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First generation antipsychotics

Sapana R Patel, Hanga Galfavy, Marcia B Kimeldorf, Lisa B Dixon, Helen Blair Simpson
OBJECTIVE: This study examined preferences for and acceptability of treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: Through an online survey, adults who self-reported OCD chose their preferred evidence-based treatments, rated acceptability of novel treatments, and answered open-ended questions about their preferences. Analyses examined associations between demographic, clinical, and treatment variables and first-line and augmentation treatment preferences...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Michael Bodnar, Ashok K Malla, Carolina Makowski, M Mallar Chakravarty, Ridha Joober, Martin Lepage
BACKGROUND: Current neuroscience literature has related treatment with aripiprazole to improved memory performance and subcellular changes in the hippocampus. AIMS: To explore the volumetric changes in hippocampal grey matter in people with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) treated with second-generation antipsychotics. METHOD: Baseline and 1-year follow-up magnetic resonance images were obtained. Hippocampal volumes were estimated by using FreeSurfer and MAGeT-Brain...
March 2016: BJPsych Open
Viacheslav Terevnikov, Jan-Henry Stenberg, Jari Tiihonen, Mark Burkin, Grigori Joffe
AIM: Sexual dysfunction, common in schizophrenia, may be further exaggerated by antipsychotics, especially those of First Generation (FGAs), and antidepressants, such as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRs). Mirtazapine, an antidepressant characterized by its different action mechanism compared with that of the majority of other antidepressants, may improve SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in patients with depression. It is unknown, however, whether mirtazapine improves sexual functioning in schizophrenia...
October 5, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Ala Szczepura, Deidre Wild, Amir J Khan, David W Owen, Thomas Palmer, Tariq Muhammad, Michael D Clark, Clive Bowman
OBJECTIVES: To assess associations between the launch of the National Dementia Strategy (NDS) and antipsychotic prescribing in long-term residential care (LTC) in England. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective analysis of prescribing patterns in 616 LTC institutions (31 619 residents) following launch of the NDS, using information from electronic medicines management system. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Antipsychotic prescribing point prevalence (PP) for all residents in a cross section of LTC settings over a 4-year period following NDS launch...
2016: BMJ Open
Nadja P Maric, Milica J Jovicic, Marina Mihaljevic, Cedo Miljevic
Preclinical Research After the identification of the schizophrenia as an illness over a century ago, treatment of affected individuals included unspecific, mostly very robust methods including deep insulin coma and lobectomy/leucotomy. The first relatively specific treatment of schizophrenia started about 60 years ago with the antipsychotic chlorpromazine. All currently approved antipsychotic drugs block dopamine receptors, indicating that manipulation of dopaminergic function is fundamental to a therapeutic response in psychosis...
September 16, 2016: Drug Development Research
Kwok H C Choy, David M Shackleford, Daniel T Malone, Shailesh N Mistry, Rahul T Patil, Peter J Scammells, Christopher J Langmead, Christos Pantelis, Patrick M Sexton, Johnathan R Lane, Arthur Christopoulos
Current antipsychotics are effective in treating the positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia, but they remain suboptimal in targeting cognitive dysfunction. Recent studies have suggested that positive allosteric modulation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) may provide a novel means of improving cognition. However, very little is known about the potential of combination therapies in extending coverage across schizophrenic symptom domains. This study investigated the effect of the M1 mAChR positive allosteric modulator BQCA [1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid], alone or in combination with haloperidol (a first-generation antipsychotic), clozapine (a second-generation atypical antipsychotic), or aripiprazole (a third-generation atypical antipsychotic), in reversing deficits in sensorimotor gating and spatial memory induced by the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, MK-801 [(5R,10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine]...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Joshua D Rosenblat, Roger S McIntyre
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) mixed features specifier provides a less restrictive definition of mixed mood states, compared to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), including mood episodes that manifest with subthreshold symptoms of the opposite mood state. A limited number of studies have assessed the efficacy of treatments specifically for DSM-5-defined mixed features in mood disorders. As such, there is currently an inadequate amount of data to appropriately inform evidence-based treatment guidelines of DSM-5 defined mixed features...
