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Eitaro Aihara, Andrea L Matthis, Rebekah A Karns, Kristen A Engevik, Peihua Jiang, Jiang Wang, Bruce R Yacyshyn, Marshall H Montrose
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The peptic ulcer heals through a complex process, although the ulcer relapse often occurs several years later after healing. Our hypothesis is that even after visual evidence of healing of gastric ulceration, the regenerated epithelium is aberrant for an extended interval, increasing susceptibility of the regenerated epithelium to damage and further diseases. METHODS: Gastric ulcers were induced in mice by serosal topical application of acetic acid...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Anika Sahr, Carmen Wolke, Jonas Maczewsky, Peter Krippeit-Drews, Anja Tetzner, Gisela Drews, Simone Venz, Sarah Gürtler, Jens van den Brandt, Sabine Berg, Paula Döring, Frank Dombrowski, Thomas Walther, Uwe Lendeckel
The ACE2/angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) often opposes the detrimental effects of the ACE/AngII/AT1 axis and has been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis, while underlying mechanisms are mostly unknown. Here, we investigate the effects of Ang-(1-7) and its receptor Mas on β-cell function. Isolated islets from Mas-deficient and wild-type mice were stimulated with Ang-(1-7) or its antagonists and effects on insulin secretion determined. Islets' cytoplasmic calcium and cAMP concentrations, mRNA amounts of Ins1, Ins2, Pdx1, and Mafa, and effects of inhibitors of cAMP downstream signaling were determined...
October 7, 2016: Endocrinology
Hong-Tu Li, Fang-Xu Jiang, Ping Shi, Tao Zhang, Xiao-Yu Liu, Xue-Wen Lin, Zhong-Yan San, Xi-Ning Pang
Islet transplantation provides curative treatments to patients with type 1 diabetes, but donor shortage restricts the broad use of this therapy. Thus, generation of alternative transplantable cell sources is intensively investigated worldwide. We previously showed that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) can be reprogrammed to pancreatic-like cells through simultaneously forced suppression of Rest/Nrsf (repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuronal restrictive silencing factor) and Shh (sonic hedgehog) and activation of Pdx1 (pancreas and duodenal transcription factor 1)...
October 3, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
M Balakumar, L Raji, D Prabhu, C Sathishkumar, P Prabu, V Mohan, M Balasubramanyam
In the context of high human consumption of fructose diets, there is an imperative need to understand how dietary fructose intake influence cellular and molecular mechanisms and thereby affect β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. While evidence exists for a relationship between high-fat-induced insulin resistance and metabolic disorders, there is lack of studies in relation to high-fructose diet. Therefore, we attempted to study the effect of different diets viz., high-fat diet (HFD), high-fructose diet (HFS), and a combination (HFS + HFD) diet on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in male Wistar rats compared to control animals fed with normal pellet diet...
October 3, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Stephanie Azzopardi, Sharon Pang, David S Klimstra, Yi-Chieh Nancy Du
In human studies and mouse models, the contributions of p53 and p16(Ink4a)/p19(Arf) loss are well established in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Although loss of functional p53 pathway and loss of Ink4a/Arf in human pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (PACC) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PanNET) are identified, their direct roles in tumorigenesis of PACC and PanNET remain to be determined. Using transgenic mouse models expressing the viral oncogene polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT), we demonstrate that p53 loss in pancreatic Pdx1+ progenitor cells results in aggressive PACC, whereas Ink4a/Arf loss results in PanNETs...
October 2016: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Jun Sung Moon, Udayakumar Karunakaran, Suma Elumalai, In-Kyu Lee, Hyoung Woo Lee, Yong-Woon Kim, Kyu Chang Won
AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Cluster determinant 36 (CD36), a fatty acid transporter, was reported to have a pivotal role in glucotoxicity-induced beta cell dysfunction. However, little is known about how glucotoxicity influences CD36 expression, and it is unknown whether this action can be counteracted by metformin. In the present study, we showed that metformin counteracts glucotoxicity by alleviating oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced CD36 expression. METHODS: We used primary rat islets as well as INS-1 cells for 72h to 24h with 30mM glucose, respectively...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Issei Saitoh, Masahiro Sato, Miki Soda, Emi Inada, Yoko Iwase, Tomoya Murakami, Hayato Ohshima, Haruaki Hayasaki, Hirofumi Noguchi
Type 1 diabetes occurs due to the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells in islets. Transplantation of islets is a promising option for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes that experience hypoglycemic unawareness despite maximal care, but the present shortage of donor islets hampers such transplantation. Transplantation of insulin-producing cells derived from the patients themselves would be one of the most promising approaches to cure type 1 diabetes. Previously, we demonstrated that insulin-producing cells could be produced by transfecting murine pancreatic cells with Yamanaka's reprogramming factors...
