during 3 consecutive cycles (control-treatment-recovery)...
March 1988: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
J D Ferguson, W Chalupa
In most but not all published studies, feeding diets with high concentrations of crude protein decreased reproductive efficiency. We were able to resolve some of the inconsistencies among published reports by considering the fate of consumed protein in the rumen and then using logistic regression analysis to identify factors affecting pregnancy. Our models showed that type and amount of protein fed explained much of the variation in conception rate. Age and dietary concentration of energy were identified as modifiers of the impact of protein on reproduction...
March 1989: Journal of Dairy Science
D Guémené, R J Etches
Changes in plasma levels of prolactin and LH, feed intake, water consumption, behavioural pattern and ovarian activity were recorded after oral administration of PCPA to broody turkey hens. A decrease in prolactin concentration was measured, from day 3, in 3 out of the 5 birds treated with 100 mg PCPA/kg body weight (BW) for 3 consecutive days. In these hens, broodiness was disrupted on day 6 and feeding activity subsequently increased to levels of photorefractory hens. Neither LH concentrations nor ovarian activity were affected after treatment with PCPA...
1989: Reproduction, Nutrition, Development
J Krzysiek, A Gregorczyk
Computerized tomography (CT) of the sella turcica was performed in 106 women with hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian hypofunction, aged from 15 to 50 years. In each patient we evaluated tomographically hypophyseal volume and subarachnoid space cistern invaginated into the sella turcica. We analysed statistically the incidence of amenorrhea, infertility, obesity and arterial hypertension in five groups of patients classified according to hypophyseal volume i.e. from below 100 to over 400 mm3. Is was found that hypophyseal volume of women in the so-called empty sella turcica that could correlate significantly with obesity and arterial hypertension was up to about 200 mm3, and in case of amenorrhea and infertility below 100 mm3...
1990: Przegla̧d Lekarski
J D Armstrong, R L Stanko, W S Cohick, R B Simpson, R W Harvey, B G Huff, D R Clemmons, M D Whitacre, R M Campbell, E P Heimer
We have utilized active immunization against growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) to investigate relationships among somatotropin (ST), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) and ovarian function in heifers. Active immunization against GRF (GRFi) has been demonstrated to abolish episodic release of ST and decrease serum concentrations of IGF-I. In initial experiments investigating onset of puberty, breeds of heifers differing in growth rate and reproductive traits (Angus, Charolais and Simmental) were immunized against GRF or served as controls (immunized against carrier protein, human serum albumin, HSAi)...
December 1992: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
S A Tillson, M Marian, R Hudson, P Wong, B Pharriss, R Aznar, J Martinez-Manautou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1975: Contraception
L Carenza, M Ermini, A Pala, G Benagiano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1976: Patologia e Clinica Ostetrica e Ginecologica
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