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Andrea Miccoli, Ike Olivotto, Andrea De Felice, Iole Leonori, Oliana Carnevali
The European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, a member of the Clupeiformes order, holds a great biological and economical importance. In the past, this species was mostly investigated with the aim of assessing its reproductive biology, trophic ecology, population dynamics and the relations existing with the physical environment. At present days, though, an almost complete lack of information afflicts its neuroendocrinology and reproductive physiology. The hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal (HPG) axis at its highest levels was herein investigated...
September 20, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Jean-François Bonneville
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is currently considered a major keystone of the diagnosis of diseases of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal region. However, the relatively small size of the pituitary gland, its location deep at the skull base and the numerous physiological variants present in this area impede the precise assessment of the anatomical structures and, particularly, of the pituitary gland itself. The diagnosis of the often tiny lesions of this region--such as pituitary microadenomas--is then difficult if the MRI technology is not optimized and if potential artifacts and traps are not recognized...
2016: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Santiago Elías Charif, Pablo Ignacio Felipe Inserra, Noelia Paula Di Giorgio, Alejandro Raúl Schmidt, Victoria Lux-Lantos, Alfredo Daniel Vitullo, Verónica Berta Dorfman
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the regulator of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) axis. GnRH and GAP (GnRH-associated protein) are both encoded by a single preprohormone. Different variants of GnRH have been described. In most mammals, GnRH is secreted in a pulsatile manner that stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The South-American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus, is a rodent with peculiar reproductive features including natural poly-ovulation up to 800 oocytes per estrous cycle, pre-ovulatory follicle formation throughout pregnancy and an ovulatory process which takes place at mid-gestation and adds a considerable number of secondary corpora lutea...
June 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Mohammad Saied Salehi, Amin Tamadon, Mohammad Reza Jafarzadeh Shirazi, Mohammad Reza Namavar, Mohammad Javad Zamiri
Until 2000 it was believed that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was the sole regulator of hypophyseal gonadotropes. In 2000, the discovery of a gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) initiated a revolution in the field of reproductive physiology. Identification of GnIH homologues in mammals, the arginine-phenylalanine-amide (RFamide)-related peptides (RFRPs), indicated a similar function. Subsequently, further works conducted in various laboratories worldwide have shown that these neuropeptides inhibit the hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis...
October 2015: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
Marta Leszko
Menopause is a physiological process related to the increasing insufficiency of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian axis. The pool of ovarian follicles capable of synthesizing female sex hormones becomes gradually depleted. In response to the sequence of endocrine changes of premenopause, perimenopause, and postmenopause, systemic somatic and emotional disturbances appear. Skin is the target organ for sex hormones. In women, the trophicity and appearance of the skin are most significantly affected by female sex hormones, estrogens and progesterone...
October 2014: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
Michaela Fredrich, Elmar Christ, Amin Derouiche, Horst-Werner Korf
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cell proliferation and apoptosis are known to adjust neuroendocrine circuits to the photoperiod. The latter is communicated by melatonin, the hormone secreted by the pineal organ. The present study investigated time of day-dependent changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis in the adult murine neuroendocrine system and their regulation by melatonin. METHODS: Adult melatonin-proficient (C3H/HeN) and melatonin-deficient (C57Bl/6J) mice, as well as melatonin-proficient (C3H/HeN) mice with targeted deletion of both melatonin receptor types (MT1 and MT2) were adapted to a 12h light, 12h dark photoperiod and were sacrificed at Zeitgeber times ZT00, ZT06, ZT12 and ZT18...
May 29, 2015: Neuroendocrinology
Rui Wen, Shenqiang Hu, Qihai Xiao, Chunchun Han, Chao Gan, Hua Gou, Hehe Liu, Liang Li, Hengyong Xu, Hua He, Jiwen Wang
Leptin was known as a pivotal regulator for the control of food intake and energy expenditure. However, leptin has also been found to be involved in the regulation of female reproductive system through interactions with pathways in the hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis and direct action at the ovarian level. In the present study, granulosa cells from goose ovarian preovulatory (F1-F3) follicles were cultured with leptin (0, 1, 10 or 100ng/ml). The proliferative and anti-apoptotic actions of leptin in granulosa cells were revealed by CCK-8, BrdU and TUNEL assays...
