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endurance running

Débora Finger, Fábio Juner Lanferdini, Juliano Boufleur Farinha, Clarissa Müller Brusco, Lucas Helal, Francesco Pinto Boeno, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Ronei Silveira Pinto
INTRODUCTION: Protein (PRO) combined with a carbohydrate (CHO) beverage may have an ergogenic effect on endurance performance. However, evidence regarding its efficacy on similar conditions to athletes' race day is still lacking. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of three different nutritional supplementation strategies on performance and muscle recovery in a duathlon protocol. METHODS: , 13 male athletes (29.7 ± 7.7 years) participated in three simulated Olympic-distance duathlons under three different, randomly assigned, supplementation regimens: carbohydrate drink (CHO, 75 g); isocaloric CHO plus protein drink (CHO+PRO, 60...
March 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Lilian Roos, Wolfgang Taube, Carolin Tuch, Klaus Michael Frei, Thomas Wyss
PURPOSE: Session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) is an often used measure to assess athletes' training load. However, little is known which factors could optimize the quality of data collection thereof. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of (i) the survey methods and (ii) the time points when sRPE was assessed on the correlation between subjective (sRPE) and objective (heart rate training impulse; TRIMP) assessment of training load. METHODS: In the first part, 45 well-trained subjects (30 men, 15 women) performed 20 running sessions with a heart rate monitor and reported sRPE 30 minutes after training cessation...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Timothy J H Lathlean, Paul B Gastin, Stuart Newstead, Caroline F Finch
Well-developed physical qualities such as high jumping ability, running endurance, acceleration and speed can help aspiring junior elite Australian football (AF) players transition to the Australian Football League competition. In order to do so, players need to experience sufficient load in order to enhance their physical resilience without increasing their risk of negative outcomes in terms of impaired wellness or injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in load for different levels of competition and training modes across one competitive season...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Irina Kramerova, Jorge A Torres, Ascia Eskin, Stanley F Nelson, Melissa J Spencer
Mutations in CAPN3 cause autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A. Calpain 3 (CAPN3) is a calcium dependent protease residing in the myofibrillar, cytosolic and triad fractions of skeletal muscle. At the triad, it colocalizes with calcium calmodulin kinase IIβ (CaMKIIβ). CAPN3 knock out mice (C3KO) show reduced triad integrity and blunted CaMKIIβ signaling, which correlates with impaired transcriptional activation of myofibrillar and oxidative metabolism genes in response to running exercise...
March 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Mahmoudreza Taghizadeh, Sajad Ahmadizad, Mahmood Naderi
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with thrombotic events due to platelets' defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of endurance training on expressions of platelet hsa-miR-223 and P2RY12 receptor, as well as platelet function in T2DM patients. METHODS: Twenty female T2DM patients (age, 62.25±3.81 yr; weight, 73.53±9.04 kg; height, 154.7±4.3 cm) were randomly divided into two groups (Control (CONT) and endurance training (ET))...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Amanda M Heapy, Martin D Hoffman, Heidie H Verhagen, Samuel W Thompson, Pavitra Dhamija, Fiona J Sandford, Mary C Cooper
Manual therapy (MT) and intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) are recovery methods used by endurance athletes with little evidence supporting effectiveness. This randomized controlled trial evaluated effectiveness of four daily post-race treatments of a specific MT protocol and IPC compared with supine rest on recovery following an ultramarathon among 56 ultramarathoners. Groups were comparable across all characteristics examined, including post-race plasma creatine kinase concentration. Subject completed timed 400 m runs before the race and on days three, five, seven and 14 post- race, and also provided muscle pain and soreness ratings and fatigue scores immediately before and after treatments, and during the 14 days post- race...
