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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339992/effects-of-passive-and-active-rest-on-physiological-responses-and-time-motion-characteristics-in-different-small-sided-soccer-games
#1
Ersan Arslan, Utku Alemdaroglu, Yusuf Koklu, Tahir Hazir, Surhat Muniroglu, Baris Karakoc
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resting regimes on physiological responses and time motion characteristics between bouts during small sided games (SSGs) in young soccer players. Sixteen players (average age 16.87 ± 0.34 years; body height 176.69 ± 3.21 cm; body mass 62.40 ± 2.59 kg; training experience 3.75 ± 0.44 years) performed four bouts 2-a-side, 3-a-side and 4-a-side games with three minutes active (SSGar: Running at 70% of HRmax) and passive (SSGpr) rest between bouts at two-day intervals...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332730/biomechanical-factors-associated-with-running-economy-and-performance-of-elite-kenyan-distance-runners-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Nassib Tawa, Quinette Louw
BACKGROUND: Running economy (RE) is a determinant of performance in endurance sports and is a complex multi-factorial measure which reflects the combined functioning of bio-mechanical, neuro-muscular, metabolic and cardio-respiratory factors some of which are hereditary or adapt to coaching. Kenyan distance runners have dominated major global events with their unmatched performance for decades and this phenomenon has prompted several investigations aimed at establishing possible factors associated with their performance...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298672/no-association-between-actn3-r577x-and-ace-i-d-polymorphisms-and-endurance-running-times-in-698-caucasian-athletes
#3
Ioannis D Papadimitriou, Sarah J Lockey, Sarah Voisin, Adam J Herbert, Fleur Garton, Peter J Houweling, Pawel Cieszczyk, Agnieszka Maciejewska-Skrendo, Marek Sawczuk, Myosotis Massidda, Carla Maria Calò, Irina V Astratenkova, Anastasia Kouvatsi, Anastasiya M Druzhevskaya, Macsue Jacques, Ildus I Ahmetov, Georgina K Stebbings, Shane Heffernan, Stephen H Day, Robert Erskine, Charles Pedlar, Courtney Kipps, Kathryn N North, Alun G Williams, Nir Eynon
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating associations between ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D genotypes and endurance athletic status have been limited by small sample sizes from mixed sport disciplines and lack quantitative measures of performance. AIM: To examine the association between ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D genotypes and best personal running times in a large homogeneous cohort of endurance runners. METHODS: We collected a total of 1064 personal best 1500, 3000, 5000 m and marathon running times of 698 male and female Caucasian endurance athletes from six countries (Australia, Greece, Italy, Poland, Russia and UK)...
January 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287284/potential-relationship-between-passive-plantar-flexor-stiffness-and-running-performance
#4
Hiromasa Ueno, Tadashi Suga, Kenji Takao, Takahiro Tanaka, Jun Misaki, Yuto Miyake, Akinori Nagano, Tadao Isaka
The present study aimed to determine the relationship between passive stiffness of the plantar flexors and running performance in endurance runners. Forty-eight well-trained male endurance runners and 24 untrained male control subjects participated in this study. Plantar flexor stiffness during passive dorsiflexion was calculated from the slope of the linear portion of the torque-angle curve. Of the endurance runners included in the present study, running economy in 28 endurance runners was evaluated by measuring energy cost during three 4-min trials (14, 16, and 18 km/h) of submaximal treadmill running...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284237/effect-of-3-year-education-in-the-main-fire-service-school-on-the-fitness-level-of-students
#5
Andrzej Tomczak, Jerzy Bertrandt, Anna Kłos, Wiesława Szymańska, Wanda Stankiewicz
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine changes in the fitness level among students of the Main Fire Service School during 3-year's education. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 75 male and 5 female students took part in the study. Fitness level measurements were carried out before beginning the studies (Measurement 0) and after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd years at the school (Measurement 1, 2, 3). The following tests were performed to estimate level of physical fitness for men: pull-ups on a bar, a 50 m sprint and 1,000 m run, and for women: sit-ups, medical ball (2 kg) throw from above the head and a 4 x10 m shuttle run...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251084/further-evidence-for-an-external-focus-of-attention-in-running-looking-at-specific-focus-instructions-and-individual-differences
#6
Antje Hill, Linda Schücker, Norbert Hagemann, Bernd Strauß
Although attentional focusing in sports has been broadly investigated, the findings vary when it comes to endurance sports. This study provides a comparison between relevant foci in the literature of running economy. These include two internal foci-one addressing automated processes (running movement) and the other nonautomated processes (internal body signals and perceived exertion), an external focus (video) and a control condition. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of interoceptive sensitivity on oxygen consumption within the different attention conditions...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248664/focal-fibrosis-in-the-endurance%C3%A2-athlete-s%C3%A2-heart-running-scarred-or-running-scared