September 15, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Jörg C Heinrich, Sainitin Donakonda, V Joachim Haupt, Petra Lennig, Yixin Zhang, Michael Schroeder
Drug resistance is an important open problem in cancer treatment. In recent years, the heat shock protein HSP27 (HSPB1) was identified as a key player driving resistance development. HSP27 is overexpressed in many cancer types and influences cellular processes such as apoptosis, DNA repair, recombination, and formation of metastases. As a result cancer cells are able to suppress apoptosis and develop resistance to cytostatic drugs. To identify HSP27 inhibitors we follow a novel computational drug repositioning approach...
September 8, 2016: Oncotarget
S Druais, A Doutriaux, M Cognet, A Godet, C Lançon, P Levy, L Samalin, P Guillon
INTRODUCTION: The course of schizophrenia can vary widely, and patients experience remission phases alternating with relapse episodes, which generally lead to hospitalisation and have a significant impact on the burden of disease. The prevalence of schizophrenia in France is estimated to be approximately 600,000 people, with an incidence of 10,000 new patients per year. Patients with schizophrenia represent the largest group of hospitalised patients in French public institutions and specialised centres, and the French authorities recognise that the management of schizophrenia is a major public health concern...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Christine Gottschling, Maren Geissler, Gianna Springer, Rainer Wolf, Georg Juckel, Andreas Faissner
The therapy of patients suffering the psychiatric disorder schizophrenia requires the usage of antipsychotic drugs that are classified into two different groups, the first-generation (FGAs) and the second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). This study compares the effects of the two FGAs haloperidol and flupentixol with those of the SGA olanzapine on synapse formation and synaptic activity of embryonic rat hippocampal neurons. To this end, the development of perineuronal nets (PNNs), the formation of synapses and the resulting spontaneous network activity under control and treatment conditions were studied using an indirect co-culture system of neurons and astrocytes in completely defined media...
September 8, 2016: Neuroscience
Sina Hafizi, Huai-Hsuan Tseng, Naren Rao, Thiviya Selvanathan, Miran Kenk, Richard P Bazinet, Ivonne Suridjan, Alan A Wilson, Jeffrey H Meyer, Gary Remington, Sylvain Houle, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi
OBJECTIVE: Neuroinflammation and abnormal immune responses are increasingly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies targeting the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) have been limited by high nonspecific binding of the first-generation radioligand, low-resolution scanners, small sample sizes, and psychotic patients being on antipsychotics or not being in the first episode of their illness. The present study uses the novel second-generation TSPO PET radioligand [(18)F]FEPPA to evaluate whether microglial activation is elevated in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of untreated patients with first-episode psychosis...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Wen-Yin Chen, Shih-Ku Lin
We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the subjective experiences and clinical effects of first-generation long-acting injectable (FGA-LAI) antipsychotics with those of risperidone long-acting injectables (RIS-LAIs) in 434 schizophrenia patients. Compared with the RIS-LAI group, the patients treated with FGA-LAIs had a significantly longer duration of illness and LAI treatment and were older. Our results suggest that patients treated with FGA-LAI have more satisfactory subjective experiences compared with patients treated with RIS-LAI and that both FGA-LAI and RIS-LAI treatments can prevent relapses and hospitalization...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Sadhvi Mythili Sarangula, Starlin Vijay Mythri, Y Sanjay, M S Reddy
After 1 year of introduction of olanzapine long-acting injectable (LAI) in India, many psychiatrists believe that it is a very affordable, well-tolerated, and effective second generation long-acting antipsychotic depot compared to not well tolerated but cheap first generation antipsychotic depots and to other second generation depots which are costly. However, reports of its possible adverse events in clinical settings are not yet published. We report what probably might be the first case of postinjection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS) in India...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
G Désaméricq, K Youssov, P Charles, N Saleh, A Olivier, C Sherer-Gagou, C Verny, A-C Bachoud-Lévi
OBJECTIVE: Evidence-based medicine is a difficult goal to achieve in rare diseases where randomized controlled trials are lacking. This report provides guidelines that capitalize on both the literature and expertise of the French National Huntington Disease Reference Centre to optimalize pharmacological therapeutic interventions for Huntington's disease (HD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: HD experts conducted a systematic analysis of the literature from 1965 to 2013, using a scoring procedure established by the French National Authority for Health...
