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First generation antipsychotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932499/genetic-variation-in-one-carbon-metabolism-and-changes-in-metabolic-parameters-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients
#1
Błażej Misiak, Łukasz Łaczmański, Natalia Kinga Słoka, Elżbieta Szmida, Ryszard Ślęzak, Patryk Piotrowski, Andrzej Kiejna, Dorota Frydecka
BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of polymorphisms in genes encoding 1-carbon metabolism enzymes on differential development of metabolic parameters during 12 weeks of treatment with second-generation antipsychotics in first-episode schizophrenia patients. METHODS: The following polymorphisms in 1-carbon metabolism genes were genotyped: MTHFR (C677T and A1298C), MTHFD1 (G1958A), MTRR (A66G), and BHMT (G742A). A broad panel of metabolic parameters including body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol low and high density lipoproteins, triglycerides, homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 was determined...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931985/impact-of-regulatory-measures-on-antipsychotics-drug-consumption-in-castilla-y-le%C3%A3-n-spain
#2
L H Martín Arias, C Treceño Lobato, S Pérez García, P García Ortega, M Sáinz Gil, R Sanz Fadrique, A Carvajal García-Pando
OBJECTIVES: Antipsychotics are currently used to treat different diseases; even some off-labelled conditions are treated with this medication. Consumption and cost of antipsychotic drugs sharply increased in Spain after second-generation drugs were marketed; several regulatory measures were adopted to curb this trend. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of these measures upon the use and cost of antipsychotics. STUDY DESIGN: Study of drug use (SDU) from 1995 to 2012...
December 2016: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931900/dimensions-of-schizophrenia-and-their-time-course-of-response-to-a-second-generation-antipsychotic-olanzapine-a-clinical-study
#3
Badari Birur, Jagadisha Thirthalli, N Janakiramaiah, Richard C Shelton, Bangalore N Gangadhar
BACKGROUND: The pattern of symptom response to second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) has not been studied extensively. Understanding the time course of symptom response would help to rationally monitor patient progress. OBJECTIVE: To determine the short-term differential time course of response of symptom dimensions of first episode schizophrenia viz., negative, positive symptoms and 5 factors of anergia, thought disturbance, activation, paranoid-belligerence and depression to treatment with SGA olanzapine...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901520/depot-antipsychotics-where-do-we-stand
#4
Ahsan Y Khan, Salman Salaria, Muhammad Ovais, George D Ide
BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to medication is a major problem for patients with schizophrenia. To counter this problem, pharmaceutical companies began developing depot antipsychotics. Although there are currently 5 first-generation and 6 second-generation depot antipsychotics available worldwide, many physicians are still reluctant to use this category of drug initially. This review provides the latest information about the use of depot antipsychotics in schizophrenia treatment as well as several studies in support of depot antipsychotic use as first-line treatment for patients with schizophrenia...
November 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895084/prescription-preferences-in-antipsychotics-and-attitude-towards-the-pharmaceutical-industry-in-belgium
#5
Stijn Cleymans, Manuel Morrens, Chris Bervoets
OBJECTIVES: The number of antipsychotic prescriptions are increasing rapidly worldwide, a trend which is mainly driven by the steep rise in second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) prescriptions. However, the success of SGA, compared with the older first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), cannot be explained by evidence. Several studies concluded on equal efficacy of FGA and SGA on positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Next to that, the influence of the pharmaceutical industry on prescription behaviour has drawn considerable interest...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885398/real-world-risk-of-diabetes-with-antipsychotic-use-in-older-new-zealanders-a-case-crossover-study
#6
Prasad S Nishtala, Te-Yuan Chyou
PURPOSE: The primary aim was to examine and compare the increased risk of incident diabetes associated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), with and without adjusting for potential confounding factors. The secondary aim was to recalculate the relative risks of diabetes onset using a semi-symmetric bidirectional case-crossover (SSBC) design to adjust for time-trend bias. METHOD: Prescription records (2005-2015) of antipsychotics were sourced from New Zealand Pharmaceutical Collections...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875914/second-generation-antipsychotics-in-real-life-paediatric-patients-adverse-drug-reactions-and-clinical-outcomes-of-drug-switch
#7
Concetta Rafaniello, Marco Pozzi, Simone Pisano, Carmen Ferrajolo, Silvana Bertella, Liberata Sportiello, Carla Carnovale, Maria Giuseppa Sullo, Dario Cattaneo, Marta Gentili, Renata Rizzo, Antonio Pascotto, Elisa Mani, Laura Villa, Maria Pia Riccio, Serena Sperandeo, Renato Bernardini, Carmela Bravaccio, Emilio Clementi, Massimo Molteni, Francesco Rossi, Sonia Radice, Annalisa Capuano
OBJECTIVE: Gap in knowledge on benefit/risk ratio of second generation antipsychotics (SGA) in the paediatric population represents a challenge for the scientific community. This study aims to analyse all suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to SGA observed during the study period; compare the safety profiles of risperidone and aripiprazole; evaluate the effect of switching from risperidone to aripiprazole or to a first generation antipsychotic (FGA). METHODS: Prospective analysis of spontaneously reported ADRs concerning 184 paediatric outpatients between 2012 and 2014...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871720/-guidelines-for-the-prescription-of-mood-stabilizers-for-adolescents-a-literature-review
#8
G Munch, N Godart
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a unique phase of the human developmental process. In adolescents, psychotropic medications may have different efficacy and tolerance profiles compared to those at other stages of the lifespan. Mood stabilizers are a complex pharmacological category including lithium, some anticonvulsants, and some second generation antipsychotics. Focusing on this class of pharmacological agents, we aim to answer the following questions: in which indications and according to which modalities should mood stabilizers be prescribed during adolescence? METHODS: Information was sought from the websites of the French Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) and Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM), the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)...
