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neurologic paraneoplastic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515556/subacute-noninfective-inflammatory-encephalopathy-our-experience-and-diagnostic-problems
#1
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Lakshminarayanapuram Gopal Viswanathan, Dodmalur Malikarjuna Sindhu, Anupama Ramakanth Pai
INTRODUCTION: Immune dysregulation associated encephalopathies present with significant psychiatric manifestations and only a few soft neurological and general systemic features. They are generally resistant to treatment with psychiatric medications. Generalized orthostatic myoclonus and faciobrachial dystonic seizures are mistaken as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients seen during 2010-2015 and diagnosed as noninfective encephalopathy were analyzed...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511811/autoimmune-voltage-gated-potassium-channelopathy-presenting-with-catecholamine-excess
#2
K Amy Stepp, Christin Folker, Marie Tanzer, Jennifer Hayman, Thomas Reynolds, Leah Mallory
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune voltage-gated potassium channelopathies have been associated with a range of neurological presenting symptoms, including central, peripheral, and autonomic dysfunction. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: We describe a 12-year-old boy who presented with nine months of pain, anxiety, and 30-pound weight loss. He was admitted for failure to thrive, then noted to be persistently hypertensive and tachycardic. Plasma metanephrines and urine metanephrines and catecholamines were elevated...
April 8, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481801/fdg-avid-keloid-on-pet-ct-imaging
#3
Zu-Gui Li
Keloid is a benign fibroproliferative growths resulting from an overexuberant healing response. A 51-year-old man with a 20-year history of keloid formation presented with a 1-year history of unexplained progressive weakness of both lower limbs. He was clinically suspected of having paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome. FDG PET/CT was performed to exclude underlying malignancy. FDG PET/CT revealed a giant FDG-avid keloid in the anterior chest wall without any other abnormal FDG uptake in the body. We emphasize that a benign FDG-avid keloid should be considered in the differential diagnosis of FDG-avid cutaneous lesions on PET/CT...
May 5, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458906/delayed-dyskinesia-and-prolonged-psychosis-in-a-patient-presenting-with-profound-hyponatraemia
#4
Victoria John, Philip Evans, Atul Kalhan
SUMMARY: A 65-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency unit with a 48 h history of generalised weakness and confusion. On examination, she had mild slurring of speech although there was no other focal neurological deficit. She had profound hyponatraemia (serum sodium level of 100 mmol/L) on admission with the rest of her metabolic parameters being within normal range. Subsequent investigations confirmed the diagnosis of small-cell lung cancer with paraneoplastic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD)...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432174/postintervention-acute-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome
#5
Annelise Aquilina, Nicola Dingli, Josanne Aquilina
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare, neurological condition affecting 1 in 10 000 000 people annually. Opsoclonus, defined as involuntary rapid, multivectorial oscillations of the eyes, together with ataxia and myoclonus are usually present. OMS may be paraneoplastic: often associated with occult neuroblastoma in childhood and with breast carcinoma or small cell lung carcinoma in adults. Other aetiologies include viral or toxic agents. The pathogenesis is thought to be immune mediated. A 37-year-old woman with previous inflammatory cranial mononeuropathies was admitted for elective dilatation and curettage (D&C)...
April 21, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417344/biotherapy-in-inflammatory-diseases-of-the-cns-current-knowledge-and-applications
#6
REVIEW
Nicolas Collongues, Laure Michel, Jérôme de Seze
Biotherapy represents an innovative therapeutic approach that includes immunotherapy (vaccines, apheresis, and antibodies); gene therapy; and stem cell transplants. Their development helps to cross the bridge from bench to bedside and brings new hope of a cure for severe diseases in different fields of medicine. In neurology, a growing range of applications is being developed for these medications. Valuable results are now available in the field of autoimmunity, neuro-oncology, paraneoplastic manifestations, and neurodegenerative disorders...
May 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413402/paraneoplastic-peripheral-nervous-system-manifestations-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Ingrid Yang, Joanna Jaros, Danny Bega
Neurologic symptoms secondary to a paraneoplastic syndrome may be the presenting manifestation of a previously undiagnosed cancer, and alertness to these syndromes may provide an opportunity for early detection and treatment of a cancer. Paraneoplastic weakness is a rare manifestation of renal cell carcinoma and may present with variable electrophysiological features. We present a case of a patient with progressive weakness, sensory changes, and urinary retention, with electrophysiological features suggestive of a complex peripheral nervous system syndrome...