August 2016: Revue Neurologique
Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Jose Maria Pelayo-Teran, Jacqueline Mayoral-van Son
Implementing the most suitable treatment strategies and making appropriate clinical decisions about individuals with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) is a complex and crucial task, with relevant impact in illness outcome. Treatment approaches in the early stages should go beyond choosing the right antipsychotic drug and should also address tractable factors influencing the risk of relapse. Effectiveness and likely metabolic and endocrine disturbances differ among second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and should guide the choice of the first-line treatment...
August 23, 2016: Neurology and Therapy
E Unti, S Mazzucchi, G Palermo, U Bonuccelli, R Ceravolo
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this review is to overview the pharmacological features of neuroleptics experienced in the treatment of Huntington's disease (HD) symptoms. Despite a large number of case reports, randomized controlled trials (RCT) and drug comparison studies are lacking. AREAS COVERED: After evaluating current guidelines and clinical unmet needs we searched PubMed for the term 'Huntington's disease' cross referenced with the terms 'Antipsychotic drugs' 'Neuroleptic drugs' and single drug specific names...
August 23, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Kai-Fang Hu, Yu-Hsiang Chou, Yen-Hsia Wen, Kun-Pin Hsieh, Jui-Hsiu Tsai, Pinchen Yang, Yi-Hsin Yang, Chun-Hung Richard Lin
We investigated the association between antipsychotic medications and the risk of dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. We enroled a nationwide cohort of patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia within 1 year of dental caries development. Exposure to antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to their type and duration, and the association between exposure and dental caries was assessed through logistic regressions. Of the 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2149 (59...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Masato Matsuo, Ichiya Sano, Yoshifumi Ikeda, Etsuko Fujihara, Masaki Tanito
OBJECTIVE: We report 3 cases of intraoperative floppy-iris syndrome (IFIS) during cataract surgery in patients without a history of selective α1-blocker use but with a long-term history of antipsychotic drug use. We reviewed previously reported cases of antipsychotic drug-associated IFIS cases. DESIGN: Observational case series. RESULTS: In case 1, bilateral IFIS developed in a 39-year-old man with chronic angle-closure glaucoma. He had used several classes of antipsychotic drugs to treat schizophrenia, including the first-generation antipsychotic drugs haloperidol and chlorpromazine, the dopamine system stabilizer aripiprazole, the dopamine serotonin antagonists olanzapine and quetiapine, and the serotonin dopamine antagonists risperidone and blonanserin for 7 years...
August 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Mihai Mutică, Ileana Marinescu, Felicia Militaru, Mihail Cristian Pîrlog, Ion Udriştoiu
Paranoid schizophrenia with long-term course is a challenge for the clinical and therapeutic research, particularly because chronic course is difficult to identify due to the high rate of mortality in this category of patients. The therapeutic stability on an antipsychotic molecule (haloperidol) is indeed an exception, since the current trend in the case of unfavorable course is based on therapeutic versatility and polypharmacy. Haloperidol is the first-generation antipsychotic that is referred in the therapeutic guidelines as the "golden standard" regarding its efficacy on positive symptoms...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Peter F Buckley, Nina R Schooler, Donald C Goff, Alex Kopelowicz, John Lauriello, Theo C Manschreck, Alan Mendelowitz, Del D Miller, Daniel R Wilson, Donna Ames, Juan R Bustillo, John M Kane, Stephen W Looney
OBJECTIVE: In a pragmatic clinical trial, this study sought to compare relapses among patients receiving either long-acting injectable or oral second-generation antipsychotics. METHODS: PROACTIVE (Preventing Relapse Oral Antipsychotics Compared to Injectables Evaluating Efficacy), a prior 30-month relapse prevention study, compared use of a long-acting injectable second-generation antipsychotic with use of an oral second-generation antipsychotic by 305 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and found similar rates of first relapse between groups (42% with injectable medication, 32% with oral medication)...
August 1, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
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