November 18, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866497/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-infants-exposed-in-utero-to-antipsychotics-a-systematic-review-of-published-data
#9
Salvatore Gentile, Maria Luigia Fusco
The proportion of pregnancies exposed to either second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) or first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) varies between 0.3%-2% of all pregnancies, but, until now, little is known about the potential neurobehavioral teratogenicity of antipsychotics. Assessing this safety facet is the aim of this article. PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched for eligible articles. PubMed (1954 to May 2016) was searched using several medical subject headings, variously combined. PubMed search results were also limited using the search filter for human studies published in English...
November 21, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864791/the-harms-of-antipsychotic-drugs-evidence-from-key-studies
#10
Thomas J Moore, Curt D Furberg
This safety assessment provides a detailed analysis of key studies and focuses on the six most widely used antipsychotic drugs. Lines of evidence include mechanisms of action, short-term treatment of psychosis, relapse prevention, early intervention in schizophrenia, long-term comparisons between first- and second-generation agents, and flexible treatment algorithms. Despite the diversity of study settings, several common features were seen. All the agents obstruct normal signaling through widely dispersed dopamine D2 receptors...
November 19, 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848269/evidence-based-pharmacotherapy-of-treatment-resistant-unipolar-depression
#11
Markus Dold, Siegfried Kasper
Treatment resistance to the antidepressive pharmacotherapy represents one of the most important clinical challenges in the pharmacological management of unipolar depression. In this review, we aimed to summarise the evidence for various pharmacological treatment options in therapy-resistant unipolar depression derived from clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and treatment guidelines. The first measure in case of insufficient response to the initial antidepressant monotherapy contains the debarment of 'pseudo-resistance', potentially caused by inadequate dose and treatment duration of the antidepressant, insufficient plasma levels, non-compliance of the patient regarding medication intake or relevant psychiatric and/or somatic comorbidities...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829813/olanzapine-induced-biochemical-and-histopathological-changes-after-its-chronic-administration-in-rats
#12
Rehmat Shah, Fazal Subhan, Gowhar Ali, Ihsan Ullah, Sami Ullah, Muhammad Shahid, Nisar Ahmad, Khwaja Fawad
Objective: Olanzapine is a second generation antipsychotic acting mainly as a dopamine D2 and serotonine 5-HT2 receptors antagonist prescribed in the treatment of schizophrenia and various other psychiatric illnesses. Even though olanzapine is widely used in psychiatry, its effects on the architecture of pancreas, liver and kidneys are little known. The histology of pancreas especially has never been studied. For these reasons, the current study was designed to elucidate the toxic effects of chronic administration of olanzapine on pancreas, liver and kidneys and the enzymes released by these tissues in an escalating dose manner...
November 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825323/prolactin-related-adverse-events-and-change-in-prolactin-levels-in-pediatric-patients-given-antipsychotics-for-schizophrenia-and-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-systematic-review
#13
Eric Druyts, Michael J Zoratti, Kabirraaj Toor, Ping Wu, Salmaan Kanji, Kiran Rabheru, Edward J Mills, Kristian Thorlund
BACKGROUND: Second-generation antipsychotics are commonly prescribed for pediatric patients with schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders despite their lack of approval for use in children. Although considered a safer alternative to first-generation antipsychotics, there is evidence to suggest that second-generation antipsychotics may be associated with some adverse events as well as an increase in prolactin levels. The purpose of this review is to examine the risk of prolactin-related adverse events in pediatric patients using antipsychotics and to quantify changes in prolactin for this population...