#7
EDITORIAL
Aaron L Baggish
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246972/increased-capillary-tortuosity-and-pericapillary-basement-membrane-thinning-in-skeletal-muscle-of-mice-undergoing-running-wheel-training
#8
Oliver Baum, Carole Sollberger, Andrea Raaflaub, Adolfo Odriozola, Gunnar Spohr, Sebastian Frese, Stefan A Tschanz
To work out which microvascular remodeling processes occur in murine skeletal muscle during endurance exercise, we subjected C57BL/6-mice to voluntary running wheel training for 1 week (1wk-t) or 6 weeks (6wks-t). By means of morphometry, the capillarity as well as the compartmental and sub-compartmental structure of the capillaries were quantitatively described at the light microscopy and at the electron microscopy level, respectively, in the plantaris muscle (PLNT) of the exercising mice in comparison to untrained littermates...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242309/physiological-differences-between-a-noncontinuous-and-a-continuous-endurance-training-protocol-in-recreational-runners-and-metabolic-demand-prediction
#9
Muhammad J Ali, Balasekaran Govindasamay, Hoon Kay Hiang, Gerald Seet Gim Lee
This study investigated the physiological difference in recreational runners between a noncontinuous and a continuous endurance training protocol. It also aimed to determine physiological surrogate that could monitor metabolic demand of prolonged running in real-time. For data collection, a total of 18 active male recreational runners were recruited. Physiological (HR, RR, RER, ṼO2, BLa), and overall perceptual (RPEO) responses were recorded against three designed test sessions. Session 1 included ṼO2submax test to determine critical speed (CS) at anaerobic threshold (AT)...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234915/the-impact-of-exertional-heat-stress-on-gastrointestinal-integrity-gastrointestinal-symptoms-systemic-endotoxin-and-cytokine-profile
#10
Rhiannon M J Snipe, Anthony Khoo, Cecilia M Kitic, Peter R Gibson, Ricardo J S Costa
PURPOSE: The study aimed to determine the effects of exertional-heat stress on gastrointestinal integrity, symptoms, systemic endotoxin and inflammatory responses; and assess the relationship between changes in body temperature and gastrointestinal perturbations. METHODS: Ten endurance runners completed 2 h running at 60% [Formula: see text]O2max in hot (HOT: 35 °C) and temperate (TEMP: 22 °C)-ambient conditions. Rectal temperature (T re) and gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded every 10 min during exercise...
December 12, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232314/postexercise-fructose-maltodextrin-ingestion-enhances-subsequent-endurance-capacity
#11
Ed Maunder, Tim Podlogar, Gareth A Wallis
PURPOSE: Restoring skeletal muscle and hepatic glycogen content during short-term (<6 h) recovery from prolonged exercise is pertinent for athletes seeking to maximize performance in repeated exercise bouts. Previous research suggests co-ingestion of fructose-glucose carbohydrate sources augments hepatic and has equivalent effects on skeletal muscle glycogen storage during short-term recovery from prolonged exercise compared to isocaloric glucose ingestion. The aim of the present investigation was to determine if this has a discernible effect on subsequent exercise capacity...
December 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225311/inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-by-antioxidant-supplementation-does-not-limit-muscle-mitochondrial-biogenesis-or-endurance-capacity-in-rats
#12
Jae Cheol Kim, Gi Duck Park, Sang Hyun Kim
The objective of the present study was to analyze the activation and expression patterns of upstream and downstream factors of PGC-1α to determine whether antioxidant (AO) supplementation inhibits mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscles as an adaptation to endurance training, as well as to analyze changes in endurance capacity based on such findings. For this objective, 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were allocated into 4 groups (vehicle-sedentary, V-Sed; vehicle-exercise, V-EX; antioxidant-sedentary, AO-Sed; antioxidant-exercise, AO-EX) of 6 rats each...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207976/demographic-differences-in-and-correlates-of-perceived-body-image-discrepancy-among-urban-adolescent-girls-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Lorraine B Robbins, Jiying Ling, Kenneth Resnicow
BACKGROUND: Understanding factors related to girls' body image discrepancy, which is the difference between self-perceived current or actual and ideal body size, is important for addressing body-related issues and preventing adverse sequelae. Two aims were to: 1) examine demographic differences in body image discrepancy; and 2) determine the association of body image discrepancy with weight status, percent body fat, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and cardiovascular (CV) fitness among young adolescent girls...
