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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335879/current-approaches-and-new-developments-in-the-pharmacological-management-of-tourette-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Julio Quezada, Keith A Coffman
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology characterized by spontaneous, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics. Once thought to be rare, TS affects 0.3-1% of the population. Tics can cause physical discomfort, emotional distress, social difficulties, and can interfere with education and desired activities. The pharmacologic treatment of TS is particularly challenging, as currently the genetics, neurophysiology, and neuropathology of this disorder are still largely unknown...
January 15, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332009/poststroke-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Helle Stangeland, Vasiliki Orgeta, Vaughan Bell
A preregistered systematic review of poststroke psychosis examining clinical characteristics, prevalence, diagnostic procedures, lesion location, treatments, risk factors and outcome. Neuropsychiatric outcomes following stroke are common and severely impact quality of life. No previous reviews have focused on poststroke psychosis despite clear clinical need. CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsychINFO were searched for studies on poststroke psychosis published between 1975 and 2016. Reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and rated study quality...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296031/dextromethorphan-in-cough-syrup-the-poor-man-s-psychosis
#3
Bridgette Martinak, Ramy A Bolis, Jeffrey Ryne Black, Rachel E Fargason, Badari Birur
Dextromethorphan (3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan), also known as "DXM" and "the poor man's PCP," is a synthetically produced drug that is available in more than 140 over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. Dextromethorphan (DXM) has overtaken codeine as the most widely used cough suppressant due to its availability, efficacy, and safety profile at directed doses. However, DXM is subject to abuse. When consumed at inappropriately high doses (over 1500 mg/day), DXM can induce a state of psychosis characterized by Phencyclidine (PCP)-like psychological symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia...
September 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275962/fluoroquinolone-related-neuropsychiatric-events-in-hospitalized-veterans
#4
John Sellick, Kari Mergenhagen, Lindsay Morris, Lindsey Feuz, Amy Horey, Vineeta Risbood, Amy Wojciechowski, Christine Ruh, Edward Bednarczyk, Erin Conway, Michael Ott
OBJECTIVE: To measure the incidence and risk factors for fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin)-associated psychosis or delirium in a veteran population. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in the Western New York Veterans Affairs Health System (2005-2013). Participants were hospitalized veterans receiving a fluoroquinolone for at least 48 hours (n = 631). Cases of delirium or psychosis were defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria, and the Naranjo scale (score ≥ 1) was used to determine the probability of the adverse drug reaction being related to fluoroquinolones...
November 10, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273456/the-antipsychotic-trifluoperazine-reduces-marble-burying-behavior-in-mice-via-d2-and-5-ht2a-receptors-implications-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Nobuaki Egashira, Naoki Kubota, Yu Goto, Takuya Watanabe, Kaori Kubota, Shutaro Katsurabayashi, Katsunori Iwasaki
Trifluoperazine, a typical antipsychotic drug, not only antagonizes dopamine D2 receptors but also enhances serotonin 5-HT2 receptor-mediated behavior. Moreover, trifluoperazine suppresses human purinergic receptor P2X7 responses and calmodulin. However, the effect of trifluoperazine on marble-burying behavior, which has been considered an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), has not been studied. Here, we examined the effect of trifluoperazine on marble-burying behavior in mice. Oral administration of paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, significantly reduced marble-burying behavior without affecting total locomotor activity...
December 19, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251658/a-patient-centered-antipsychotic-medication-adherence-intervention-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Jeffrey M Pyne, Ellen P Fischer, Dinesh Mittal, Richard Owen
The purpose of this study was to develop and test a patient-centered and sustainable antipsychotic medication adherence intervention. The study design was a randomized controlled trial. Data from 61 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were analyzed. The intervention included a checklist of barriers, facilitators, and motivators (BFM) for taking antipsychotic medications. The results of the checklist were summarized and a note was placed in the electronic medical record (EMR) and a hard copy was given to the patient...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222987/frequency-and-correlates-of-tardive-dyskinesia-in-indian-patients-with-type-i-bipolar-disorder
#7
Tess Maria Rajan, Balaji Bharadwaj, Ravi Philip Rajkumar, Prashant Shankarrao Adole
BACKGROUND: Patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD) may have higher risk of Tardive Dyskinesia (TD). Theories for TD include inflammatory or oxidative stress and altered iron metabolism. The current frequency and clinical and biochemical correlates of TD in BD needs exploration. OBJECTIVES: To assess: (1) the frequency of TD in BD; (2) clinical correlates of TD in BD; (3) oxidative stress markers, inflammatory markers and hepcidin in TD in BD. MATERIALS & METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 170 patients with BD were assessed for clinical characteristics using structured assessments...
