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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769820/multivariate-relationships-among-morphology-fitness-and-motor-coordination-in-prepubertal-girls
#1
Leonardo G O Luz, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva, João P Duarte, João Valente-Dos-Santos, Aristides Machado-Rodrigues, André Seabra, Bruno C M Carmo, Roel Vaeyens, Renaat M Philippaerts, Sean P Cumming, Robert M Malina
Motor coordination and physical fitness are multidimensional concepts which cannot be reduced to a single variable. This study evaluated multivariate relationships among morphology, physical fitness and motor coordination in 74 pre-pubertal girls 8.0-8.9 years of age. Data included body dimensions, eight fitness items and four motor coordination tasks (KTK battery). Maturity status was estimated as percentage of predicted mature stature attained at the time of observation. Canonical correlation analysis was used to examine the relationships between multivariate domains...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762540/the-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-and-their-transcriptional-coactivators-gene-variations-in-human-trainability-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Miroslav Petr, Petr Stastny, Adam Zajac, James J Tufano, Agnieszka Maciejewska-Skrendo
BACKGROUND: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ( PPARA , PPARG , PPARD ) and their transcriptional coactivators' ( PPARGC1A , PPARGC1B ) gene polymorphisms have been associated with muscle morphology, oxygen uptake, power output and endurance performance. The purpose of this review is to determine whether the PPARs and/or their coactivators' polymorphisms can predict the training response to specific training stimuli. METHODS: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses, a literature review has been run for a combination of PPARs and physical activity key words...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761269/effects-of-running-a-marathon-on-irisin-concentration-in-men-aged-over-50
#3
Paweł Jóźków, Dawid Koźlenia, Katarzyna Zawadzka, Marek Konefał, Paweł Chmura, Katarzyna Młynarska, Michał Kosowski, Marek Mędraś, Jan Chmura, Piotr Ponikowski, Jacek Daroszewski
Our aim was to verify whether running a marathon is associated with changes in irisin concentration in healthy, endurance-trained men. In an observational study, we assessed baseline biochemical and fitness parameters of 28 middle-aged runners (mean ± SD age, BMI, VO2max : 58 ± 8 years; 24.5 ± 3 kg/m2 ; 51.1 ± 1.7 ml/kg/min). We evaluated irisin before, immediately after, and 7 days after the marathon. Irisin concentration decreased from a baseline value of 639 ± 427 to 461 ± 255 ng/ml immediately after the marathon (p < 0...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757053/applying-a-low-fodmap-dietary-intervention-to-a-female-ultra-endurance-runner-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-during-a-multi-stage-ultra-marathon
#4
Stephanie K Gaskell, Ricardo J S Costa
Malabsorption of Fermentable Oligo- Di- and Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs) in response to prolonged exercise may increase incidence of upper- and lower-gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS), which are known to impair exercise performance. The case-study aimed to explore the impact of a low-FODMAP diet on exercise-associated GIS in a female ultra-endurance runner diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), competing in a six-day 186.7 km mountainous multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM). IBS symptom severity score at diagnosis was 410 and following a low-FODMAP diet (3...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746639/branched-chain-amino-acids-are-the-primary-limiting-amino-acids-in-the-diets-of-endurance-trained-men-after-a-bout-of-prolonged-exercise
#5
Hiroyuki Kato, Katsuya Suzuki, Makoto Bannai, Daniel R Moore
Background: The indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method estimates the protein intake required to maximize whole-body protein synthesis and identify the daily protein requirement in a variety of populations. However, it is unclear whether the greater requirements for endurance athletes previously determined by the IAAO reflect an increased demand for all or only some amino acids. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the primary rate-limiting amino acids in endurance-trained athletes after prolonged exercise, by measuring the oxidation of ingested [1-13C]phenylalanine in response to variable amino acid intake...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745784/short-term-effects-of-rolling-massage-on-energy-cost-of-running-and-power-of-the-lower-limbs
#6
Nicola Giovanelli, Filippo Vaccari, Mirco Floreani, Enrico Rejc, Jasmine Copetti, Marco Garra, Lea Biasutti, Stefano Lazzer
PURPOSE: Self-myofascial release (SMFR) is a type of self-massage that is becoming popular among athletes. However, SMFR effects on running performance have not been investigated yet. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of SMFR on cost of running (Cr). In addition, we evaluated the effects of SMFR on lower limbs muscle power. METHODS: The measurement of Cr and lower limb muscle power during squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) were performed before (PRE), immediately after (POST) and 3hours after (POST 3h) a SMFR protocol (experimental condition)...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741441/effect-of-an-active-video-gaming-classroom-curriculum-on-health-related-fitness-school-day-step-counts-and-motivation-in-sixth-graders
#7
You Fu, Ryan D Burns
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of an active video gaming (AVG) classroom curriculum on health-related fitness, school day steps, and motivation in sixth graders. METHODS: A convenience sample of 65 sixth graders were recruited from 2 classrooms from a school located in the Western United States. One classroom served as the comparison group (n = 32) that participated in active free play, and one classroom served as the intervention group (n = 33) that participated in an AVG curriculum for 30 minutes per day, 3 days per week, for 18 weeks...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738742/body-mass-index-and-physical-fitness-in-brazilian-adolescents
#8
Vitor P Lopes, Robert M Malina, Rossana Gomez-Campos, Marco Cossio-Bolaños, Miguel de Arruda, Edilson Hobold
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between body mass index and physical fitness in a cross-sectional sample of Brazilian youth. METHODS: Participants were 3849 adolescents (2027 girls) aged 10-17 years. Weight and height were measured; body mass index was calculated. Physical fitness was evaluated with a multistage 20m shuttle run (cardiovascular endurance), standing long jump (power), and push-ups (upper body strength). Participants were grouped by sex into four age groups: 10-11, 12-13, 14-15, and 16-17 years...
