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First generation antipsychotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338897/specialized-information-processing-deficits-and-distinct-metabolomic-profiles-following-tm-domain-disruption-of-nrg1
#1
Colm M P O'Tuathaigh, Naina Mathur, Matthew J O'Callaghan, Lynsey MacIntyre, Richard Harvey, Donna Lai, John L Waddington, Benjamin S Pickard, David G Watson, Paula M Moran
Although there is considerable genetic and pathologic evidence for an association between neuregulin 1 (NRG1) dysregulation and schizophrenia, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Mutant mice containing disruption of the transmembrane (TM) domain of the NRG1 gene constitute a heuristic model for dysregulation of NRG1-ErbB4 signaling in schizophrenia. The present study focused on hitherto uncharacterized information processing phenotypes in this mutant line. Using a mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach, we also quantified levels of unique metabolites in brain...
March 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332704/risk-of-discontinuation-of-antipsychotic-long-acting-injections-vs-oral-antipsychotics-in-real-life-prescribing-practice-a-community-based-study
#2
H Verdoux, E Pambrun, M Tournier, J Bezin, A Pariente
OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of discontinuation of ambulatory antipsychotic treatment in persons treated with antipsychotic long-acting injections (LAIs) or by oral antipsychotics (OAPs). METHODS: The study was performed in a representative sample of persons newly treated with OAPs (n = 6904) affiliated to the French Insurance Healthcare system. The risk of all-cause discontinuation was compared in patients prescribed OAPs (n = 246) vs. matched patients prescribed LAIs (n = 246) using multivariate survival analyses...
March 23, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297592/a-systematized-review-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-pregnant-women-balancing-between-risks-of-untreated-illness-and-risks-of-drug-related-adverse-effects
#3
Sarah Tosato, Umberto Albert, Simona Tomassi, Felice Iasevoli, Claudia Carmassi, Silvia Ferrari, Maria Giulia Nanni, Alessandra Nivoli, Umberto Volpe, Anna Rita Atti, Andrea Fiorillo
OBJECTIVE: To summarize risks related to (1) illness and (2) second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) treatment in pregnant women and their offspring. Concerning illness-related risks, we focused on bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, psychiatric disorders for which SGAs are preferentially prescribed. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Ovid, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library were searched from the date of the first available article to October 2015 using the following key terms: pregnancy OR gestation OR bipolar disorder OR schizophrenia...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294137/relationship-between-duration-of-untreated-psychosis-and-intrinsic-corticostriatal-connectivity-in-patients-with-early-phase-schizophrenia
#4
Deepak K Sarpal, Delbert G Robinson, Christina Fales, Todd Lencz, Miklos Argyelan, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Juan A Gallego, Majnu John, John M Kane, Philip R Szeszko, Anil K Malhotra
Patients with first-episode psychosis experience psychotic symptoms for a mean of up to two years prior to initiation of treatment, and long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Meanwhile, evidence compiled from numerous studies suggests that longer DUP is not associated with structural brain abnormalities. To date, few studies have examined the relationship between DUP and functional neuroimaging measures. In the present study, we used seed-based resting-state functional connectivity to examine the impact of DUP on corticostriatal circuitry...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283227/clozapine-as-the-most-efficacious-antipsychotic-for-activating-erk-1-2-kinases-role-of-5-ht2a-receptor-agonism
#5
Stefano Aringhieri, Shivakumar Kolachalam, Claudio Gerace, Marco Carli, Valeria Verdesca, Maria Giulia Brunacci, Chiara Rossi, Chiara Ippolito, Anna Solini, Giovanni U Corsini, Marco Scarselli
Antipsychotics (APDs) are divided into first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) based on the concept that SGAs have reduced motor side effects. With this premise, this study examined in HeLa and other cell lines the effects of different APDs on the activation of ERK1/2 (Extracellular signal-regulated kinases) and AKT (Protein Kinase B) kinases, which may be affected in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Among the SGAs, Clozapine clearly resulted as the most effective drug inducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation with potency in the low micromolar range...
