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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727846/effects-of-high-intensity-interval-versus-mild-intensity-endurance-training-on-metabolic-phenotype-and-corticosterone-response-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-or-control-diet
#1
Youqing Shen, Guoyuan Huang, Bryan P McCormick, Tao Song, Xiangfeng Xu
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI) to mild-intensity endurance training (ME), combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11), CD and ME (CME, n = 8), CD and HI (CHI, n = 8), HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10), HFD and ME (HME, n = 8), and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719620/endurance-performance-and-energy-metabolism-during-exercise-in-mice-with-a-muscle-specific-defect-in-the-control-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism
#2
Minjun Xu, Yasuyuki Kitaura, Takuya Ishikawa, Yoshihiro Kadota, Chihaya Terai, Daichi Shindo, Takashi Morioka, Miki Ota, Yukako Morishita, Kengo Ishihara, Yoshiharu Shimomura
It is known that the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in skeletal muscle is suppressed under normal and sedentary conditions but is promoted by exercise. BCAA catabolism in muscle tissues is regulated by the branched-chain α-keto acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex, which is inactivated by phosphorylation by BCKA dehydrogenase kinase (BDK). In the present study, we used muscle-specific BDK deficient mice (BDK-mKO mice) to examine the effect of uncontrolled BCAA catabolism on endurance exercise performance and skeletal muscle energy metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719492/fifty-men-3510-marathons-cardiac-risk-factors-and-coronary-artery-calcium-scores
#3
William O Roberts, Robert S Schwartz, Ross F Garberich, Samantha Carlson, Thomas Knickelbine, Jonathan G Schwartz, Gretchen Peichel, John R Lesser, Kelly Wickstrom, Kevin M Harris
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Many male marathon runners have elevated coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores despite high physical activity. We examined the association between CAC scores, cardiovascular risk factors, and lifestyle habits in long term marathoners. METHODS: We recruited men who had run ≥1 marathon annually for 25 consecutive years. CAC was assessed using coronary computed tomography angiography. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CAD) risk factors were measured with a 12-lead ECG, serum lipid panel, height, weight, resting blood pressure and heart rate, and a risk factor questionnaire...
July 17, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714746/age-related-changes-in-endurance-performance-vary-between-modes-of-locomotion-in-men-an-analysis-of-master-world-records
#4
Romuald Lepers, Paul J Stapley, Thomas Cattagni
BACKGROUND: Age-related declines in sport performance are characteristic of all endurance and sprinting disciplines. However, it is not known if the mode of locomotion (i.e. swimming, cycling or running) influences the age-related decline in sport performance in sprinting and endurance events. METHODS: To examine the age-related decline in three different modes of locomotion (i.e. swimming, cycling and running) for endurance and sprint events, the world best performances achieved for males in the age-groups 18-39 years, 40-44 years, 45-49 years, 50-54 years, 55-59 years, 60-64 years, 65-69 years, 70-74 years, 75-79 years and 80-84 years, were compared in swimming (1500-m and 50-m), cycling (1-h and 200-m) and running (10-km and 100-m)...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713466/intra-subject-variability-of-5-km-time-trial-performance-completed-by-competitive-trained-runners
#5
James Fisher, Thomas Clark, Katherine Newman-Judd, Josh Arnold, James Steele
Time-trials represent an ecologically valid approach to assessment of endurance performance. Such information is useful in the application of testing protocols and estimation of sample sizes required for research/magnitude based inference methods. The present study aimed to investigate the intra-subject variability of 5 km time-trial running performance in trained runners. Six competitive trained male runners (age = 33.8 ± 10.1 years; stature = 1.78 ± 0.01 m; body mass = 69.0 ± 10.4 kg, [Formula: see text]O2max = 62...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706923/influence-of-abo-blood-group-on-sports-performance
#6
Giuseppe Lippi, Giorgio Gandini, Gian Luca Salvagno, Spyros Skafidas, Luca Festa, Elisa Danese, Martina Montagnana, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Cantor Tarperi, Federico Schena
BACKGROUND: Despite being a recessive trait, the O blood group is the most frequent worldwide among the ABO blood types. Since running performance has been recognized as a major driver of evolutionary advantage in humans, we planned a study to investigate whether the ABO blood group may have an influence on endurance running performance in middle-aged recreational athletes. METHODS: The study population consisted of 52 recreational, middle-aged, Caucasian athletes (mean age: 49±13 years, body mass index, 23...