May 5, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738321/should-body-size-categories-be-more-common-in-endurance-running-events
#9
Robert Buresh
Thousands of endurance running events are held each year in the United States, and most of them use age and sex categories to account for documented effects of those factors on running performance. However, most running events do not provide categories of body mass, despite abundant evidence that it, too, dramatically influences endurance running performance. The purposes of this article are to (1) discuss how body mass affects endurance running performance, (2) explain several mechanisms through which body mass influences endurance running performance, and (3) suggest possible ways in which body mass might be categorized in endurance running events...
May 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735541/multiplex-quantification-identifies-novel-exercise-regulated-myokines-cytokines-in-plasma-and-in-glycolytic-and-oxidative-skeletal-muscle
#10
Hannah Little, Stefanie Y Tan, Francesca Cali, Susana Rodriguez, Xia Lei, Andrew Wolfe, Christopher Hug, G William Wong
Exercise is known to confer major health benefits, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The systemic effects of exercise on multi-organ systems are thought to be partly due to myokines/cytokines secreted by skeletal muscle. The extent to which exercise alters cytokine expression and secretion in different muscle fiber types has not been systematically examined.  Here, we assessed changes in 66 mouse cytokines in serum, and in glycolytic (plantaris) and oxidative (soleus) muscles, in response to sprint, endurance, or chronic wheel running...
May 7, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731746/response-of-gut-microbiota-to-metabolite-changes-induced-by-endurance-exercise
#11
Xia Zhao, Zhujun Zhang, Bin Hu, Wei Huang, Chao Yuan, Lingyun Zou
A few animal studies have shown that wheel running could reverse an unhealthy status by shifting the gut microbial composition, but no investigations have studied the effect of endurance running, such as marathon running, on human gut microbial communities. Since many findings have shown that marathon running immediately causes metabolic changes in blood, urine, muscles and lymph that potentially impact the gut microbiota (GM) within several hours. Here, we investigated whether the GM immediately responds to the enteric changes in amateur half-marathon runners...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729132/we-run-this-city-impact-of-a-community-school-fitness-program-on-obesity-health-and-fitness
#12
Elaine A Borawski, Sarah Drewes Jones, Laura Danosky Yoder, Tara Taylor, Barbara A Clint, Meredith A Goodwin, Erika S Trapl
INTRODUCTION: The We Run This City (WRTC) Youth Marathon Program is a community-supported, school-based fitness program designed to increase physical activity in a large, urban school district by engaging middle school youth to train 12 to 14 weeks to run or walk 1.2 miles, 6.2 miles, or 13.1 miles of the Rite Aid Cleveland Marathon. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of the intervention on adolescent health. METHODS: We assessed changes in obesity, health, and fitness, measured before training and postintervention, among 1,419 sixth- to eighth-grade students participating in WRTC for the first time, with particular interest in the program's effect on overweight (85th-94th body mass index percentile) or obese (≥95th percentile) students...
May 3, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726694/the-role-of-the-nervous-system-in-neuromuscular-fatigue-induced-by-ultra-endurance-exercise
#13
Guillaume Y Millet, Vincent Martin, John Temesi
Ultra-endurance events are not a recent development but they have only become very popular in the last two decades, particularly ultra-marathons run on trails. The present paper reviews the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in neuromuscular fatigue induced by ultra-endurance exercise. Large decreases in voluntary activation are systematically found in ultra-endurance running but are attenuated in ultra-endurance cycling for comparable intensity and duration. This indirectly suggests that afferent feedback, rather than neurobiological changes within the CNS, is determinant in the amount of central fatigue produced...
May 4, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725856/skeletal-muscle-amino-acid-transporter-and-bcat2-expression-prior-to-and-following-interval-running-or-resistance-exercise-in-mode-specific-trained-males
#14
Paul A Roberson, Cody T Haun, C Brooks Mobley, Matthew A Romero, Petey W Mumford, Jeffrey S Martin, Michael D Roberts
Endurance (END)- and resistance (RES)-trained males performed interval running or resistance exercise during three consecutive days (bouts 1-3). Muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline, 2 h post-bout 1, and 72 h post-bout 3. Amino acid transporter SNAT2 mRNA was 75% greater in END (group p = 0.008), and increased ~ 70% 2 h post in both groups (time p = 0.023). Amino acid transporter PAT1 mRNA was 2.7-fold greater in RES (group p = 0.002). Baseline protein levels of the mitochondrial aminotransferase BCAT2 were 79% greater in END (p = 0...