November 9, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822286/methamphetamine-associated-psychosis-and-treatment-with-haloperidol-and-risperidone-a-pilot-study
#14
Mercede Samiei, Mohammad Vahidi, Omid Rezaee, Azadeh Yaraghchi, Reza Daneshmand
BACKGROUND: Different studies have suggested that antipsychotic medications of the first generation have better effectiveness for the treatment of psychotic symptoms compared with antipsychotic medications of the second generation. OBJECTIVES: The current study was the first pilot study in Iran that compared Haloperidol with Risperidone in the treatment of positive symptoms of psychosis among a group of methamphetamine-dependent patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized clinical trial was designed and conducted in 2012...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818703/the-relationship-between-body-weight-change-and-body-constitutions-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#15
Jui-Fen Cheng, Xuan-Yi Huang, Te-Le Liu, Ruey-Yun Wang, Han-Yi Ching
Objective. To explore the relationship between body constitution (BC) types and weight change in patients with schizophrenia and who underwent second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) treatment. Method. Body weight and waist circumference of eighty-five participants were measured for 6 consecutive weeks. Constitutions of Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and Stasis were assessed using the Body Constitution Questionnaire (BCQ). Results. Participants with body constitutions Yin-Xu (50.6%), Yang-Xu (49.4%), or Stasis (38.8%) exhibited worse physical condition and unhealthy daily habits, particularly in Stasis constitution...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811554/a-systematic-review-on-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-delusional-disorder
#16
José Eduardo Muñoz-Negro, Jorge A Cervilla
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological treatment is the criterion standard in delusional disorder (DD). No second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) is specifically authorized for the treatment of DD. AIMS: To evaluate the evidence available on pharmacological treatments in adults with DD and to compare first-generation antipsychotics (FGA) versus SGA. METHODS: A systematic review on pharmacological treatment of DD following the PRISMA methodology was conducted...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783545/estimating-the-value-of-new-technologies-that-provide-more-accurate-drug-adherence-information-to-providers-for-their-patients-with-schizophrenia
#17
Jason Shafrin, Taylor T Schwartz, Darius N Lakdawalla, Felicia M Forma
BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to antipsychotic medication among patients with schizophrenia results in poor symptom management and increased health care and other costs. Despite its health impact, medication adherence remains difficult to accurately assess. New technologies offer the possibility of real-time patient monitoring data on adherence, which may in turn improve clinical decision making. However, the economic benefit of accurate patient drug adherence information (PDAI) has yet to be evaluated...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780333/persistence-in-therapy-with-risperidone-and-aripiprazole-in-pediatric-outpatients-a-2-year-naturalistic-comparison
#18
Marco Pozzi, Simone Pisano, Silvana Bertella, Annalisa Capuano, Renata Rizzo, Stefania Antoniazzi, Fabiana Auricchio, Carla Carnovale, Dario Cattaneo, Carmen Ferrajolo, Marta Gentili, Giuseppe Guastella, Elisa Mani, Concetta Rafaniello, Maria Pia Riccio, Maria Grazia Scuderi, Serena Sperandeo, Liberata Sportiello, Laura Villa, Sonia Radice, Emilio Clementi, Francesco Rossi, Antonio Pascotto, Renato Bernardini, Massimo Molteni, Carmela Bravaccio
OBJECTIVE: The practical effectiveness of second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents is an understudied issue. It is a crucial area of study, though, because such patients are often treated for long-lasting disorders. METHODS: We carried out a 24-month (March 2012-March 2014) observational study on an unselected population of pediatric outpatients treated with risperidone, aripiprazole, olanzapine, or quetiapine aiming to (1) describe drug use, (2) compare post hoc the discontinuation rates due to specific causes and dose adjustments by Kaplan-Meier analyses between drugs, and (3) analyze predictors influencing these outcomes by Cox multivariate models...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764107/development-of-a-web-based-clinical-decision-support-system-for-drug-prescription-non-interventional-naturalistic-description-of-the-antipsychotic-prescription-patterns-in-4345-outpatients-and-future-applications
#19
Sofian Berrouiguet, Maria Luisa Barrigón, Sara A Brandt, Santiago Ovejero-García, Raquel Álvarez-García, Juan Jose Carballo, Philippe Lenca, Philippe Courtet, Enrique Baca-García
PURPOSE: The emergence of electronic prescribing devices with clinical decision support systems (CDSS) is able to significantly improve management pharmacological treatments. We developed a web application available on smartphones in order to help clinicians monitor prescription and further propose CDSS. METHOD: A web application (www.MEmind.net) was developed to assess patients and collect data regarding gender, age, diagnosis and treatment. We analyzed antipsychotic prescriptions in 4345 patients attended in five Psychiatric Community Mental Health Centers from June 2014 to October 2014...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755220/time-to-first-discontinuation-adherence-and-persistence-in-new-users-of-second-generation-antipsychotics
#20
Henry C Ndukwe, Prasad S Nishtala
Consensus guidelines which are applicable in New Zealand and worldwide recommend that the duration of exposure to antipsychotics not exceed 12 weeks, unless justified for mental illnesses like schizophrenia and severe psychotic symptoms which require longer treatment. There has been limited information on time-to-first discontinuation (TTFD) for second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in a real world population setting in older people. The study objective was to compare TTFD, adherence, and persistence for individual SGA new users among people 65 years and older...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
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