June 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704507/regular-moist-snuff-dipping-does-not-affect-endurance-exercise-performance
#7
Frida Björkman, Fredrik Edin, C Mikael Mattsson, Filip Larsen, Björn Ekblom
Physiological and medical effects of snuff have previously been obtained either in cross-sectional studies or after snuff administration to non-tobacco users. The effects of snuff cessation after several years of daily use are unknown. 24 participants with >2 years of daily snuff-use were tested before and after >6 weeks snuff cessation (SCG). A control group (CO) of 11 snuff users kept their normal habits. Resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were significantly lower in SCG after snuff cessation, and body mass was increased by 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704072/effects-of-active-videogame-and-sports-play-and-active-recreation-for-kids-physical-education-on-children-s-health-related-fitness-and-enjoyment
#8
Han Chen, Haichun Sun
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of a Kinect active videogame (AVG) and the Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids (SPARK) intervention in improving children's health-related fitness and physical activity (PA) enjoyment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 65 students from both third and fourth grade in a rural elementary school participated in the study. The third graders (N = 29, mean age = 9.1 years, 10 boys, mean body mass index [BMI] = 20...
July 13, 2017: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702049/endurance-exercise-ability-in-the-horse-a-trait-with-complex-polygenic-determinism
#9
Anne Ricard, Céline Robert, Christine Blouin, Fanny Baste, Gwendoline Torquet, Caroline Morgenthaler, Julie Rivière, Nuria Mach, Xavier Mata, Laurent Schibler, Eric Barrey
Endurance horses are able to run at more than 20 km/h for 160 km (in bouts of 30-40 km). This level of performance is based on intense aerobic metabolism, effective body heat dissipation and the ability to endure painful exercise. The known heritabilities of endurance performance and exercise-related physiological traits in Arabian horses suggest that adaptation to extreme endurance exercise is influenced by genetic factors. The objective of the present genome-wide association study (GWAS) was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to endurance racing performance in 597 Arabian horses...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689339/longitudinal-impact-of-a-park-based-afterschool-healthy-weight-program-on-modifiable-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-youth
#10
Sarah E Messiah, Emily M D'Agostino, Eric Hansen, M Sunil Mathew, Deidre Okeke, Maria Nardi, Jack Kardys, Kristopher L Arheart
Community-based programs hold significant potential to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in youth. We describe here the longitudinal change in several modifiable CVD risk factors after participation in up to 3 years of Fit2Play™, a park-based afterschool program. Children ages 6-15 years old (N = 2261, mean age 9.0 years, 50% Hispanic, 47% non-Hispanic black, 54% male) who participated in Fit2Play™ for either 1-3 school years between 2010 and 2016 had height, weight, 4-site skinfold thicknesses, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run test, and health/wellness knowledge and behavior scores collected at the beginning and end of the school year(s)...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685860/exercise-mediated-modulation-of-autophagy-in-skeletal-muscle
#11
REVIEW
Marcos Martin-Rincon, David Morales-Alamo, Jose A L Calbet
Although exercise exerts multiple beneficial health effects, it may also damage cellular structures. Damaged elements are continuously degraded and its constituents recycled to produce renovated structures through a process called autophagy, which is essential for the adaptation to training. Autophagy is particularly active in skeletal muscle, where it can be evaluated by using specific molecular markers of activation (unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) phosphorylation) and specific proteins indicating increased autophagosome content (increased total LC3, LC3-II, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio)...
July 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679790/the-predator-and-prey-behaviors-of-crabs-from-ecology-to-neural-adaptations
#12
REVIEW
Daniel Tomsic, Julieta Sztarker, Martín Berón de Astrada, Damián Oliva, Estela Lanza
Predator avoidance and prey capture are among the most vital of animal behaviors. They require fast reactions controlled by comparatively straightforward neural circuits often containing giant neurons, which facilitates their study with electrophysiological techniques. Naturally occurring avoidance behaviors, in particular, can be easily and reliably evoked in the laboratory, enabling their neurophysiological investigation. Studies in the laboratory alone, however, can lead to a biased interpretation of an animal's behavior in its natural environment...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679502/ibuprofen-versus-placebo-effect-on-acute-kidney-injury-in-ultramarathons-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Grant S Lipman, Kate Shea, Mark Christensen, Caleb Phillips, Patrick Burns, Rebecca Higbee, Viktoria Koskenoja, Kurt Eifling, Brian J Krabak
BACKGROUND: Despite concerns that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) contribute to acute kidney injury (AKI), up to 75% of ultramarathon runners ingest these during competition. The effect of NSAID on AKI incidence in ultramarathon runners is unclear. METHODS: Multisite randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial in the Gobi, Atacama, Ecuador and Sri Lankan deserts to determine whether ibuprofen (400 mg every 4 hours) would be non-inferior to placebo during a 50-mile (80 km) foot race...
