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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075653/serum-creatine-kinase-elevations-in-ultramarathon-runners-at-high-altitude
#1
Danielle Magrini, Morteza Khodaee, Inigo San Millan, Tamara Hew-Butler, Aaron J Provance
OBJECTIVES: Creatine kinase (CK) is a sensitive enzyme marker for muscle damage in athletes. Elevated CK levels have been reported in many endurance physical activities. The consequence and possible long-term sequela of the CK elevation in athletes is unknown. There is a paucity of literature stating actual numerical values of CK associated with competing in an ultramarathon with extreme environmental conditions. Our hypothesis was that the serum CK levels increase significantly as a result of running a 161km ultramarathon at high altitude...
January 11, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064026/systematic-review-of-field-based-physical-fitness-tests-for-children-and-adolescents-with-intellectual-disabilities
#2
REVIEW
Marieke Wouters, Heleen M Evenhuis, Thessa I M Hilgenkamp
BACKGROUND: Testing physical fitness in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) can be challenging. This review provides an overview on psychometric properties of field-based physical fitness tests studied in children and adolescents with ID. METHODS: A literature search was performed in March 2014. Studies were included if they evaluated feasibility, reliability and/or validity of a field-based physical fitness test in children and adolescents with ID...
January 5, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054492/match-running-performance-and-skill-execution-improves-with-age-but-not-the-number-of-disposals-in-young-australian-footballers
#3
Paul B Gastin, Christie Tangalos, Lorena Torres, Sam Robertson
This study investigated age-related differences in maturity, physical and functional characteristics and playing performance in youth Australian Football (AF). Young male players (n = 156) were recruited from 12 teams across 6 age groups (U10-U15) of a recreational AF club. All players were tested for body size, maturity and fitness. Player performance was assessed during a match in which disposals (kicks and handballs) and their effectiveness were coded from a video recording and match running performance measured using Global Positioning System...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039190/endurance-training-attenuates-the-increase-in-peripheral-chemoreflex-sensitivity-with-intermittent-hypoxia
#4
Amanda J Miller, Charity L Sauder, Aimee E Cauffman, Cheryl A Blaha, Urs A Leuenberger
Patients with heart failure and sleep apnea have greater chemoreflex sensitivity, presumably due to intermittent hypoxia (IH), and this is predictive of mortality. We hypothesized that endurance training would attenuate the effect of IH on peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity in healthy humans. Fifteen young healthy subjects (9 female, 26 ± 1 years) participated. Between visits, 11 subjects underwent eight weeks of endurance training that included running four times/week at 80% predicted max heart rate and interval training, and 4 control subjects did not change activity...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039074/caffeine-stimulates-voluntary-wheel-running-in-mice-without-increasing-aerobic-capacity
#5
Gerald C Claghorn, Zoe Thompson, Kristianna Wi, Lindsay Van, Theodore Garland
The "energy drink" Red Bull and the "sports drink" Gatorade are often marketed to athletes, with claims that they cause performance gains. However, both are high in sugars, and also consumed by non-athletes. Few studies have addressed the effects of these drinks or their biologically active components in rodent exercise models. We used three experiments to test effects on both voluntary exercise behavior and maximal aerobic capacity in lines of mice known to differ in "athletic" traits. Mice from four replicate High Runner (HR) lines have been selectively bred for voluntary running on wheels, and run approximately three times as many revolutions per day as do mice from four non-selected Control (C) lines...