December 6, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203714/exercise-heat-shock-proteins-and-insulin-resistance
#14
REVIEW
Ashley E Archer, Alex T Von Schulze, Paige C Geiger
Best known as chaperones, heat shock proteins (HSPs) also have roles in cell signalling and regulation of metabolism. Rodent studies demonstrate that heat treatment, transgenic overexpression and pharmacological induction of HSP72 prevent high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Overexpression of skeletal muscle HSP72 in mice has been shown to increase endurance running capacity nearly twofold and increase mitochondrial content by 50%. A positive correlation between HSP72 mRNA expression and mitochondrial enzyme activity has been observed in human skeletal muscle, and HSP72 expression is markedly decreased in skeletal muscle of insulin resistant and type 2 diabetic patients...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199781/velocity-distribution-of-women-s-30-km-cross-country-skiing-during-olympic-games-from-2002-2014
#15
Wlodzimierz S Erdmann, Dorota Dancewicz-Nosko, Vasilios Giovanis
BACKGROUND: Within several investigated endurance sport disciplines the distribution of load of the best competitors has a manner of evenly or slightly rising velocity values. Unfortunately many other competitors have usually diminishing values or when they are very poor they have evenly values. The aim of this study was to investigate distribution of velocity within 30-km cross-country female skiers. METHODS: Cross-country skiing runs were investigated of Olympic Games 2002-2014 (Salt Lake City, Turin, Vancouver, Sochi)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190850/mri-cartilage-assessment-of-the-subtalar-and-midtarsal-joints-during-a-transcontinental-ultramarathon-new-insights-into-human-locomotion
#16
Uwe Hans-Werner Schütz, Christian Billich, Daniel Schoss, Meinrad Beer, Jutta Ellermann
MR measurements can be accurately performed during 4486 km of running, opening a window into in vivo assessment of hindfoot articular cartilage under extreme ultra-endurance loading. This observational cross-sectional study included 22 randomized participants of TransEurope FootRace between Italy and the North Cape, which was accompanied by a trailer-mounted 1.5T MRI scanner over 9 weeks. Four follow up MR examinations of subtalar and midtarsal joints were performed. Statistics of cartilage T2*  and thickness were obtained...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181259/injury-patterns-in-adolescent-elite-endurance-athletes-participating-in-running-orienteering-and-cross-country-skiing
#17
Philip von Rosen, Frida Floström, Anna Frohm, Annette Heijne
Background: Prospective injury registration studies, monitoring adolescent elite athletes, are sparse in running, orienteering and cross-country skiing, yet essential for developing prevention programs. Purpose: The aims of this study were to describe the injury prevalence/incidence, severity grade, injury location, risk factors and the prevalence of illness in running (RU), orienteering (OR) and cross-country skiing athletes (CR). Study Design: Prospective cohort study...
October 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176383/effect-of-jump-interval-training-on-kinematics-of-the-lower-limbs-and-running-economy
#18
Jonathan Ache-Dias, Juliano Dal Pupo, Rodolfo A Dellagrana, Anderson S Teixeira, Luis Mochizuki, Antônio R P Moro
This study analyzed the effects of the addition of jump interval training (JIT) to continuous endurance training (40-min running at 70% of peak aerobic velocity, three times per week for four weeks) on kinematic variables and running economy (RE) during submaximal constant-load running. Eighteen recreational runners, randomized into control (CG) or experimental (EG) groups performed the endurance training. In addition, the EG performed the JIT twice per week, which consisted of four to six bouts of continuous vertical jumping (30s) with five-minute intervals...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175865/longitudinal-analysis-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-profile-in-neighbourhood-poverty-subgroups-5-year-results-from-an-afterschool-fitness-programme-in-the-usa
#19
REVIEW
Emily M D'Agostino, Hersila H Patel, Eric Hansen, M Sunil Mathew, Maria Nardi, Sarah E Messiah
BACKGROUND: The WHO calls for affordable population-based prevention strategies for reducing the global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) on morbidity and mortality; however, effective, sustainable and accessible community-based approaches for CVD prevention in at-risk youth have yet to be identified. We examined the effects of implementing a daily park-based afterschool fitness programme on youth CVD risk profiles over 5 years and across area poverty subgroups. METHODS: The study included 2264 youth (mean age 9...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164325/effects-of-recreational-football-on-women-s-fitness-and-health-adaptations-and-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Peter Krustrup, Eva Wulff Helge, Peter R Hansen, Per Aagaard, Marie Hagman, Morten B Randers, Maysa de Sousa, Magni Mohr
The review describes the fitness and health effects of recreational football in women aged 18-65 years. The review documents that 2 × 1 h of recreational football training for 12-16 weeks causes marked improvements in maximal oxygen uptake (5-15%) and myocardial function in women. Moreover, mean arterial blood pressure was shown to decrease by 2-5 mmHg in normotensive women and 6-8 mmHg in hypertensive women. This review also show that short-term (< 4 months) and medium-term (4-16 months) recreational football training has major beneficial impact on metabolic health profile in women, with fat losses of 1-3 kg and improvements in blood lipid profile...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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