March 7, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Nicola Lovecchio, Matteo Zago
BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported negative association between fitness level and BMI categories but the lack of body weight correction and and the systematic use of physical endurance test made these differences controversial. Thus, the aim of this study was the assessment of physical fitness level associated to BMI using alternative tests. METHODS: BMI was calculated as body mass/stature2 while fitness level was assessed using field test. In particular, Sit and Reach (SAR), Standing Broad Jump (SBJ), Shuttle Run Test 5mx 10 (SHR), Sit ups (SUP), Bent arm hang (BAH) were assessed in 2545 students...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Sidney Abou Sawan, Stephan van Vliet, Justin T Parel, Joseph W Beals, Michael Mazzulla, Daniel W D West, Andrew Philp, Zhong Li, Scott A Paluska, Nicholas A Burd, Daniel R Moore
Translocation and colocalization of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) with regulatory proteins represents a critical step in translation initiation of protein synthesis in vitro. However, mechanistic insight into the control of postprandial skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates at rest and after an acute bout of endurance exercise in humans is lacking. In crossover trials, eight endurance-trained men received primed-continuous infusions of L-[ring-2 H5 ]phenylalanine and consumed a mixed-macronutrient meal (18 g protein, 60 g carbohydrates, 17 g fat) at rest (REST) and after 60 min of treadmill running at 70% VO2peak (EX)...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Emi Yuda, Yoshifumi Moriyama, Toshihiko Mori, Yutaka Yoshida, Makoto Kawahara, Junichiro Hayano
Nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) is thought to reflect healthy recovery function of the autonomic nervous system. Although exercise is recommended for health promotion, exercise itself decreases HRV. We studied acute effect of daytime exercise on nocturnal HRV in 5 healthy adults (age, 22-40 years; 2 female subjects) without regular exercise habit. Using a treadmill, they performed 30-min walking at 4 km/hr and 30-min running at 9 km/hr from 11 a.m. on different days at an interval of 2 weeks. On these days and a day without exercise (control), Holter electrocardiograms were recorded from 9 a...
February 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Christoph Zinner, Daniela Schäfer Olstad, Billy Sperlich
PURPOSE: The aim was to compare mesocycles with progressively increasing workloads and varied training intensity distribution (TID), i.e. high-intensity (HIGH, > 4 mmol·L blood lactate), low-intensity (LOW, < 2 mmol·L blood lactate) or a combination of HIGH and LOW (referred to as "polarized", POL) on 5000-m running time and key components of endurance performance in recreational runners. METHODS: Forty-two runners (peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak): 45...
March 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Quan Jin, Chunping Qiao, Jianbin Li, Juan Li, Xiao Xiao
Growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11; BMP11) is a circulating cytokine in the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily. Treatment with recombinant GDF11 (rGDF11) protein has previously been shown to reverse skeletal muscle dysfunction in aged mice. However, the actions of GDF11 in skeletal muscle are still not fully understood. Because GDF11 activates the TGF-β-SMAD2/3 pathway, we hypothesized that GDF11 overexpression would inhibit skeletal muscle growth. To test this hypothesis, we generated recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors harboring the gene for either human GDF11 (AAV9-GDF11) or human IgG1 Fc-fused GDF11 propeptide (AAV9-GDF11Pro-Fc-1) to study the effects of GDF11 overexpression or blockade on skeletal muscle growth and function in vivo...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Krisztina Marosi, Keelin Moehl, Ignacio Navas-Enamorado, Sarah J Mitchell, Yongqing Zhang, Elin Lehrmann, Miguel A Aon, Sonia Cortassa, Kevin G Becker, Mark P Mattson
Evolutionary considerations suggest that the body has been optimized to perform at a high level in the food-deprived state when fatty acids and their ketone metabolites are a major fuel source for muscle cells. Because controlled food deprivation in laboratory animals and intermittent energy restriction in humans is a potent physiologic stimulus for ketosis, we designed a study to determine the impact of intermittent food deprivation during endurance training on performance and to elucidate the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms...