March 7, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282638/high-doses-of-antipsychotic-polypharmacy-are-related-to-an-increase-in-serum-levels-of-pentosidine-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#6
Takahiro Sannohe, Tohru Ohnuma, Masayoshi Takeuchi, Eriko Tani, Yasue Miki, Mayu Takeda, Narimasa Katsuta, Yuto Takebayashi, Toru Nakamura, Shohei Nishimon, Ayako Kimoto, Ryoko Higashiyama, Nobuto Shibata, Tomohito Gohda, Yusuke Suzuki, Sho-Ichi Yamagishi, Yasuhiko Tomino, Heii Arai
BACKGROUND: Carbonyl stress in patients with schizophrenia has been reported to be reflected by an increase in peripheral pentosidine levels. This cohort study tested whether the accumulation of pentosidine was related to the disease severity or the treatment (routine administration of high antipsychotic doses). METHODS: We followed up our original investigation using a new group of 137 patients with acute schizophrenia and 45 healthy subjects, and then pooled the two cohorts to conduct the following analysis on a total of 274 patients...
March 7, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280892/antidepressant-pharmacotherapy-in-old-age-depression-a-review-and-clinical-approach
#7
REVIEW
Nathalie Pruckner, Vjera Holthoff-Detto
PURPOSE: Depression in old age is a disabling disease associated with functional and cognitive decline severely affecting quality of life. Studies specifically investigating antidepressant treatment for this special cohort of patients remain scarce and results are often conflicting. A narrative literature review was undertaken, synthesizing findings from published studies, systematic reviews, and treatment guidelines specifically conducted in elderly depressed patients to summarize implications and current recommendations as well as gaps in evidence for old-age pharmacologic treatment...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266090/trends-in-antipsychotic-prescriptions-for-japanese-outpatients-during-2006-2012-a-descriptive-epidemiological-study
#8
Kenji Kochi, Izumi Sato, Chika Nishiyama, Sachiko Tanaka-Mizuno, Yuko Doi, Masaru Arai, Yosuke Fujii, Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Yusuke Ogawa, Toshi A Furukawa, Koji Kawakami
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the trends in antipsychotic prescriptions for outpatients in Japan, where a community-based approach to mental healthcare is emphasized. METHODS: This descriptive epidemiological study used claims data from 1038 community pharmacies across Japan. Outpatients who were ≥18 years old and receiving their initial antipsychotic prescription during 2006-2012 were evaluated. The annual trends were reported for monotherapies, polypharmacy, antipsychotic doses, and the concurrent prescription of psychotropic medications...
March 7, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265019/the-first-negative-allosteric-modulator-for-dopamine-d2-and-d3-receptors-sb269652-may-lead-to-a-new-generation-of-antipsychotic-drugs
#9
Mario Rossi, Irene Fasciani, Francesco Marampon, Roberto Maggio, Marco Scarselli
D2 and D3 dopamine receptors belong to the largest family of cell surface proteins in eukaryotes, the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Considering their crucial physiological functions and their relatively accessible cellular locations, GPCRs represent one of the most important classes of therapeutic targets. Until recently, the only strategy to develop drugs regulating GPCR activity was through the identification of compounds that directly acted on the orthosteric sites for endogenous ligands. However, many efforts have recently been made in order to identify small molecules that are able to interact with allosteric sites...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260229/is-there-consensus-across-international-evidence-based-guidelines-for-the-management-of-bipolar-disorder
#10
REVIEW
G B Parker, R K Graham, G Tavella
OBJECTIVE: To examine the level of agreement across professionally auspiced evidence-based guidelines for managing the bipolar disorders. METHODS: A literature search in PubMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and PsycInfo was undertaken using the search terms 'bipolar disorder' and 'guidelines', generating 11 evidence-based guidelines published by professional organisations over the 2002-2015 period. Each guideline was reviewed by two independent reviewers and key themes extracted via qualitative analyses...