2016: PloS One
Barbara Piccini, Rosangela Artuso, Lorenzo Lenzi, Monica Guasti, Giulia Braccesi, Federica Barni, Emilio Casalini, Sabrina Giglio, Sonia Toni
Correct diagnosis of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) is based on genetic tests requiring an appropriate subject selection by clinicians. Mutations in the insulin (INS) gene rarely occur in patients with MODY. This study is aimed at determining the genetic background and clinical phenotype in patients with suspected MODY. 34 patients with suspected MODY, negative for mutations in the GCK, HNF1α, HNF4α, HNF1β and PDX1 genes, were screened by next generation sequencing (NGS). A heterozygous INS mutation was identified in 4 members of the same family...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Ana S Leal, Michael B Sporn, Patricia A Pioli, Karen T Liby
Because the 5-year survival rate for pancreatic cancer remains under 10%, new drugs are needed for the prevention and treatment of this devastating disease. Patients with chronic pancreatitis have a 12-fold higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. LSL-Kras(G12D/+);Pdx-1-Cre (KC) mice replicate the genetics, symptoms and histopathology found in human pancreatic cancer. Immune cells infiltrate into the pancreas of these mice and produce inflammatory cytokines that promote tumor growth. KC mice are particularly sensitive to the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as only 48% of KC mice survived an LPS challenge while 100% of wildtype (WT) mice survived...
September 22, 2016: Carcinogenesis
Gustavo Jesus Vazquez-Zapien, Monica Maribel Mata-Miranda, Virginia Sanchez-Monroy, Raul Jacobo Delgado-Macuil, David Guillermo Perez-Ishiwara, Marlon Rojas-Lopez
Some of the greatest challenges in stem cells (SCs) biology and regenerative medicine are differentiation control of SCs and ensuring the purity of differentiated cells. In this work, we differentiated mouse pluripotent stem cells (mPSCs) toward pancreatic cells characterizing this differentiation process by molecular and spectroscopic technics. Both mPSCs and Differentiated Pancreatic Cells (DPCs) were subjected to a genetic, phenotypic, and biochemical analysis by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), immunocytochemistry, and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
2016: Stem Cells International
Takahiro Yamanaka, Kazuya Tashima, Rio Takahashi, Seiji Takashima, Teppei Goto, Masumi Hirabayashi, Shinichi Hochi
Two protocols, Bicell(®) freeze-thawing and Cryotop(®) vitrification-warming, were compared for suitability in cryopreserving rat pancreatic islets (101-150 μm in mean diameter). Immediate survival rates of post-thaw and post-warm islets (50 and 57%, respectively), assessed by FDA/PI double staining, were lower than that of fresh control islets (90%). Most of the PI-positive dead cells were detected in peripheral area of post-warm islets, and were removed after subsequent 24 h culture (survival rate; 85% vs 59% in post-thaw islets)...
September 17, 2016: Cryobiology
Graham C Robinson, Markus Kaufmann, Céline Roux, Teresa B Fitzpatrick
Vitamin B6 is indispensible for all organisms, notably as the coenzyme form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Plants make the compound de novo using a relatively simple pathway comprising pyridoxine synthase (PDX1) and pyridoxine glutaminase (PDX2). PDX1 is remarkable given its multifaceted synthetic ability to carry out isomerization, imine formation, ammonia addition, aldol-type condensation, cyclization, and aromatization, all in the absence of coenzymes or recruitment of specialized domains. Two active sites (P1 and P2) facilitate the plethora of reactions, but it is not known how the two are coordinated and, moreover, if intermediates are tunneled between active sites...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hye Seung Jung, Yu Mi Kang, Ho Seon Park, Byung Yong Ahn, Hakmo Lee, Min Joo Kim, Jin Young Jang, Sun-Whe Kim
Post-translational modification by bonding of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) peptides influences various cellular functions, and is regulated by SUMO-specific proteases (SENPs). Several proteins have been suggested to have diverse impact on insulin synthesis and secretion through SUMO modification in beta cells. However, the role of SUMO modification in beta cell mass has not been established. Here, we examined the changes in expression of Senp in INS1 cells and pancreatic islets under diabetes-relevant stress conditions and associated changes in beta cell mass...
