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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126826/autoimmune-neurologic-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Daniel B Rubin, Ayush Batra, Henrikas Vaitkevicius, Ivana Vodopivec
The practice of autoimmune neurology focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of a wide spectrum of neurological conditions driven by abnormal immune responses directed against neural tissues. These include autoimmune, paraneoplastic, post-infectious, and iatrogenic conditions. Symptoms of autoimmune neurologic disorders can be diverse and often difficult to recognize in their early stages, complicating the diagnosis. This review discusses the classification and management of common autoimmune neurological conditions, placing an emphasis on the rapid identification of autoimmune etiology and mechanism of immune dysfunction to allow for the timely institution of appropriate treatment...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125478/utility-of-paraneoplastic-antigens-as-biomarkers-for-surveillance-and-prediction-of-recurrence-in-ovarian-cancer
#2
Madhumita Chatterjee, Laura C Hurley, Nancy K Levin, Matthew Stack, Michael A Tainsky
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage and 70% of patients experience recurrence months to years from initial diagnosis. The expression of paraneoplastic antigens can result in the occurrence of onconeural autoantibodies in ovarian cancer that may be associated with neurological disorders that are clinically manifested in patients before diagnosis of ovarian cancer. These paraneoplastic antigens can serve as excellent biomarkers not only for early detection but also for monitoring ovarian cancer recurrence...
November 3, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116466/breast-cancer-related-paraneoplastic-neurologic-disease
#3
Brittany L Murphy, Nicholas L Zalewski, Amy C Degnim, Andrew McKeon, Eoin P Flanagan, Sean J Pittock, Elizabeth B Habermann
PURPOSE: Paraneoplastic neurologic disease (PND) is an aberrant immune-mediated response against the nervous system triggered by malignancy. Given the rarity, a paucity of data describing breast cancer-related PND (BC-PND) exists; we sought to further examine this specific patient population. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients at our institution from 1997 to 2016 with BC-PND. Retrospective review with a descriptive analysis determined factors associated with PND and BC, which were compared to national breast cancer median of age (61 years) and average stage at diagnosis (60% local disease)...
November 7, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111419/diagnosis-of-multiple-system-atrophy
#4
REVIEW
Jose-Alberto Palma, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Horacio Kaufmann
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) may be difficult to distinguish clinically from other disorders, particularly in the early stages of the disease. An autonomic-only presentation can be indistinguishable from pure autonomic failure. Patients presenting with parkinsonism may be misdiagnosed as having Parkinson disease. Patients presenting with the cerebellar phenotype of MSA can mimic other adult-onset ataxias due to alcohol, chemotherapeutic agents, lead, lithium, and toluene, or vitamin E deficiency, as well as paraneoplastic, autoimmune, or genetic ataxias...
October 23, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110638/application-of-the-2016-diagnostic-approach-for-autoimmune-encephalitis-from-lancet-neurology-to-chinese-patients
#5
Lin Li, Lin Sun, Rong Du, Yuanchu Zheng, Feifei Dai, Qiuying Ma, Jiawei Wang
BACKGROUND: A unified clinical approach to diagnose autoimmune encephalitis was published in Lancet Neurology in 2016. Purpose of our study is to examine the feasibility and reasonability of the 2016 "A clinical approach to diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis" in China with a retrospective study. METHODS: We retrospectively collected 95 cases of autoimmune encephalitis and non autoimmune encephalitis cases with detailed clinical data from Beijing Tongren Hospital and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)...
November 6, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104289/inflammatory-cns-disease-caused-by-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-status-and-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Lidia M Yshii, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Roland S Liblau
Cancer treatment strategies based on immune stimulation have recently entered the clinical arena, with unprecedented success. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) work by indiscriminately promoting immune responses, which target tumour-associated antigens or tumour-specific mutations. However, the augmented immune response, most notably the T cell response, can cause either direct neurotoxicity or, more commonly, indirect neurotoxic effects through systemic or local inflammatory mechanisms or autoimmune mechanisms...