December 5, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210868/is-there-a-potential-of-misuse-for-quetiapine-literature-review-and-analysis-of-the-european-medicines-agency-european-medicines-agency-adverse-drug-reactions-database
#8
Stefania Chiappini, Fabrizio Schifano
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: A recent years' increase in both prescribing and availability of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) has been observed. According to the literature, typically made up by case studies/series, quetiapine seems to be the most commonly misused SGA, with both intranasal and intravenous intake modalities having been described. Another SGA that has been anecdotally reported to be misused is olanzapine. For these molecules, both a previous history of drug misuse and being an inmate have been described as factors associated with misuse...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210867/antipsychotic-polypharmacy-and-its-relation-to-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-an-egyptian-study
#9
Dina M Aly El-Gabry, Karim Abdel Aziz, Tarek Okasha, Hanan Azzam, Ahmed Okasha
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the relationship between antipsychotic polypharmacy and metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia. Some studies suggest that antipsychotic polypharmacy may be associated with greater metabolic risk, whereas other studies suggest that this is uncertain. To date, there have been no studies in Egypt or the Arab world that have investigated this relationship. We sought to compare subjects with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotic polypharmacy and monotherapy as regards metabolic outcomes and to investigate medication-related factors associated with metabolic syndrome...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170943/asenapine-treatment-in-pediatric-patients-with-bipolar-i-disorder-or-schizophrenia-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Ekaterina Stepanova, Bradley Grant, Robert L Findling
Asenapine, administered as a twice-daily (BID) sublingual tablet, is approved in the US as monotherapy for the acute treatment of manic and mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder in children and adolescents aged 10-17 years based on the positive results of one 3-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study; the recommended dose is 2.5-10 mg BID. Although asenapine has been studied in pediatric patients with schizophrenia, it is not approved for this indication. Asenapine is not approved for pediatric use in bipolar I disorder or schizophrenia in other major markets...
November 23, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160620/dna-methylation-of-mb-comt-in-malaysian-schizophrenia-patients
#11
Abd Rahim Nour El Huda, Ku Zaifah Norsidah, Rahim Mohd Nabil Fikri, Mohd Noor Hanisah, Abdullah Kartini, A Talib Norlelawati
AIM: This study examined catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) DNA methylation in the peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients and also in healthy controls to investigate its potential use as a peripheral biomarker of schizophrenia and its relationships with the clinical variables of schizophrenia patients. METHODS: We examined the DNA methylation levels of COMT using genomic DNA from the peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients (n = 138) and healthy control participants (n = 132); all were Malaysian Malays...
November 21, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159045/identifying-functional-network-changing-patterns-in-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-and-patients-with-early-illness-schizophrenia-a-group-ica-study
#12
Yuhui Du, Susanna L Fryer, Dongdong Lin, Jing Sui, Qingbao Yu, Jiayu Chen, Barbara Stuart, Rachel L Loewy, Vince D Calhoun, Daniel H Mathalon
Although individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis exhibit a psychosis-risk syndrome involving attenuated forms of the positive symptoms typical of schizophrenia (SZ), it remains unclear whether their resting-state brain intrinsic functional networks (INs) show attenuated or qualitatively distinct patterns of functional dysconnectivity relative to SZ patients. Based on resting-state functional magnetic imaging data from 70 healthy controls (HCs), 53 CHR individuals (among which 41 subjects were antipsychotic medication-naive), and 58 early illness SZ (ESZ) patients (among which 53 patients took antipsychotic medication) within five years of illness onset, we estimated subject-specific INs using a novel group information guided independent component analysis (GIG-ICA) and investigated group differences in INs...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106549/the-in-vitro-actions-of-loxapine-on-dopaminergic-and-serotonergic-receptors-time-to-consider-atypical-classification-of-this-antipsychotic-drug
#13
Florian Ferreri, Dominique Drapier, Emmanuelle Baloche, Mehemed Ouzid, Luc Zimmer, Pierre-Michel Llorca
Background: The denomination of typical antipsychotic for loxapine has poor relation to current knowledge of the molecule's relevant modes of action. Method: Competition binding experiments were performed on expressed human recombinant receptors in CHO cells and HEK-293 cells for D1 to D5, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7. In vitro autoradiographies using [ 11C]-Raclopride [18F]-Altanserin [18F]-MPPF [11C]-SB207145 and [18F]-2FNQ1P were measured in brain tissue of a male primate followed by addition of increasing doses of loxapine succinate...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104944/psychotropic-medication-use-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-may-affect-functional-brain-connectivity
#14
Annika C Linke, Lindsay Olson, Yangfeifei Gao, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
Background: Prescription of psychotropic medications is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), either off-label or to treat comorbid conditions such as ADHD or depression. Psychotropic medications are intended to alter brain function. Yet, studies investigating the functional brain organization in ASDs rarely take medication usage into account. This could explain some of the inconsistent findings of atypical brain network connectivity reported in the autism literature. Methods: The current study tested whether functional connectivity patterns, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), differed in a cohort of 49 children and adolescents with ASDs based on psychotropic medication status, and in comparison with 50 matched typically developing (TD) participants...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095482/antipsychotics-and-the-risk-of-aspiration-pneumonia-in-individuals-hospitalized-for-nonpsychiatric-conditions-a-cohort-study
#15
Shoshana J Herzig, Mary T LaSalvia, Elliot Naidus, Michael B Rothberg, Wenxiao Zhou, Jerry H Gurwitz, Edward R Marcantonio
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Off-label use of antipsychotics is common in hospitals, most often for delirium management. Antipsychotics have been associated with aspiration pneumonia in community and nursing home settings, but the association in hospitalized individuals is unexplored. We aimed to investigate the association between antipsychotic exposure and aspiration pneumonia during hospitalization. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large academic medical center...