February 27, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
D C Deeming, G Mayr
Numerous new fossils have driven an interest in reproduction of early birds but direct evidence remains elusive. No Mesozoic avian eggs can be unambiguously assigned to a species, which hampers our understanding of the evolution of contact incubation, which is a defining feature of extant birds. Compared to living species eggs of Mesozoic birds are relatively small, but whether the eggs of Mesozoic birds could actually have borne the weight of a breeding adult has not yet been investigated. We estimated maximal egg breadth for a range of Mesozoic avian taxa from the width of the pelvic canal defined by the pubic symphysis...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Ryota Kobayashi, Soichiro Iwanuma, Nobuyuki Ohashi, Takeo Hashiguchi
Arterial velocity pulse index (AVI) and arterial pressure-volume index (API), new indicators of arterial stiffness, are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Regular aerobic exercise decreases arterial stiffness. In fact, pulse wave velocity (PWV), index of arterial stiffness, is lower in endurance-trained than in untrained young adults. However, the effect of regular aerobic exercise on AVI and API remains unknown. This study investigates the effect of regular aerobic exercise on AVI and API, new indicators of arterial stiffness...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Daniela Chlíbková, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle, Josef Bednář
Purpose: Hypohydration and hyperhydration are significant disorders of fluid metabolism in endurance performance; however, little relevant data exist regarding multi-stage endurance activities. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of running seven marathons in 7 consecutive days on selected anthropometric, hematological and biochemical characteristics with an emphasis on hydration status. Methods: Participants included 6 women and 20 men (age 42.6 ± 6.2 years). Data was collected before day 1 (B1 ) and after day 1 (A1 ), 4 (A4 ), and 7 (A7 )...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Bobby G Yow, David J Tennent, Thomas C Dowd, Jeremy P Loenneke, Johnny G Owens
Blood flow restriction (BFR) training is a technique shown to be safe and effective at increasing muscular strength and endurance in healthy fitness populations and is under study for its use in postinjury rehabilitation. BFR stimulates muscular strength and hypertrophy gains at much lower loads than traditional methods, allowing patients to begin the rehabilitation process much sooner. We report on 2 patients who incorporated BFR training into their traditional rehabilitation program after Achilles tendon ruptures...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Hiromasa Ueno, Tadashi Suga, Kenji Takao, Takahiro Tanaka, Jun Misaki, Yuto Miyake, Akinori Nagano, Tadao Isaka
Recently, we reported that the forefoot bones were longer in sprinters than in non-sprinters, and that longer forefoot bones correlated with higher sprint performance in sprinters. To further understand the superiority of long forefoot bones in athletic performance, we examined whether forefoot bone length was associated with running performance in endurance runners. The length of the forefoot bones of the big and second toes were measured using magnetic resonance imaging in 45 male well-trained endurance runners and 45 male untrained subjects...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Michael A Moxley, Kalyan C Vinnakota, Jason N Bazil, Nathan R Qi, Daniel A Beard
High capacity and low capacity running rats, HCR and LCR respectively, have been bred to represent two extremes of running endurance and have recently demonstrated disparities in fuel usage during transient aerobic exercise. HCR rats can maintain fatty acid (FA) utilization throughout the course of transient aerobic exercise whereas LCR rats rely predominantly on glucose utilization. We hypothesized that the difference between HCR and LCR fuel utilization could be explained by a difference in mitochondrial density...
February 23, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Kengo Ishihara, Hirokazu Taniguchi
Endurance exercise performance has been used as a representative index in experimental animal models in the field of health sciences, exercise physiology, comparative physiology, food function or nutritional physiology. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fatmax (the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation) as an additional index of endurance exercise performance that can be measured during running at submaximal exercise intensity in mice. We measured both Fatmax and Vo2 peak of trained ICR mice that voluntary exercised for 8 weeks and compared them with a sedentary group of mice at multiple inclinations of 20, 30, 40, and 50° on a treadmill...
2018: PloS One
Urtats Etxegarai, Ainhoa Insunza, Jon Larruskain, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Susana M Gil, Eva Portillo, Jon Irazusta
We investigated whether heart rate (HR)-derived parameters are accurate performance predictors in endurance recreational runners. One hundred thirty recreational athletes completed an incremental running test (4´running + 1´rest). After each stage, we recorded HR, % of maximum HR (%HRmax), and blood lactate. We also assessed HR after each recovery period, and calculated lactate and HR recovery thresholds and HR deflection point. We tested these parameters for associations with running performance, as measured by peak treadmill speed (PTS) and personal best International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) score...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
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