November 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103425/cancer-and-autoimmunity-paraneoplastic-neurological-disorders-associated-with-neuroblastic-tumors
#7
Wendy G Mitchell, Franz Blaes
Cancer and autoimmunity come together in paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS), which reflect the remote, not direct, effects of cancer. In the pediatric population, a variety of PNS have been described, but the most common of these rare disorders are instigated by neuroblastic tumors, such as neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma. The main pediatric-onset neurological PNS are ROHHAD syndrome, anti-ANNA1 (anti-Hu), and opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. They manifest distinctive neurological features, which aid the diagnosis, though under-recognition still poses serious challenges and risks...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093415/a-case-of-paraneoplastic-cerebellar-degeneration-and-lambert-eaton-myasthenic-syndrome-associated-with-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-oropharynx
#8
Junji Takasugi, Munehisa Shimamura, Toru Koda, Toshihiro Kishikawa, Atsushi Hanamoto, Hidenori Inohara, Kazuaki Sato, Eiichi Morii, Masakatsu Motomura, Manabu Sakaguchi, Yuji Nakatsuji, Hideki Mochizuki
Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (PCD-LEMS) are usually associated with small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). PCD-LEMS with extrapulmonary non-SCLC tumors; however, has not been previously reported. A 78-year-old man presented with dysarthria, dysphagia, staggering gait, and lower extremity muscle fatigue. He was diagnosed with PCD-LEMS associated with neuroendocrine carcinoma of the oropharynx, based on the histological findings of the biopsy, the existence of antibodies against P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels, and an incremental response of the compound muscle action potentials during repetitive nerve stimulation tests...
November 1, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093239/paraneoplastic-arthritis-in-a-patient-with-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma
#9
Guntur Darmawan, Indra Wijaya, Laniyati Hamijoyo, Trinugroho Heri Fadjari
Paraneoplastic syndromes are a group of disorders associated with benign or malignant tumors but not related to mass effect or invasion directly. Paraneoplastic syndromes may affect any organic system of the human body, such as endocrine, neurologic, dermatologic, hematologic, rheumatologic. Paraneoplastic rheumatic syndromes are not quite common, about 7-10% of paraneoplastic syndromes, and may mimic rheumatic diseases. We present an interesting case of paraneoplastic arthritis in a woman with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma...
July 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078851/acquired-hemophilia-and-anti-hu-paraneoplastic-neurologic-syndrome-in-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Efi Aggelopoulou, Gerasimos Evangelatos, Konstantina Tzavida, Vasiliki Koulouri, Nikolaos Lazaridis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058581/opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-japanese-encephalitis-a-case-report
#11
Subatharshini Sountharalingam, H M M T B Herath, Dharshana Wijegunasinghe, Sunethra Senanayke
BACKGROUND: Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome is a rare neurological disorder that usually manifests as a paraneoplastic phenomenon. Although some viruses are reported to cause this condition, opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome by Japanese encephalitis has not been reported previously. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present the case of a 31-year-old Sri Lankan woman who presented with fever, altered level of consciousness, opsoclonus, and facial myoclonus. She was diagnosed as having Japanese encephalitis based on cerebrospinal fluid and serum Japanese encephalitis-specific immunoglobulin M antibody and characteristic magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030766/diagnostics-of-paraneoplastic-neurological-syndromes
#12
REVIEW
Marco Zoccarato, Matteo Gastaldi, Luigi Zuliani, Tiziana Biagioli, Marco Brogi, Gaetano Bernardi, Elena Corsini, Elena Bazzigaluppi, Raffaella Fazio, Claudia Giannotta, Eduardo Nobile-Orazio, Gianna Costa, Raffaele Iorio, Amelia Evoli, Sara Mariotto, Sergio Ferrari, Elisabetta Galloni, Valentina De Riva, Elisabetta Zardini, Diego Franciotta, Bruno Giometto
This document presents the guidelines for onconeural antibody testing that have been developed following a consensus process built on questionnaire-based surveys, internet contacts, and discussions at workshops of the sponsoring Italian Association of Neuroimmunology (AINI) congresses. Essential clinical information on paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, indications and limits of onconeural antibody testing, instructions for result interpretation, and an agreed laboratory protocol (Appendix) are reported for the communicative community of neurologists and clinical pathologists...
October 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021436/multiple-myeloma-presenting-with-autoimmune-autonomic-ganglionopathy
#13
Yoshiki Nakae, Mizuki Hyuga, Wataru Kishimoto, Akiko Fukunaga, Sumie Tabata, Yoshitomo Maesako, Nobuyoshi Arima, Yuta Terada, Kenichi Komatsu, Osamu Higuchi, Shunya Nakane
Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy is an autonomic disorder that occurs as a symptom of paraneoplastic neurological syndrome. To date, there have been no reports on multiple myeloma with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. A 37-year-old Japanese woman suffered from orthostatic hypotension was diagnosed with multiple myeloma (IgG kappa type), and a serological examination revealed the presence of anti-ganglionic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (anti-gAChR) antibodies. She was treated for multiple myeloma, as a result, the autonomic disturbance improved and her anti-gAChR antibody titer decreased to undetectable levels, despite the fact that she only achieved a partial remission of multiple myeloma...
