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First generation antipsychotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636569/diabetic-ketoacidosis-associated-with-antipsychotic-drugs-case-reports-and-a-review-of-literature
#1
Antonia Vuk, Martina Rojnic Kuzman, Maja Baretic, Martina Matovinovic Osvatic
BACKGROUND: Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are associated with metabolic disturbances. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a rare, but potentially fatal sign of acute glucose metabolism dysregulation linked to the use of SGAs. The aims of this article are to present patients with a history of psychotic disorders and of severe metabolic diabetic ketoacidosis, possibly associated with the use of antipsychotics, and to review the current literature on the topic of antipsychotic-induced DKA...
June 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619471/oral-haloperidol-or-olanzapine-intake-produces-distinct-and-region-specific-increase-in-cannabinoid-receptor-levels-that-is-prevented-by-high-fat-diet
#2
Foteini Delis, Lauren Rosko, Aditya Schroff, Kenneth E Leonard, Panayotis K Thanos
Clinical studies show higher levels of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) in the brain of schizophrenic patients while preclinical studies report a significant functional interaction between dopamine D2 receptors and CB1Rs as well as an upregulation of CB1Rs after antipsychotic treatment. These findings prompted us to study the effects of chronic oral intake of a first and a second generation antipsychotic, haloperidol and olanzapine, on the levels and distribution of CB1Rs in the rat brain. Rats consumed either regular chow or high-fat food and drank water, haloperidol drinking solution (1...
June 12, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617210/antipsychotic-medication-use-among-publicly-insured-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states
#3
Yoonyoung Park, Krista F Huybrechts, Jacqueline M Cohen, Brian T Bateman, Rishi J Desai, Elisabetta Patorno, Helen Mogun, Lee S Cohen, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
OBJECTIVE: Given the increasing use and broadening of indications for use of antipsychotic medications in the general population, as well as the paucity of information on the safety of this drug class during pregnancy, the study documented patterns of antipsychotic medication use among pregnant women. METHODS: Medicaid Analytic eXtract data (2001-2010) from pregnant women who delivered live-born infants were used. Antipsychotic use at both the class and the individual drug level was defined based on dispensed outpatient prescriptions...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614417/antipsychotic-medications-and-stroke-in-schizophrenia-a-case-crossover-study
#4
Wen-Yin Chen, Lian-Yu Chen, Hsing-Cheng Liu, Chi-Shin Wu, Shu-Yu Yang, Chun-Hung Pan, Shang-Ying Tsai, Chiao-Chicy Chen, Chian-Jue Kuo
BACKGROUND: The association between antipsychotic use and the risk of stroke in schizophrenic patients is controversial. We sought to study the association in a nationwide cohort with schizophrenia. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort of patients with schizophrenia (N = 31,976) derived from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 802 new-onset cases of stroke were identified within 10 years of follow-up (from 2000 through 2010). We designed a case-crossover study using 14-day windows to explore the risk factors of stroke and the association between antipsychotic drugs and the risk of stroke...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604733/imaging-microglial-activation-in-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-an-in-vivo-pet-study-with-18-f-feppa
#5
Sina Hafizi, Tania Da Silva, Cory Gerritsen, Michael Kiang, R Michael Bagby, Ivana Prce, Alan A Wilson, Sylvain Houle, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi
Several lines of evidence implicate microglial activation and abnormal immune response in the etiology of psychosis. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging studies of the translocator protein 18 kDa, TSPO, were limited by low affinity of the first-generation radioligand, low resolution scanners, and small sample sizes. Moreover, there is a dearth of literature on microglial activation in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. We used a novel second-generation TSPO radioligand, [(18)F]FEPPA, to examine whether microglial activation is elevated in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and hippocampus of antipsychotic-naïve CHR...
June 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599949/quetiapine-extended-release-versus-aripiprazole-in-children-and-adolescents-with-first-episode-psychosis-the-multicentre-double-blind-randomised-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-antipsychotics-tea-trial
#6
Anne Katrine Pagsberg, Pia Jeppesen, Dea Gowers Klauber, Karsten Gjessing Jensen, Ditte Rudå, Marie Stentebjerg-Olesen, Peter Jantzen, Simone Rasmussen, Eva Ann-Sofie Saldeen, Maj-Britt Glenn Lauritsen, Niels Bilenberg, Anne Dorte Stenstrøm, Louise Nyvang, Sarah Madsen, Thomas M Werge, Theis Lange, Christian Gluud, Maria Skoog, Per Winkel, Jens Richardt M Jepsen, Birgitte Fagerlund, Christoph U Correll, Anders Fink-Jensen
BACKGROUND: Head-to-head trials to guide antipsychotic treatment choices for paediatric psychosis are urgently needed because extrapolations from adult studies might not be implementable. In this superiority trial with two-sided significance testing, we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of quetiapine-extended release (quetiapine-ER) versus aripiprazole in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis, to determine whether differences between the two treatments were sufficient to guide clinicians in their choice of one drug over the other...