May 2015: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Mark A Babizhayev, Yegor E Yegorov
Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones are major neuroendocrine regulators of human body metabolism being driven directly to the anterior pituitary gland via hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins. The alternative physiological or therapeutic interventions utilizing the pharmaco-nutritional boost of imidazole-containing dipeptides (non-hydrolized oral form of carnosine, carcinine, N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops) can maintain health, enhance physical exercise performance and prevent ageing. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is synthesized in mammalian skeletal muscle...
2015: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
A Ali, M Alamaary, F Al-Sobayil
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of the Arab mares in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS: Managers of 26 studfarms containing 1014 Arab mares at five districts were asked to complete a questionnaire on the reproductive efficiency of their mares. RESULTS: The mean age at first mating was 3.06 ± 0.5 years. Mares were mated equally in winter and all over the year. Natural mating was mostly used (76...
2014: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Eda Demir Onal, Muhammed Sacikara, Fatma Saglam, Reyhan Ersoy, Bekir Cakir
Cushing's syndrome (CS) may alter the performance of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-thyroid axis. We searched for a relationship between hypercortisolism and primary thyroid disorders. The medical records of 40 patients with CS were retrospectively examined. Thyroid ultrasonography (USG), basal thyroid function test results (TFT), and antithyroglobulin and antithyroperoxidase antibodies were analyzed. In 80 control subjects, matched by age and gender with CS patients, thyroid USG, TFTs, and autoantibody panel were obtained...
2014: International Journal of Endocrinology
Verónica Berta Dorfman, Lucía Saucedo, Noelia Paula Di Giorgio, Pablo Ignacio Felipe Inserra, Nicolás Fraunhoffer, Noelia Paola Leopardo, Julia Halperín, Victoria Lux-Lantos, Alfredo Daniel Vitullo
In mammals, elevated levels of progesterone (P4) throughout gestation maintain a negative feedback over the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal (H-H-G) axis, avoiding preovulatory follicular growth and preventing ovulation. Recent studies showed that in the South American plains vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus) folliculogenesis progresses to preovulatory stages during gestation, and an ovulatory process seems to occur at midgestation. The aim of this work was to analyze hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and P4 receptors (PR) expression and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and correlate these with the functional state of the ovary in nonovulating and ovulating females and gestating females with special emphasis in the supposedly ovulating females at midgestation...
November 2013: Biology of Reproduction
Juan J Corrales, María Almeida, Mar Cordero, Lourdes Martín-Martín, Cristina Méndez, José M Miralles, Alberto Orfao
BACKGROUND: The effect of male hypogonadism on the immune response is poorly understood, even though testosterone has both immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects in men. DESIGN: In this study, we compared the distribution and functional status of peripheral blood (PB) monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) [CD16(+) (monocytoid), CD33(+) (myeloid) and CD33(-) (plasmacytoid)] and CD4(+) CD25(+)CD127(-/lo) regulatory T cells from hypogonadic men and control subjects...
November 2012: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Antonio Bellastella, Antonio Bizzarro, Caterina Colella, Giuseppe Bellastella, Antonio A Sinisi, Annamaria De Bellis
Subclinical central diabetes insipidus (CDI) can be the outcome of a number of diseases that affect the hypothalamus-infundibulum-post hypophysis axis. One of the most common forms of subclinical CDI is linked to an autoimmune pathogenesis even if other causes may be also responsible. Among these, pregnancy, traumatic and surgical brain injury and some infiltrative, vascular, infectious and neoplastic diseases have been reported with increasing frequency. The natural history of autoimmune CDI seems to evolve through 4 functional stages according to the presence of antibodies to vasopressin-secreting cells (AVPcAb) and the relationship between their behavior overtime, the variations of posterior pituitary function and the characteristics of hypothalamic-hypophyseal region on magnetic resonance imaging...
August 2012: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
E Desroziers, M Droguerre, A H Bentsen, V Robert, J D Mikkelsen, A Caraty, Y Tillet, A Duittoz, I Franceschini
Kisspeptins, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, play a key role in the regulation of reproductive function, although very little is known about the ontogenesis of this system. The present study aimed to determine the period of arcuate nucleus (ARC) kisspeptin cell birth and the embryonic stage and neuroanatomical sites of onset of kisspeptin immunoreactivity. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered to female rats at various gestational stages and double immunohistochemistry against kisspeptin and BrdU was performed on brain sections from their offspring...