November 2, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092658/an-unexpected-circumstance-acute-dystonic-reaction-in-the-setting-of-clozapine-administration
#16
Alexander Morris Kaplan, William Bradly Pitts, Iqbal Ahmed
Clozapine is a second-generation antipsychotic typically reserved for refractory psychotic disorders due to its high-risk side effect profile to include agranulocytosis, with its attendant need for regular blood draws. While reports of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), including acute dystonic reactions, are exceedingly rare, we present the case of a 44-year-old male with a long-standing history of treatment-resistant schizoaffective disorder and no history of EPS who experienced an acute buccal dystonic reaction in the setting of clozapine initiation and discontinuation of depot and oral risperidone...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081826/antipsychotic-use-pattern-in-schizophrenia-outpatients-correlates-of-polypharmacy
#17
Esra Yazici, Ali S Cilli, Ahmet B Yazici, Hayriye Baysan, Mustafa Ince, Sukriye Bosgelmez, Serkan Bilgic, Betul Aslan, Atila Erol
BACKGROUND: This study investigates the antipsychotic use patterns of patients with schizophrenia and its correlations in their daily drug use patterns. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia who have regular records at two different community counselling centres (CCS) were included in the study. Information about their medications and sociodemographic data was recorded through face-to-face interviews and supporting information about their drug use patterns was obtained from their relatives/caregivers/nurse...
2017: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062309/ph-dependant-antifungal-activity-of-valproic-acid-against-the-human-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#18
Julien Chaillot, Faiza Tebbji, Carlos García, Hugo Wurtele, René Pelletier, Adnane Sellam
Current antifungal drugs suffer from limitations including toxicity, the emergence of resistance and decreased efficacy at low pH that are typical of human vaginal surfaces. Here, we have shown that the antipsychotic drug valproic acid (VPA) exhibited a strong antifungal activity against both sensitive and resistant Candida albicans in pH condition similar to that encountered in vagina. VPA exerted a strong anti-biofilm activity and attenuated damage of vaginal epithelial cells caused by C. albicans. We also showed that VPA synergizes with the allylamine antifungal, Terbinafine...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052453/review-of-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-common-primary-psychiatric-causes-of-cutaneous-disease
#19
J A Krooks, A G Weatherall, P J Holland
Approximately half of all patients presenting to dermatologists exhibit signs and symptoms of psychiatric conditions that are either primary or secondary to cutaneous disease. Because patients typically resist psychiatric consult, dermatologists often are on the front line in evaluating and treating these patients. Accordingly, distinguishing the specific underlying or resulting psychiatric condition is essential for effective treatment. The etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and first-line treatment of specific primary psychiatric causes of dermatologic conditions, including delusional infestation, Morgellons syndrome, olfactory reference syndrome, body dysmorphic disorder, excoriation disorder, trichotillomania, and dermatitis artefacta are discussed here, followed by a discussion of the recommended treatment approach with an overview of the different first-line therapies discussed in this review, specifically cognitive behavioral therapy, atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants...
November 5, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026773/neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-stable-dose-of-olanzapine
#20
Manoj Kumar Sahoo, Sangita Kamath, Abhijeet Sharan
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), a potentially fatal consequence due to typical neuroleptics, has been described so far. In the past few years, there has been increased use of atypical antipsychotic drugs. Cases of NMS related to atypical neuroleptics, such as olanzapine, are less common in spite of increasing cases reported in literatures. Here, we report a case of NMS in a patient with bipolar affective disorder on maintenance treatment with 5 mg olanzapine for the last 7 year. He was successfully treated with bromocriptine and discharged in stable condition in 10 days...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
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