June 6, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580230/the-use-of-long-acting-injectable-antipsychotics-in-schizophrenia
#7
REVIEW
Seiya Miyamoto, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker
Schizophrenia is a mostly chronic mental disorder, and symptomatic relapse is frequently observed. It is often associated with social and/or occupational decline that can be difficult to reverse. Most patients with the illness need long-term pharmacological treatment, and antipsychotic drugs represent the mainstay of clinical care. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) are an important alternative to oral medication, particularly advantageous in the context of compliance management. Several new-generation antipsychotics (NGAs), including risperidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, and aripiprazole, have become available as long-acting formulations, and new evidence has been accumulating...
2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569663/do-restrictions-on-antipsychotic-use-differ-between-medicare-part-d-stand-alone-versus-medicare-advantage-plans
#8
Joshua Chou, Nicole J Brandt, F Ellen Loh, Bruce Stuart
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the type of restrictions and differences among antipsychotic users enrolled in Medicare Part D Stand-Alone (PDPs) and Advantage (MAPDs) prescription drug plans. METHODS: This retrospective study used data from Chronic Condition Data Warehouse, comprising a random 5% sample of the Medicare population in 2008. This study used bivariate analyses and multivariate logistical regression models to study differences in formulary restrictions on antipsychotic use between PDP and MAPD enrollees, adjusting for enrollee characteristics...
February 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567698/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-acute-akathisia-in-493-individuals-with-first-episode-non-affective-psychosis-a-6-week-randomised-study-of-antipsychotic-treatment
#9
Maria Juncal-Ruiz, Mariluz Ramirez-Bonilla, Jorge Gomez-Arnau, Victor Ortiz-Garcia de la Foz, Paula Suarez-Pinilla, Obdulia Martinez-Garcia, Karl David Neergaard, Rafael Tabares-Seisdedos, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
INTRODUCTION: Acute akathisia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome with a negative effect on illness outcome. Its incidence in patients treated with antipsychotics has shown to be highly variable across studies. OBJECTIVES: Our goals were to investigate prevalence, risk factors for the development of acute akathisia, and differences in incidence between antipsychotics in a sample of 493 first episode non-affective psychosis patients. METHODS: This is a pooled analysis of three prospective, randomized, flexible-dose, and open-label clinical trials...
May 31, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542035/trends-and-factors-associated-with-antipsychotic-use-among-elderly-patients-with-dementia-in-taiwan-from-2005-to-2013-a-population-based-study
#10
Yu-Wen Chiu, Chih-Wan Huang, Pei-Jung Chen, Nan-Wen Yu, Hui-Ju Tsai, Chi-Shin Wu, Chia-Ming Chang
This study aimed to examine the trends and factors associated with antipsychotic prescriptions for elderly outpatients with dementia in Taiwan from 2005 to 2013. We assessed the annual prescription patterns of antipsychotic medications among elderly patients attending outpatient visits for dementia between 2005 and 2013 using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We also carried out logistic regression analyses to test the trends and associated factors. We found that any antipsychotic prescriptions for elderly patients making visits for dementia increased slightly, from 25...
May 24, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539959/tardive-dystonia-related-with-aripiprazole
#11
Sunghwan Kim, Seung-Yup Lee, MinSeob Kim, Kyoung-Uk Lee
Tardive dystonia is characterized by sustained, generally slow involuntary twisting movements. It is estimated to occur at a frequency of 1% to 4% among patients who are taking an antipsychotic agent. Unlike the first generation antipsychotics, the second generation antipsychotics are less likely to cause neuroleptic-induced movement disorder. For aripiprazole, only a few cases have been reported for tardive dystonia. We present a young male, who developed a severe tardive dystonia after taking aripiprazole for 5 years...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539103/possible-oxcarbazepine-inductive-effects-on-aripiprazole-metabolism-a-case-report
#12
Ian R McGrane, Joshua G Loveland, Jose de Leon
Oxcarbazepine is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 inducer, which is structurally similar to carbamazepine. Although lacking Food and Drug Administration approval, oxcarbazepine is sometimes prescribed to treat aggressive behavior in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These youths may also be taking second-generation antipsychotics, some of which are substrates of the CYP3A4 metabolic pathway. The combination of these medications may result in decreased serum antipsychotic concentrations, potentially reducing effectiveness...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522847/a-molecular-basis-for-selective-antagonist-destabilization-of-dopamine-d3-receptor-quaternary-organization
#13
Sara Marsango, Gianluigi Caltabiano, Mireia Jiménez-Rosés, Mark J Millan, John D Pediani, Richard J Ward, Graeme Milligan
The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) is a molecular target for both first-generation and several recently-developed antipsychotic agents. Following stable expression of this mEGFP-tagged receptor, Spatial Intensity Distribution Analysis indicated that a substantial proportion of the receptor was present within dimeric/oligomeric complexes and that increased expression levels of the receptor favored a greater dimer to monomer ratio. Addition of the antipsychotics, spiperone or haloperidol, resulted in re-organization of D3R quaternary structure to promote monomerization...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479814/aripiprazole-in-tardive-dyskinesia-is-it-a-safe-choice
#14
Nimisha Doval, Soumitra Das, Vikas Moun
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a potentially irreversible drug-induced movement disorder associated with prolonged administration of antipsychotics. Conventionally, first generation antipsychotics were the agents thought to have a higher risk of TD as compared to second and third generation antipsychotics. Aripiprazole is a third generation antipsychotic with a novel mechanism of action, and until recently, cases of drug-induced movement disorders were less well known with it. But off late, several cases of TD with aripiprazole have been reported...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463344/minimizing-weight-gain-for-patients-taking-antipsychotic-medications-the-potential-role-for-early-use-of-metformin
#15
Victoria Hendrick, Robert Dasher, Michael Gitlin, Mehrban Parsi
BACKGROUND: Patients taking antipsychotic medications are at high risk for weight gain, which in turn leads to poor health outcomes, nonadherence with treatment, and low self-esteem. METHODS: We reviewed published studies of pharmacologic interventions aimed at minimizing antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Treatments initiated prior to onset of weight gain were compared with those that started once weight gain already had occurred. RESULTS: Although data are limited, adjunctive medications for weight management appear to be more effective when initiated at or near the time when patients are first exposed to antipsychotic medications...