January 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389060/paraneoplastic-limbic-encephalitis-with-sox1-and-pca2-antibodies-and-relapsing-neurological-symptoms-in-an-adolescent-with-hodgkin-lymphoma
#8
M Kunstreich, J H Kreth, P T Oommen, J Schaper, M Karenfort, O Aktas, D Tibussek, F Distelmaier, A Borkhardt, M Kuhlen
BACKGROUND: Immune cross-reactivity between malignant and normal tissues causes the rare, so called paraneoplastic syndrome (PS). In approximately 60% of the patients, various onconeural antibodies are detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and are associated with typical tumour entities. METHODS: We report an unusual case of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE) in a 17-year-old adolescent with classical Hodgkin lymphoma. RESULTS: He presented with a variety of neurologic and neuropsychiatric symptoms, profound B-symptoms and typical MRI findings including hyperintense lesions with contrast enhancement in the medial temporal lobe and limbic system...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385184/cerebrospinal-fluid-markers-of-neuronal-and-glial-cell-damage-in-patients-with-autoimmune-neurologic-syndromes-with-and-without-underlying-malignancies
#9
Radu Constantinescu, David Krýsl, Kerstin Andrén, Fredrik Asztély, Filip Bergquist, Henrik Zetterberg, Ulf Andreasson, Markus Axelsson, Elinor Ben Menachem, Daniel Jons, Ubah Mahamud, Clas Malmeström, Lars Rosengren, Kaj Blennow
Autoimmune neurologic syndromes can be paraneoplastic (associated with malignancies and/or onconeural antibodies), or non-paraneoplastic. Their clinical presentation is often similar. As prognosis is related to malignancy treatment, better biomarkers are needed to identify patients with malignancy. We investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of neuronal (neurofilament light chain, NFL and total tau protein, T-tau) and glial (glial fibrillary acidic protein) damage. CSF-NFL and T-tau were increased in both paraneoplastic and non-paraneoplastic autoimmune syndromes...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381934/paraneoplastic-neurological-disorder-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#10
Sze Yin Ng, Min Han Kongg, Mohd Razif Mohamad Yunus
Paraneoplastic neurological disorder (PND) is a condition due to immune cross-reactivity between the tumour cells and the normal tissue, whereby the "onconeural" antibodies attack the normal host nervous system. It can present within weeks to months before or after the diagnosis of malignancies. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is associated with paraneoplastic syndrome, for example, dermatomyositis, and rarely with a neurological disorder. We report on a case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with probable PND. Otolaryngologists, oncologists and neurologists need to be aware of this condition in order to make an accurate diagnosis and to provide prompt treatment...
March 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377827/anti-yo-mediated-paraneoplastic-cerebellar-degeneration-associated-with-pseudobulbar-affect-in-a-patient-with-breast-cancer
#11
Allison N Martin, Patrick M Dillon, David E Jones, David R Brenin, David A Lapides
Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is a rare anti-Yo mediated paraneoplastic syndromes rarely that is infrequently associated with breast cancer. We present a case of a 52-year-old female presenting with diplopia, gait instability, dysarthria, dysphagia, nystagmus, and, most notably, new onset paroxysmal episodes of uncontrollable crying concerning for pseudobulbar affect (PBA). Serologic testing showed anti-Yo antibodies. The patient was found to have stage IIIA breast cancer as the inciting cause of the paraneoplastic syndrome...
2017: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371408/two-cases-of-humoral-hypercalcemia-of-malignancy-complicating-infantile-fibrosarcoma
#12
Ryan Hirschfeld, Jennifer J G Welch, Douglas J Harrison, Robin Kremsdorf, Anjulika Chawla
We report two infants with infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS) complicated by severe hypercalcemia. Assessment demonstrated suppressed parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels with elevated circulating levels of parathyroid hormone related protein, indicating the diagnosis of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM). HHM is a paraneoplastic syndrome rarely associated with pediatric malignancies. Hypercalcemia manifested clinically with neurologic symptoms and soft tissue calcium deposition and required aggressive management with intravenous fluids, diuretics, and supplemental electrolytes...