March 5, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258365/dosing-and-switching-strategies-for-paliperidone-palmitate-3-month-formulation-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-based-on-population-pharmacokinetic-modeling-and-simulation-and-clinical-trial-data
#11
REVIEW
Mats O Magnusson, Mahesh N Samtani, Elodie L Plan, E Niclas Jonsson, Stefaan Rossenu, An Vermeulen, Alberto Russu
Paliperidone palmitate 3-month formulation (PP3M), a long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic, was recently approved in the US and Europe for the treatment of schizophrenia in adult patients who have already been treated with paliperidone palmitate 1-month formulation (PP1M) for ≥4 months. This article reviews the pharmacokinetic rationale for the approved dosing regimens for PP3M, dosing windows, management of missed doses and treatment discontinuation, switching to other formulations, and dosing in special populations...
March 4, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241816/influence-of-socioeconomic-status-on-antipsychotic-prescriptions-among-youth-in-france
#12
Olivier Bonnot, Mélanie Dufresne, Paula Herrera, Emmanuelle Michaud, Jacques Pivette, Anicet Chaslerie, Anne Sauvaget, Caroline Vigneau
BACKGROUND: Recent studies analysing the trends in antipsychotic (AP) prescriptions for children and adolescents have raised concerns regarding the influence of socioeconomic status. Previous findings have also shown variable prescription rates for first-generation (FG) and second-generation (SG) APs. METHOD: Our objectives were to assess the proportion of patients from low-income families receiving APs and the most commonly prescribed APs in France. We conducted a descriptive analysis of AP drugs dispensed during a 1-year period (July 1, 2013-June 30, 2014) in a northwestern region of France with 941,857 subjects less than 18 years old...
February 28, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235555/re-arrangements-of-gene-transcripts-at-glutamatergic-synapses-after-prolonged-treatments-with-antipsychotics-a-putative-link-with-synaptic-remodeling
#13
Elisabetta Filomena Buonaguro, Felice Iasevoli, Federica Marmo, Anna Eramo, Gianmarco Latte, Camilla Avagliano, Carmine Tomasetti, Andrea de Bartolomeis
OBJECTIVES: The postsynaptic density (PSD) represents a site of dopamine-glutamate integration. Despite multiple evidence of PSD involvement in antipsychotic-induced synaptic changes, there are no direct head-to-head comparisons of the effects at the PSD of antipsychotics with different receptor profile and at different doses after chronic administration. METHODS: Molecular imaging of gene expression was used to investigate whether chronic treatment with first and second generation antipsychotics (haloperidol, asenapine and olanzapine) may induce changes in the expression levels of PSD transcripts involved in schizophrenia pathophysiology, i...
February 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223031/effects-of-aripiprazole-quetiapine-and-ziprasidone-on-plasma-prolactin-levels-in-individuals-with-first-episode-nonaffective-psychosis-analysis-of-a-randomized-open-label-1year-study
#14
Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Victor Ortiz-Garcia de la Foz, Paula Suarez-Pinilla, Elsa M Valdizan, Rocío Pérez-Iglesias, Jose Antonio Amado-Señaris, M Teresa Garcia-Unzueta, Javier Labad, Christopher Correll, Rosa Ayesa-Arriola
RATIONALE: Hyperprolactinemia is considered a troubling adverse effect of antipsychotics. Direct comparisons among second generation antipsychotics are scant in clinical practice. We hypothesize prolactin-sparing second-generation antipsychotics may have differential effects on prolactin levels and that they may be influenced by sex. OBJECTIVES: To explore the differential effect of three widely used prolactin-sparing antipsychotics, aripiprazole, quetiapine and ziprasidone, on prolactin plasma levels in first episode non-affective psychosis during a 1year of treatment...