May 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456024/accelerometer-measured-sedentary-behaviour-and-physical-activity-of-inpatients-with-severe-mental-illness
#16
Frank Kruisdijk, Jeroen Deenik, Diederik Tenback, Erwin Tak, Aart-Jan Beekman, Peter van Harten, Marijke Hopman-Rock, Ingrid Hendriksen
Sedentary behaviour and lack of physical activity threatens health. Research concerning these behaviours of inpatients with severe mental illness is limited but urgently needed to reveal prevalence and magnitude. In total, 184 inpatients (men n =108, women n =76, mean age 57,4, 20% first generation antipsychotics, 40% second generation antipsychotics, 43% antidepressants, mean years hospitalisation 13 years), with severe mental illness of a Dutch psychiatric hospital wore an accelerometer for five days to objectively measure total activity counts per hour and percentages in sedentary behaviour, light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous physical activity...
April 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443529/selective-attention-and-mismatch-negativity-in-antipsychotic-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients-before-and-after-6-months-of-antipsychotic-monotherapy
#17
B Oranje, B Aggernaes, H Rasmussen, B H Ebdrup, B Y Glenthøj
BACKGROUND: Attention deficits have been frequently reported in schizophrenia. It has been suggested that treatment with second-generation antipsychotics can ameliorate these deficits. In this study, the influence of 6 months treatment with quetiapine, a compound with less affinity for dopamine D2 receptors than for serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors, on electrophysiological parameters of attention was investigated in a group of antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients compared with a group of age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
April 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439716/antipsychotic-prescribing-to-patients-diagnosed-with-dementia-without-a-diagnosis-of-psychosis-in-the-context-of-national-guidance-and-drug-safety-warnings-longitudinal-study-in-uk-general-practice
#18
S Jill Stocks, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Roger T Webb, Anthony J Avery, Alistair Burns, Darren M Ashcroft
INTRODUCTION: Policy interventions to address inappropriate prescribing of antipsychotic drugs to older people diagnosed with dementia are commonplace. In the UK, warnings were issued by the Medicines Healthcare products Regulatory Agency in 2004, 2009 and 2012 and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance was published in 2006. It is important to evaluate the impact of such interventions. METHODS: We analysed routinely collected primary-care data from 111,346 patients attending one of 689 general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink to describe the temporal changes in the prescribing of antipsychotic drugs to patients aged 65 years or over diagnosed with dementia without a concomitant psychosis diagnosis from 2001 to 2014 using an interrupted time series and a before-and-after design...
April 24, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437058/psychotic-and-bipolar-disorders-antipsychotic-drugs
#19
REVIEW
Sarah D Holder, Alaina L Edmunds, Sherri Morgan
Antipsychotic drugs block dopamine receptors and are used to manage psychosis as well as other mental illnesses that may or may not have psychotic features, such as bipolar disorders and major depressive disorder. First-generation antipsychotic drugs are more likely to cause adverse effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia. Adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotic drugs typically are related to metabolic abnormalities such as weight gain, abnormal blood glucose levels, and elevated lipid levels...
April 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431909/antipsychotics-and-the-risk-of-cerebrovascular-accident-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#20
Wan-Ting Hsu, Amin Esmaily-Fard, Chih-Cheng Lai, Darshan Zala, Sie-Huei Lee, Shy-Shin Chang, Chien-Chang Lee
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the association between antipsychotic use and the risk of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) showed inconsistent results. AIM: Conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether use of antipsychotics is associated with increased risk of CVA. METHODS: Major electronic databases were searched from 1970 to October 2016 for observational studies investigating the risk of CVA among users of antipsychotics...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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