March 29, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344867/cd4-and-cd8-t-cells-are-both-needed-to-induce-paraneoplastic-neurological-disease-in-a-mouse-model
#13
Christina Gebauer, Béatrice Pignolet, Lidia Yshii, Emilie Mauré, Jan Bauer, Roland Liblau
Paraneoplastic neurological disorders (PNDs) are rare human autoimmune diseases that mostly affect the central nervous system (CNS). They are triggered by an efficient immune response against a neural self-antigen that is ectopically expressed in neoplastic tumors. Due to this shared antigenic expression, the immune system reacts not only to tumor cells but also to neural cells resulting in neurological damage. Growing data point to a major role of cell-mediated immunity in PNDs associated to autoantibodies against intracellular proteins...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320147/malignancy-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-a-twelve-year-single-center-study
#14
Fu Liong Hiew, Yusuf A Rajabally
The relationship between Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and malignancy is uncertain. We retrospectively analyzed data of 118 consecutive patients admitted with GBS from Birmingham, U.K. (2001-2012). We calculated relative cancer risk using different definitions and determined characteristics of malignancy-associated GBS. Malignancy was globally commoner in our GBS cohort compared to the general population (odds ratio: 2.08; CI: 1.06-3.71; p=0.036). However, this was unconfirmed if paraneoplastic criteria were applied...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298841/etiological-profile-of-noncompressive-myelopathies-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-northeast-india
#15
Ashok Kumar Kayal, Munindra Goswami, Marami Das, Lakhshya Jyoti Basumatary, Suvorit Subhas Bhowmick, Baiakmenlang Synmon
BACKGROUND: The discovery of antibodies against aquaporin-4 and evolving concepts of noncompressive myelopathies in the 21(st) century have made a major impact on the etiological profile of these diseases, with few cases turning out to be idiopathic. OBJECTIVE: To find causes of noncompressive myelopathy in a tertiary care hospital of Northeast India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational study was carried out in the Neurology Department of Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, from September 2013 to February 2016...
January 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285700/autoimmune-paraneoplastic-syndromes-associated-to-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-part-3-neurological-paraneoplastic-syndromes-involving-the-central-nervous-system
#16
REVIEW
Georgiana Bentea, Claudine Sculier, Bogdan Grigoriu, Anne-Pascale Meert, Valérie Durieux, Thierry Berghmans, Jean-Paul Sculier
The development of new immune treatment in oncology and particularly for lung cancer may induce new complications, particularly activation or reactivation of auto-immune diseases. In this context, a systematic review on the auto-immune paraneoplastic syndromes that can complicate lung cancer appears useful. This article is the third of a series of five and deals mainly with neurological paraneoplastic syndromes involving the central nervous system.
April 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261149/diagnostic-value-of-positron-emission-tomography-combined-with-computed-tomography-for-evaluating-critically-ill-neurological-patients
#17
Knut Kurt William Kampe, Roman Rotermund, Milena Tienken, Götz Thomalla, Marc Regier, Susanne Klutmann, Stefan Kluge
PURPOSE: (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is a promising new tool for the identification of inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic foci. The aim of our work was to evaluate the diagnostic value of FDG-PET/CT in patients treated on a neurological/neurosurgical ICU or stroke unit. METHODS: We performed a single-center, 10-year, retrospective evaluation of the value of FDG-PET/CT in critically ill adult patients with severe neurological disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259863/-review-of-the-psychiatric-aspects-of-anti-nmda-n-methyl-d-aspartic-acid-receptor-encephalitis-case-report-and-our-plans-for-a-future-study
#18
Levente Herman, Ildiko Reka Zsigmond, Laszlo Peter, Janos M Rethelyi
Anti-NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor) encephalitis, first described in 2007, is a rare, autoimmune limbic encephalitis. In half of the cases anti-NMDAR antibodies are paraneoplastic manifestations of an underlying tumor (mostly ovarian teratoma). In the early stage of the disease psychiatric symptoms are prominent, therefore 60-70% of the patients are first treated in a psychiatric department. In most of the cases, typical neurological symptoms appear later. Besides the clinical picture and typical symptoms, verifying presence of IgG antibodies in the serum or CSF is necessary to set up the diagnosis...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256369/anti-hu-paraneoplastic-brainstem-encephalitis-caused-by-a-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumor-presenting-with-central-hypoventilation
#19
Marc Najjar, Andrew Taylor, Surbhi Agrawal, Tito Fojo, Alexander E Merkler, Marc K Rosenblum, Laura Lennihan, Michael D Kluger
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes are rare autoimmune manifestations of malignancies associated with specific antibodies. Anti-Hu associated brainstem encephalitis, a well-described syndrome, usually presents subacutely with preferential involvement of the medulla. Anti-Hu antibodies target intraneuronal antigens and are therefore highly correlated with neurological syndromes when present concomitantly with a neoplasm. Reported is a case of anti-Hu brainstem encephalitis associated with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) presenting with central hypoventilation...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251917/long-term-survival-in-paraneoplastic-lambert-eaton-myasthenic-syndrome
#20
Paul Maddison, Paul Gozzard, Matthew J Grainge, Bethan Lang
OBJECTIVE: To establish whether improved tumor survival in patients with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) was due to known prognostic risk factors or an effect of LEMS independently, perhaps as a result of circulating factors. METHODS: We undertook a prospective observational cohort study of patients with LEMS attending Nottingham University Hospitals, UK, or via the British Neurological Surveillance Unit. In parallel, patients with a new diagnosis of biopsy-proven SCLC were enrolled, examined for neurologic illness, and followed up until death or study end...
March 1, 2017: Neurology
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