May 3, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722623/force-properties-of-skinned-cardiac-muscle-following-increasing-volumes-of-aerobic-exercise-in-rats
#15
Kevin Rudi Boldt, Jaqueline Lourdes Rios, Venus Joumaa, Walter Herzog
The positive effects of chronic endurance exercise training on health and performance have been well documented. These positive effects have been evaluated primarily at the structural level, and work has begun to evaluate mechanical adaptations of the myocardium. However, it remains poorly understood how the volume of exercise training affects cardiac adaptation. In order to gain some understanding, we subjected three-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (N=23) to treadmill running for eleven weeks at one of three exercise volumes (moderate, high, and extra high)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720949/active-recovery-after-high-intensity-interval-training-does-not-attenuate-training-adaptation
#16
Thimo Wiewelhove, Christoph Schneider, Alina Schmidt, Alexander Döweling, Tim Meyer, Michael Kellmann, Mark Pfeiffer, Alexander Ferrauti
Objective: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) can be extremely demanding and can consequently produce high blood lactate levels. Previous studies have shown that lactate is a potent metabolic stimulus, which is important for adaptation. Active recovery (ACT) after intensive exercise, however, enhances blood lactate removal in comparison with passive recovery (PAS) and, consequently, may attenuate endurance performance improvements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of regular ACT on training adaptations during a HIIT mesocycle...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720572/endospanin-2-enhances-skeletal-muscle-energy-metabolism-and-running-endurance-capacity
#17
Steve Lancel, Matthijs Kc Hesselink, Estelle Woldt, Yves Rouillé, Emilie Dorchies, Stephane Delhaye, Christian Duhem, Quentin Thorel, Alicia Mayeuf-Louchart, Benoit Pourcet, Valérie Montel, Gert Schaart, Nicolas Beton, Florence Picquet, Olivier Briand, Jean Pierre Salles, Hélène Duez, Patrick Schrauwen, Bruno Bastide, Bernard Bailleul, Bart Staels, Yasmine Sebti
Metabolic stresses such as dietary energy restriction or physical activity exert beneficial metabolic effects. In the liver, endospanin-1 and endospanin-2 cooperatively modulate calorie restriction-mediated (CR-mediated) liver adaptations by controlling growth hormone sensitivity. Since we found CR to induce endospanin protein expression in skeletal muscle, we investigated their role in this tissue. In vivo and in vitro endospanin-2 triggers ERK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle through an autophagy-dependent pathway...
May 3, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718119/frailty-quantified-by-the-valencia-score-as-a-potential-predictor-of-lifespan-in-mice
#18
Irene Martinez de Toda, Antonio Garrido, Carmen Vida, Mari Carmen Gomez-Cabrera, Jose Viña, Monica De la Fuente
The development of frailty scores suitable for mice and which resemble those used in the clinical scenario is of great importance to understand human frailty. The aim of the study was to determine an individual frailty score for each mouse at different ages and analyze the association between the frailty score and its lifespan. For this purpose, the "Valencia Score" for frailty was used. Thus, a longitudinal study in mice was performed analyzing weight loss, running time and speed, grip strength and motor coordination at the late-adult, mature and old ages (40, 56 and 80 weeks old, respectively)...
April 26, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703522/sex-differences-in-fitness-outcomes-among-minority-youth-after-participation-in-a-park-based-after-school-program
#19
Sarah E Messiah, Emily M D'Agostino, Hersila H Patel, Eric Hansen, M Sunil Mathew, Kristopher L Arheart
PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe sex differences in fitness outcomes after participation in Fit2Play, a park-based after-school health and wellness program. METHODS: Youth who participated in Fit2Play for either 1, 2, or 3 school years between 2010 and 2016 (n = 2129, mean age 9.1 years, 52% Hispanic, 48% non-Hispanic black, 54% male) were tested via a comprehensive fitness battery at the beginning/end of the school year(s). Effects of length of Fit2Play participation on fitness outcomes were assessed via three-level repeated measures analysis stratified by sex and adjusted for child sociodemographics, weight category, area poverty, and year...
April 12, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698994/validity-of-a-basketball-specific-complex-test-in-female-professional-players
#20
René Schwesig, Souhail Hermassi, Andreas Lauenroth, Kevin Laudner, Alexander Koke, Thomas Bartels, Stefan Delank, Stephan Schulze
The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a new basketball-specific complex test (BBCT) based on the ascertained match performance.Fourteen female professional basketball players (ages: 23.4 ± 1.8 years) performed the BBCT and a treadmill test (TT) at the beginning of pre-season training. Lactate, heart rate (HR), time, shooting precision and number of errors were measured during the four test sequences of the BBCT (short distance sprinting with direction changes, with and without a ball; fast break; lay-up parcours; sprint endurance test)...
April 26, 2018: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
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