July 5, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678622/carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-does-not-affect-performance-during-a-60-min-running-race-in-women
#14
Costas Chryssanthopoulos, Christos Ziaras, Tanja Oosthuyse, Ioannis Lambropoulos, Paradisis Giorgios P, Elias Zacharogiannis, Anastassios Philippou, Maria Maridaki
This study examined the effect of carbohydrate mouth rinsing on endurance running performance in women. Fifteen female recreational endurance runners, who used no oral contraceptives, ran two races of 1-h duration on an indoor track (216-m length) at 18:00 h after an 8-h fast with a 7-days interval between races, corresponding to the 3(rd)-10th day of each premenopausal runner's menstrual cycle, or any day for the postmenopausal runners. In a double-blind random order, participants rinsed their mouth with 25 ml of either a 6...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674605/changes-in-running-economy-respiratory-exchange-ratio-and-vo2max-in-runners-following-a-10-day-altitude-training-camp
#15
Sebastian R Diebel, Ian Newhouse, David S Thompson, Vineet B K Johnson
Running economy (RE) and VO2max are important predictors of endurance performance for elite and semi-elite endurance athletes, with RE being an appropriate predictor in a homogenous running population. Altitude training has been observed to change RE (mL.kg(-1).min(-1)), and VO2max due to alterations resulting from acclimatization. This study tracked changes in RE and VO2max before and after a 10-day altitude training camp at 1828 meters. VO2max, RE expressed calorically, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER), were measured below anaerobic threshold (AT) to observe differences between pre-and post-altitude training...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659838/the-robust-running-ape-unraveling-the-deep-underpinnings-of-coordinated-human-running-proficiency
#16
REVIEW
John Kiely
In comparison to other mammals, humans are not especially strong, swift or supple. Nevertheless, despite these apparent physical limitations, we are among Natures most superbly well-adapted endurance runners. Paradoxically, however, notwithstanding this evolutionary-bestowed proficiency, running-related injuries, and Overuse syndromes in particular, are widely pervasive. The term 'coordination' is similarly ubiquitous within contemporary coaching, conditioning, and rehabilitation cultures. Various theoretical models of coordination exist within the academic literature...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658509/relationship-between-achilles-tendon-length-and-running-performance-in-well-trained-male-endurance-runners
#17
Hiromasa Ueno, Tadashi Suga, Kenji Takao, Takahiro Tanaka, Jun Misaki, Yuto Miyake, Akinori Nagano, Tadao Isaka
The present study aimed to determine the relationship between Achilles tendon (AT) length and running performance, including running economy, in well-trained endurance runners. We also examined the reasonable portion of the AT related to running performance among AT lengths measured in three different portions. The AT lengths at three portions and cross-sectional area (CSA) of 30 endurance runners were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Each AT length was calculated as the distance from the calcaneal tuberosity to the muscle-tendon junction of the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis (GMAT ), and gastrocnemius lateralis, respectively...
June 28, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657863/carbohydrate-intake-and-training-efficacy-a-randomized-cross-over-study
#18
Florian Beaudouin, Frederic Joerg, Anette Hilpert, Tim Meyer, Anne Hecksteden
Carbohydrate (CHO) availability during endurance exercise seems to attenuate exercise-induced perturbations of cellular homeostasis and might consequently diminish the stimulus for training adaptation. Therefore, a negative effect of CHO intake on endurance training efficacy seems plausible. This study aimed to test the influence of carbohydrate intake on the efficacy of an endurance training program on previously untrained healthy adults. A randomized cross-over trial (8-week wash-out period) was conducted in 23 men and women with two 8-week training periods (with vs...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654811/return-to-running-following-knee-osteochondral-repair-using-an-anti-gravity-treadmill-a-case-report
#19
Karen Hambly, Somruthai Poomsalood, Emma Mundy
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of an anti-gravity treadmill return to running programme on self-efficacy and subjective knee function following knee osteochondral surgery. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 39-year-old otherwise healthy female endurance runner with a left knee femoral cartilage grade 3-4 defect 3 cm(2). The patient underwent single step arthroscopic microfracture with Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate. An AlterG(®) anti-gravity treadmill was used to manipulate loading during a graduated phased return to running over 8 weeks...
July 2017: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654503/effectiveness-of-functional-power-training-on-walking-ability-in-young-children-with-cerebral-palsy-study-protocol-of-a-double-baseline-trial
#20
Liesbeth F van Vulpen, Sonja de Groot, Eugene A A Rameckers, Jules G Becher, Annet J Dallmeijer
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of functional high-velocity resistance (power) training to improve walking ability of young children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Twenty-two children with bi- or unilateral spastic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II, aged 4 to 10 years will be recruited. A double-baseline design will be used to compare a 14-week functional power training (3 times a week) program with a 14-week usual care period and a 14-week follow-up period...
July 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
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