October 2012: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Loredana Assisi, Simona Tafuri, Giovanna Liguori, Salvatore Paino, Luigi Michele Pavone, Norma Staiano, Alfredo Vittoria
Orexins (OxA and OxB) and their receptors (Ox1R and Ox2R), originally detected in the hypothalamus, have also been localized in multiple cerebral areas and peripheral organs. Thus, in addition to their central function in the regulation of food intake, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, sleep/wake cycle, sexual behaviour, arousal, and hypothalamic/hypophyseal axis, these neuropeptides may exert a local action in various peripheral organs and tissues. Emerging evidence suggests a main role of OxA and its highly specific receptor Ox1R in the male genital tract of mammals...
June 2012: Cell and Tissue Research
Cesar A Meza-Herrera, Luis C Hernández-Valenzuela, Antonio González-Bulnes, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Jose Abad-Zavaleta, Homero Salinas-Gonzalez, Miguel Mellado, Francisco Veliz-Deras
The effect of betacarotene (BC) supplementation on the onset of puberty and serum insulin levels in goats was evaluated in the study. In June, prepuberal goats (n=17; 3 months old; 7/8 Saanen-Alpine; 26° NL) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1/ betacarotene group supplemented daily with 50 mg of BC (n=9; live weight [LW]: 17.3±1.0 kg; body condition score [BCS]: 3.34±0.12) or 2/ control group (CONT; n=8; LW:16.1±1.0 kg; BCS=3.17±0.12). From June to November, an intermittent blood sampling was performed twice per week in both groups to evaluate serum progesterone (P(4)), while monthly samples were intended for insulin (INS) determination...
November 2011: Reproductive Biology
Vincenzo De Leo, Maria Concetta Musacchio, Alessandra Di Sabatino, Claudia Tosti, Giuseppe Morgante, Felice Petraglia
Pharmacological ovarian stimulation has a major role in reproductive medicine and has been used in anovulatory patients and in the induction of multifollicular development required for the procedures of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Currently, gonadotropins are the most important tools to proceed with ovarian stimulation for all purposes, including ART and anovulation disorders, like hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hypothalamic hypophyseal dysfunction. Gonadotropin preparations derived from human urine have been used clinically since the early 1960s and the first urine-derived preparation containing only FSH (urofollitropin) became available in 1983...
March 2012: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Marco Calogero Amato, Monica Verghi, Aldo Galluzzo, Carla Giordano
BACKGROUND: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) frequently exhibit central obesity, glucose intolerance, atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertension, which are characteristic features of a condition of cardiometabolic risk. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between visceral adiposity index (VAI) and phenotypic characteristics in women with PCOS. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional case-control study in our Endocrinology Outpatients Clinic...
June 2011: Human Reproduction
Shaun A Tauck, Jesse R Olsen, Jarrod R C Wilkinson, Riley J Wedlake, Kathleen C Davis, James G Berardinelli
BACKGROUND: The physiological mechanism by which bulls stimulate resumption of ovarian cycling activity in postpartum, anovular, suckled cows after calving may involve the concurrent activation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian (HPO) axis and hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, the objectives of this experiment were to determine if characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH) in postpartum, anovular, beef cows are influenced by acute exposure to bulls...
2010: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Simona Tafuri, Roberta Lo Muto, Luigi Michele Pavone, Salvatore Valiante, Anna Costagliola, Norma Staiano, Alfredo Vittoria
The hypothalamic peptides orexin A (OXA) and orexin B (OXB), deriving from the proteolytic cleavage of the precursor molecule prepro-orexin, have also been localized in multiple cerebral areas and peripheral organs. They regulate food intake, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, sleep/wake cycle, sexual behavior, arousal, and the hypothalamic/hypophyseal axes. Prepro-orexin mRNA expression and OXA-immunoreactivity were previously detected in the rat testis at different ages of postnatal development, with strong peptide signal in Leydig cells and spermatocytes...
September 24, 2010: Regulatory Peptides
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