February 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208695/the-role-of-inhaled-loxapine-in-the-treatment-of-acute-agitation-in-patients-with-psychiatric-disorders-a-clinical-review
#15
REVIEW
Domenico de Berardis, Michele Fornaro, Laura Orsolini, Felice Iasevoli, Carmine Tomasetti, Andrea de Bartolomeis, Nicola Serroni, Alessandro Valchera, Alessandro Carano, Federica Vellante, Stefano Marini, Monica Piersanti, Giampaolo Perna, Giovanni Martinotti, Massimo Di Giannantonio
Loxapine is a first generation antipsychotic, belonging to the dibenzoxazepine class. Recently, loxapine has been reformulated at a lower dose, producing an inhaled powder that can be directly administered to the lungs to treat the agitation associated with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Thus, the aim of this narrative and clinical mini-review was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of inhaled loxapine in the treatment of acute agitation in patients with psychiatric disorders...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207919/tardive-dyskinesia-21st-century-may-bring-new-treatments-to-a-forgotten-disorder
#16
Gopalkumar Rakesh, Andrew Muzyk, Steven T Szabo, Sanjay Gupta, Chi-Un Pae, Prakash Masand
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a condition that was first described nearly 60 years ago. Despite the tremendous amount of research on pathophysiology and numerous follow-up studies to understand the course and prognosis of TD, effective treatment of the condition continued to elude us until recently. METHODS: We review and summarize clinical literature on TD, as well as provide an update on new treatments available. RESULTS: The emergence of tetrabenazine as a treatment modality decreased suffering and improved quality of life for patients...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202482/hyperactive-delirium-following-administration-of-intra-articular-corticosteroid
#17
Leona Lally, Geraldine McCarthy, Karena Meehan
Intra-articular administration of corticosteroids is a commonly used treatment for osteoarthritis as well as other inflammatory disorders of the joints. It is well known that delirium and psychosis can arise following the administration of oral corticosteroids but there are few documented cases of the development of acute hyperactive delirium with psychosis following intra-articular administration. We describe a case of an 82-year-old female patient with moderate dementia who developed a delirium with psychosis which responded well to a first-generation antipsychotic...
February 15, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199071/effect-of-antipsychotic-type-and-dose-changes-on-tardive-dyskinesia-and-parkinsonism-severity-in-patients-with-a-serious-mental-illness-the-cura%C3%A3-ao-extrapyramidal-syndromes-study-xii
#18
Charlotte L Mentzel, P Roberto Bakker, Jim van Os, Marjan Drukker, Glenn E Matroos, Hans W Hoek, Marina A J Tijssen, Peter N van Harten
OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of current treatment recommendations for parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia (TD) severity in patients with severe mental illness (SMI). METHODS: We present an 18-year prospective study including all 223 patients with SMI (as defined by the 1987 US National Institute of Mental Health, which were based on DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria) receiving care from the only psychiatric hospital of the former Netherlands Antilles. Eight clinical assessments (1992-2009) focused on movement disorders and medication use...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196698/-when-and-how-prescribe-antipsychotics
#19
S Tebeka, G Airagnes, F Limosin
Antipsychotics are commonly prescribed in the general population since they have many indications. They can be used in acute care such as agitation or behavior disorders, or to treat more characterized psychiatric disorders like psychotic or mood disorders. Consequently, any practitioner will have to prescribe or renew a prescription of antipsychotics. These treatments require a benefit/risk balance assessment taking into account the specific context of each patient. Indeed, antipsychotics have many side effects, mainly neurological (extrapyramidal syndrome, dyskinesia, akathisia), metabolic and cardiac...
February 10, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177063/prevalence-of-and-factors-associated-with-antipsychotic-polypharmacy-in-patients-with-serious-mental-illness-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-study-in-an-upper-middle-income-country
#20
Kerryn S Armstrong, Henk Temmingh
Objective: The aim of our study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) among patients with serious mental illness in the current South African health care context. Methods: We collected data on patient, illness, and treatment characteristics of patients discharged on one or more antipsychotic agents from January to June 2014. We analyzed the associations of APP with demographic and clinical variables using hierarchical multivariable logistic regression, and examined prescription patterns...
February 6, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
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