December 28, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031763/evolution-of-determinant-factors-of-repeated-sprint-ability
#6
Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Luis Suarez-Arrones, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Manuel López-Segovia, Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, Beatriz Bachero-Mena, Juan José González-Badillo
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the relationships between repeated sprint ability (RSA) and anthropometric measures as well as fitness qualities in soccer players. Twenty-one professional soccer players performed several anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement vertical jumps (CMJs), a straight-line 30 m sprint (T30), an RSA test (6 x 20 + 20 m with 20 s recovery), a progressive isoinertial loading test in a full squat, a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level-1 (YYIRT-1) and a 20 m shuttle run test (20mSRT)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028816/physiological-limits-to-endurance-exercise-performance-influence-of-sex
#7
Michael J Joyner
This brief review summarizes factors associated with elite endurance performance, trends in distance running training, and participation by men and more recently women. It is framed in the context of key ideas about the physiological determinants of endurance performance but also touches on some historical and sociological factors relevant to the overall topic. Historical trends that served to increase women's participation in elite endurance events are also discussed as is the role of increased volume and intensity of training...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018241/master-athletes-are-extending-the-limits-of-human-endurance
#8
REVIEW
Romuald Lepers, Paul J Stapley
The increased participation of master athletes (i.e., >40 years old) in endurance and ultra-endurance events (>6 h duration) over the past few decades has been accompanied by an improvement in their performances at a much faster rate than their younger counterparts. Aging does however result in a decrease in overall endurance performance. Such age-related declines in performance depend upon the modes of locomotion, event duration, and gender of the participant. For example, smaller age-related declines in cycling performance than in running and swimming have been documented...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018192/differences-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-young-adult-endurance-athletes-and-healthy-controls
#9
David A Raichlen, Pradyumna K Bharadwaj, Megan C Fitzhugh, Kari A Haws, Gabrielle-Ann Torre, Theodore P Trouard, Gene E Alexander
Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017505/endurance-training-induced-changes-in-the-gh-igf-i-axis-influence-maximal-muscle-strength-in-previously-untrained-men
#10
Marcin Grandys, Joanna Majerczak, Piotr Kuczek, Krystyna Sztefko, Krzysztof Duda, Jerzy A Zoladz
OBJECTIVE: In this study we have determined the effects of 20weeks of endurance running training on the GH-IGF-I axis changes in the context of the skeletal muscle performance and physical capacity level. DESIGN: Before and after the endurance training program a maximal incremental exercise tests, a 1500m race and a muscle strength measurements were performed and the blood samples were taken to determine both resting as well as end-exercise serum growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth hormone-I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth hormone binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations...
December 15, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013058/leg-compressions-improve-ventilatory-efficiency-while-reducing-peak-and-post-exercise-blood-lactate-but-does-not-improve-perceived-exertion-exercise-economy-or-aerobic-exercise-capacity-in-endurance-trained-runners
#11
Eric Rivas, John D Smith, Nestor W Sherman
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine if leg compressions would alter cardiorespiratory and perceived exertion measures during rest, submaximal and maximal exercise in endurance-trained runners. METHOD: Thirteen young, endurance trained runners (10 males, 20.9±3y, 58.9±5.7mlkgmin(-1)) completed a randomized design, leg compressions and non-compression control condition. The incremental graded exercise test consisted of baseline rest and submaximal intensities at 23%, 70%, 75%, 85% and then a progressive increase to 100% VO2max...
December 21, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012036/no-influence-of-ischemic-preconditioning-on-running-economy
#12
Gungeet Kaur, Megan Binger, Claire Evans, Tiffany Trachte, Gary P Van Guilder
PURPOSE: Many of the potential performance-enhancing properties of ischemic preconditioning suggest that the oxygen cost for a given endurance exercise workload will be reduced, thereby improving the economy of locomotion. The aim of this study was to identify whether ischemic preconditioning improves exercise economy in recreational runners. METHODS: A randomized sham-controlled crossover study was employed in which 18 adults (age 27 ± 7 years; BMI 24.6 ± 3 kg/m(2)) completed two, incremental submaximal (65-85% VO2max) treadmill running protocols (3 × 5 min stages from 7...
December 23, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009787/prevalence-of-exercise-induced-arterial-hypoxemia-in-distance-runners-at-sea-level
#13
Keren Constantini, David A Tanner, Timothy P Gavin, Craig A Harms, Joel M Stager, Robert F Chapman
PURPOSE: It has been reported that ~50% of endurance-trained men demonstrate exercise induced arterial oxyhemoglobin hypoxemia (EIAH) during heavy exercise. However, this often-cited prevalence rate comes from a single study using a cohort of 25 highly trained men who completed maximal cycle ergometry. As arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) during maximal exercise is reported to be significantly lower during treadmill vs. cycle ergometry in the same subjects, we hypothesized that the prevalence of EIAH would be greater than previously reported (and commonly referenced) in a larger cohort of highly endurance-trained men during maximal treadmill running...
December 22, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005637/effects-of-physical-training-and-fitness-on-running-injuries-in-physically-active-young-men
#14
Tyson L Grier, Michelle Canham-Chervak, Morgan K Anderson, Timothy T Bushman, Bruce H Jones
Grier, TL, Canham-Chervak, M, Anderson, MK, Bushman, TT, and Jones, BH. Effects of physical training and fitness on running injuries in physically active young men. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 207-216, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of physical training (PT) and fitness on risks for running-related injuries (RRIs) in physically active young men. Personal characteristics, PT, Army Physical Fitness Test scores, and injury data were obtained by survey. Army Physical Fitness Test variables (push-ups, sit-ups, and 2-mile run) were converted into quartiles (Q), where Q1 = lowest performance and Q4 = highest performance...