September 20, 2016: Islets
Song Lee, Seonghee Jeong, Chanmi Lee, Jooyun Oh, Song-Cheol Kim
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, and most connective tissues have been recognized as promising sources for cell-based therapies. MSCs have also been detected in human pancreatic tissue, including endocrine and exocrine cells. These adult human pancreas-derived MSCs have generated a great deal of interest owing to their potential use in the differentiation of insulin-producing cells for diabetes treatment. In the present study, we isolated MSCs from the adult human exocrine pancreas to determine whether isolated MSCs have the potential to differentiate into pancreatic endocrine cells and, therefore, whether they can be used in stem cell-based therapies...
2016: Stem Cells International
J M Spaeth, E M Walker, R Stein
Diabetes mellitus arises from insufficient insulin secretion from pancreatic islet β-cells. In type 2 diabetes (T2D), β-cell dysfunction is associated with inactivation and/or loss of transcription factor (TF) activity, including Pdx1. Notably, this particular TF is viewed as a master regulator of pancreas development and islet β-cell formation, identity and function. TFs, like Pdx1, recruit coregulators to transduce activating and/or repressing signals to the general transcriptional machinery for controlling gene expression, including modifiers of DNA, histones and nucleosome architecture...
September 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Afsaneh Fazili, Soghra Gholami, Bagher Minaie Zangi, Ehsan Seyedjafari, Mahdi Gholami
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the in vivo differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into insulin producing cells (IPCs) on electrospun poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) scaffolds coated with Matricaria chammomila L. (chamomile) oil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this interventional, experimental study adipose MSCs (AMSCs) were isolated from 12 adult male New Zealand white rabbits and characterized by flow cytometry. AMSCs were subsequently differentiated into osteogenic and adipogenic lines...
2016: Cell Journal
L G Kondratyeva, A A Sveshnikova, E V Grankina, I P Chernov, M R Kopantseva, E P Kopantzev, E D Sverdlov
We show characteristic morphological changes corresponding to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program fulfillment in PANC1 cell line stimulated with TGFβ1. Our results support downregulation of E-cadherin protein. We show 5- and 28-fold increase in SNAI1 and SNAI2 expression levels and 25- and 15-fold decrease in CDH1 and KRT8 expression levels, respectively, which confirms the EMT-program fulfillment. We demonstrate downregulation of expression of pancreatic master genes SOX9, FOXA2, and GATA4 (2-, 5-, and 4-fold, respectively) and absence of significant changes in HES1, NR5A2, and GATA6 expression levels in the cells stimulated with TGFβ1...
July 2016: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Julia Kofent, Juan Zhang, Francesca M Spagnoli
Cell fate specification depends on transcriptional activation driven by lineage-specific transcription factors as well as changes in chromatin organization. To date, the interplay between transcription factors and chromatin modifiers during development is not well understood. We focus here on the initiation of the pancreatic program from multipotent endodermal progenitors. Transcription factors that play key roles in regulating pancreatic progenitor state have been identified, but the chromatin regulators that help to establish and maintain pancreatic fate are less well known...
October 1, 2016: Development
Haruo Hashimoto, Tomoko Mizushima, Tomoyuki Ogura, Takahiro Kagawa, Kayo Tomiyama, Ri-Ichi Takahashi, Mika Yagoto, Kenji Kawai, Tsuyoshi Chijiwa, Masato Nakamura, Hiroshi Suemizu
Most in vivo studies on the conversion to insulin-producing cells with AAV carrying PDX1 gene are performed in rodents. However, there is little information regarding Adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying PDX1 gene transduced to human liver in vivo because accidental death caused by unpredicted factors cannot be denied, such as the hypoglycemic agent troglitazone with hepatic failure. Here we aim to confirm insulin secretion from human liver transduced with AAV carrying PDX1 gene in vivo and any secondary effect using a humanized liver mouse...
September 23, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Y Sugiyama, J Sasajima, Y Mizukami, K Koizumi, T Kawamoto, Y Ono, H Karasaki, H Tanabe, M Fujiya, Y Kohgo
The hedgehog pathway is known to promote proliferation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and has been shown to restrain tumor progression. To understand how hedgehog causes these effects, we sought to carefully examine protein expression of hedgehog signaling components during different tumor stages. Genetically engineered mice, Pdx1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D and Pdx1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D;p53lox/+, were utilized to model distinct phases of tumorigenesis, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PanIN) and PDA. Human pancreatic specimens of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and PDA were also employed...
June 2016: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
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