October 11, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987176/immune-mediated-disorders
#14
Romana Höftberger, Hans Lassmann
Paraneoplastic and autoimmune encephalitis comprise a group of immune-mediated disorders that are associated with different immune effector mechanisms. Classic paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes are triggered by an antitumor immune response. The disease is considered to result from a T-cell response; in addition, patients harbour high titers of autoantibodies against intracellular antigens that are considered as epiphenomenon but are useful diagnostic markers. Neuropathology consists of T-cell-dominated inflammation, marked neuronal loss, and microglial activation with upregulation of HLA-DR...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984777/anti-ma2-associated-limbic-encephalitis-with-coexisting-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy-in-a-patient-with-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-a-case-report
#15
Weina Ju, Baochang Qi, Xu Wang, Yu Yang
RATIONALE: We report the rare case of a 74-year-old man with anti-Ma2-associated paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome (PNS), and review and analyze the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient presented with a 5-month history of muscle weakness, progressive body aches, and weakness and numbness in both lower extremities. Before his hospitalization, he had experienced cognitive function decline; ptosis, inward gaze, and vertical gaze palsy in the right eye; and occasional visual hallucinations...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975404/neuronal-autoantibodies-differentiating-clinically-relevant-and-clinically-irrelevant-results
#16
Hesham Abboud, Ian Rossman, Maureen A Mealy, Eddie Hill, Nicolas Thompson, Aditya Banerjee, John Probasco, Michael Levy
The aim of this study is to compare the rates of clinically relevant and clinically irrelevant neuronal autoantibodies among patients presenting with new neurological symptoms. We reviewed 401 neurological patients who were tested for the Mayo-Clinic paraneoplastic panel from January 2014 to December 2014 at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. We divided antibody-positive patients into two groups: clinically relevant (CR), in which a recognizable autoimmune or paraneoplastic syndrome was confirmed, and clinically irrelevant (CI), in which an autoimmune/paraneoplastic etiology was initially suspected but an alternative diagnosis was eventually found...
November 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959231/demographic-clinical-and-immunologic-features-of-389-children-with-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Michael R Pranzatelli, Elizabeth D Tate, Nathan R McGee
Pediatric-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a devastating neuroinflammatory, often paraneoplastic, disorder. The objective was to characterize demographic, clinical, and immunologic aspects in the largest cohort reported to date. Cross-sectional data were collected on 389 children in an IRB-approved, observational study at the National Pediatric Myoclonus Center. Non-parametric statistical analysis was used. OMS manifested in major racial/ethnic groups, paralleling US population densities. Median onset age was 1...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954337/-clinical-analysis-of-paraneoplastic-neurological-syndrome-associated-with-thymoma
#18
H S Liu, H T Ren, L X Zhou, S Q Li, B Peng, L Y Cui, H Z Guan
Objectives: To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of antibody mediated paraneoplastic neurological syndrome associated with thymoma. Methods: From 2012 to 2017, the paraneoplastic antibody and neuron antibody were tested from both blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in consecutive patients clinically suspected with neurological paraneoplastic syndromes/unknown encephalitis in Peking Union Medical College Hospital.The clinical data, lab results, electrophysiological examinations, imaging features, treatment and clinical prognosis were collected...
September 19, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928949/plasmapheresis-in-neurological-disorders-six-years-experience-from-university-clinical-center-tuzla
#19
Osman Sinanović, Sanela Zukić, Adnan Burina, Nermina Pirić, Renata Hodžić, Mirza Atić, Mirna Alečković-Halilović, Enisa Mešić
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is an extracorporeal blood purification technique that is designed to remove substances with a large molecular weight. The TPE procedure includes removal of antibodies, alloantibodies, immune complexes, monoclonal protein, toxins or cytokines, and involves the replenishment of a specific plasma factor. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical response to TPE in various neurological patients, and to assess the clinical response to this therapy...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926420/seronegative-paraneoplastic-limbic-encephalitis-associated-with-thymoma
#20
Jaime Toro, David Cuellar-Giraldo, Alejandra Duque, Karla Minota, Jorge Patiño, Manuel García
Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is an autoimmune syndrome characterized by the acute or subacute onset of encephalopathy, memory loss, confusion, temporal lobe seizures, and behavioral and mood changes. Although most patients with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis have antineuronal antibodies, advances in the field now permit the diagnosis without autoantibody test results. In this case illustrating the new diagnostic criteria, we report a 70-year-old woman who was brought to the emergency room after the acute onset of cognitive impairment, altered mental status, and choreoathetoid movements...
September 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
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