January 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000342/a-new-model-of-short-acceleration-based-training-improves-exercise-performance-in-old-mice
#15
R Niel, M Ayachi, L Mille-Hamard, L Le Moyec, P Savarin, M-J Clement, S Besse, T Launay, V L Billat, I Momken
In order to identify a more appealing exercise strategy for the elderly, we studied a mouse model to determine whether a less time-consuming training program would improve exercise performance, enzyme activities, mitochondrial respiration, and metabolomic parameters. We compared the effects of short-session (acceleration-based) training with those of long-session endurance training in 23-month-old mice. The short-session training consisted of five acceleration-based treadmill running sessions over 2 weeks (the acceleration group), whereas the endurance training consisted of five-one-hour treadmill sessions per week for 4 weeks (the endurance group)...
December 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999725/modifying-marching-technique-in-military-service-members-with-chronic-exertional-compartment-syndrome-a-case-series
#16
Pieter H Helmhout, Maj Angela Diebal-Lee, Laurens R Poelsma, Chris C Harts, Ltc Wes O Zimmermann
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The long-term effectiveness of both operative and non-operative management approaches for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the lower legs (CECS) is moderate at best. Positive outcomes have recently been reported on modifying running technique in individuals with CECS. The purpose of this case series was to evaluate a training program aimed at changing marching technique in individuals with CECS, based on principles that aim to eliminate heel strike and decrease impact during foot strike...
December 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996272/il-6-linkage-to-exercise-induced-shifts-in-lipid-related-metabolites-a-metabolomics-based-analysis
#17
David C Nieman, Wei Sha, Kirk L Pappan
Metabolomics profiling and bioinformatics technologies were used to determine the relationship between exercise-induced increases in IL-6 and lipid-related metabolites. Twenty-four male runners (age 36.5±1.8 y) ran on treadmills to exhaustion (2.26±0.01 h, 24.9±1.3 km, 69.7±1.9% VO2max). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsy and blood samples were collected before and immediately after running, and showed a 33.7±4.2% decrease in muscle glycogen, 39.0±8.8-, 2.4±0.3-, and 1.4±0.1-fold increases in plasma IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1, respectively, and 95...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990224/the-relationship-between-aerobic-and-anaerobic-performance-in-recreational-runners
#18
Zachary M Gillen, Frank B Wyatt, Jason B Winchester, Dalton A Smith, Vidhi Ghetia
Research has indicated that combined aerobic and anaerobic training (concurrent training) may improve aerobic performance greater than aerobic training alone. The purpose of this investigation was to establish any associations between aerobic and anaerobic performance. Eleven participants (n = 11, age = 34.1 ± 13 years, VO2max = 58.4 ± 7.8) volunteered for this study. Participants were asked for endurance training experience (4.7 ± 3.7 years) and resistance training experience (4.1 ± 4.6 years). To meet training status, participants were to have a VO2max in the 80(th) percentile as per ACSM guidelines...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981357/overexpression-of-protein-kinase-stk25-in-mice-exacerbates-ectopic-lipid-accumulation-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle
#19
Urszula Chursa, Esther Nuñez-Durán, Emmelie Cansby, Manoj Amrutkar, Silva Sütt, Marcus Ståhlman, Britt-Marie Olsson, Jan Borén, Maria E Johansson, Fredrik Bäckhed, Bengt R Johansson, Carina Sihlbom, Margit Mahlapuu
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Understanding the molecular networks controlling ectopic lipid deposition and insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle is essential for developing new strategies to treat type 2 diabetes. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a critical regulator of liver steatosis, hepatic lipid metabolism and whole body glucose and insulin homeostasis. Here, we assessed the role of STK25 in control of ectopic fat storage and insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle...
December 16, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957824/physical-fitness-level-affects-perception-of-chronic-stress-in-military-trainees
#20
Carolin Tuch, Thomas Teubel, Roberto La Marca, Lilian Roos, Hubert Annen, Thomas Wyss
This study investigated whether physical fitness affects the perception of chronic stress in military trainees while controlling for established factors influencing stress perception. The sample consisted of 273 men (20.23 ± 1.12 years, 73.56 ± 10.52 kg, 1.78 ± 0.06 m). Physical fitness was measured by progressive endurance run (maximum oxygen uptake; VO2 max), standing long jump, seated shot put, trunk muscle strength, and one leg standing test. Perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire in Weeks 1 and 11 of basic military training (BMT)...
December 13, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
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