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Typical antipsychotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106549/the-in-vitro-actions-of-loxapine-on-dopaminergic-and-serotonergic-receptors-time-to-consider-atypical-classification-of-this-antipsychotic-drug
#1
Florian Ferreri, Dominique Drapier, Emmanuelle Baloche, Mehemed Ouzid, Luc Zimmer, Pierre-Michel Llorca
Background: The denomination of typical antipsychotic for loxapine has poor relation to current knowledge of the molecule's relevant modes of action. Method: Competition binding experiments were performed on expressed human recombinant receptors in CHO cells and HEK-293 cells for D1 to D5, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7. In vitro autoradiographies using [ 11C]-Raclopride [18F]-Altanserin [18F]-MPPF [11C]-SB207145 and [18F]-2FNQ1P were measured in brain tissue of a male primate followed by addition of increasing doses of loxapine succinate...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104944/psychotropic-medication-use-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-may-affect-functional-brain-connectivity
#2
Annika C Linke, Lindsay Olson, Yangfeifei Gao, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
Background: Prescription of psychotropic medications is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), either off-label or to treat comorbid conditions such as ADHD or depression. Psychotropic medications are intended to alter brain function. Yet, studies investigating the functional brain organization in ASDs rarely take medication usage into account. This could explain some of the inconsistent findings of atypical brain network connectivity reported in the autism literature. Methods: The current study tested whether functional connectivity patterns, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), differed in a cohort of 49 children and adolescents with ASDs based on psychotropic medication status, and in comparison with 50 matched typically developing (TD) participants...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095482/antipsychotics-and-the-risk-of-aspiration-pneumonia-in-individuals-hospitalized-for-nonpsychiatric-conditions-a-cohort-study
#3
Shoshana J Herzig, Mary T LaSalvia, Elliot Naidus, Michael B Rothberg, Wenxiao Zhou, Jerry H Gurwitz, Edward R Marcantonio
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Off-label use of antipsychotics is common in hospitals, most often for delirium management. Antipsychotics have been associated with aspiration pneumonia in community and nursing home settings, but the association in hospitalized individuals is unexplored. We aimed to investigate the association between antipsychotic exposure and aspiration pneumonia during hospitalization. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large academic medical center...
November 2, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092658/an-unexpected-circumstance-acute-dystonic-reaction-in-the-setting-of-clozapine-administration
#4
Alexander Morris Kaplan, William Bradly Pitts, Iqbal Ahmed
Clozapine is a second-generation antipsychotic typically reserved for refractory psychotic disorders due to its high-risk side effect profile to include agranulocytosis, with its attendant need for regular blood draws. While reports of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), including acute dystonic reactions, are exceedingly rare, we present the case of a 44-year-old male with a long-standing history of treatment-resistant schizoaffective disorder and no history of EPS who experienced an acute buccal dystonic reaction in the setting of clozapine initiation and discontinuation of depot and oral risperidone...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081826/antipsychotic-use-pattern-in-schizophrenia-outpatients-correlates-of-polypharmacy
#5
Esra Yazici, Ali S Cilli, Ahmet B Yazici, Hayriye Baysan, Mustafa Ince, Sukriye Bosgelmez, Serkan Bilgic, Betul Aslan, Atila Erol
BACKGROUND: This study investigates the antipsychotic use patterns of patients with schizophrenia and its correlations in their daily drug use patterns. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia who have regular records at two different community counselling centres (CCS) were included in the study. Information about their medications and sociodemographic data was recorded through face-to-face interviews and supporting information about their drug use patterns was obtained from their relatives/caregivers/nurse...
2017: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062309/ph-dependant-antifungal-activity-of-valproic-acid-against-the-human-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#6
Julien Chaillot, Faiza Tebbji, Carlos García, Hugo Wurtele, René Pelletier, Adnane Sellam
Current antifungal drugs suffer from limitations including toxicity, the emergence of resistance and decreased efficacy at low pH that are typical of human vaginal surfaces. Here, we have shown that the antipsychotic drug valproic acid (VPA) exhibited a strong antifungal activity against both sensitive and resistant Candida albicans in pH condition similar to that encountered in vagina. VPA exerted a strong anti-biofilm activity and attenuated damage of vaginal epithelial cells caused by C. albicans. We also showed that VPA synergizes with the allylamine antifungal, Terbinafine...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052453/review-of-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-common-primary-psychiatric-causes-of-cutaneous-disease
#7
J A Krooks, A G Weatherall, P J Holland
Approximately half of all patients presenting to dermatologists exhibit signs and symptoms of psychiatric conditions that are either primary or secondary to cutaneous disease. Because patients typically resist psychiatric consult, dermatologists often are on the front line in evaluating and treating these patients. Accordingly, distinguishing the specific underlying or resulting psychiatric condition is essential for effective treatment. The etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and first-line treatment of specific primary psychiatric causes of dermatologic conditions, including delusional infestation, Morgellons syndrome, olfactory reference syndrome, body dysmorphic disorder, excoriation disorder, trichotillomania, and dermatitis artefacta are discussed here, followed by a discussion of the recommended treatment approach with an overview of the different first-line therapies discussed in this review, specifically cognitive behavioral therapy, atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants...
November 5, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026773/neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-stable-dose-of-olanzapine
#8
Manoj Kumar Sahoo, Sangita Kamath, Abhijeet Sharan
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), a potentially fatal consequence due to typical neuroleptics, has been described so far. In the past few years, there has been increased use of atypical antipsychotic drugs. Cases of NMS related to atypical neuroleptics, such as olanzapine, are less common in spite of increasing cases reported in literatures. Here, we report a case of NMS in a patient with bipolar affective disorder on maintenance treatment with 5 mg olanzapine for the last 7 year. He was successfully treated with bromocriptine and discharged in stable condition in 10 days...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023321/antipsychotic-medication-and-oropharyngeal-dysphagia-systematic-review
#9
Marta Miarons Font, Laia Rofes Salsench
The association between antipsychotics (also known as neuroleptics) and oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) has been suggested in several case reports. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effect of antipsychotic medication on OD. A systematic literature search was carried out according to PRISMA guidelines using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. In Pubmed, we used the MeSH terms 'antipsychotic agents' OR 'tranquilizing agents' combined with 'deglutition disorders' OR 'deglutition'. In Embase, we used the Emtree terms 'neuroleptic agents' combined with 'swallowing' OR 'dysphagia'...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022654/epidemiology-prevention-and-assessment-of-tardive-dyskinesia-and-advances-in-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Christoph U Correll, John M Kane, Leslie L Citrome
​​ Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder characterized by involuntary movements, typically of the orofacial muscles and also of the extremities and other muscle groups. The condition is associated with exposure to dopamine receptor blocking agents, including antipsychotics. Because the indications and off-label uses for these agents have expanded over the last 2 decades, a larger number of patients are receiving antipsychotic medications than in the past. While evidence suggests that patients being treated with second-generation antipsychotics have less risk for developing TD than those treated with first-generation antipsychotics, the decreased risk is not as great as was originally expected...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970469/extrapyramidal-side-effects-of-antipsychotics-are-linked-to-their-association-kinetics-at-dopamine-d2-receptors
#11
David A Sykes, Holly Moore, Lisa Stott, Nicholas Holliday, Jonathan A Javitch, J Robert Lane, Steven J Charlton
Atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have been hypothesized to show reduced extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) due to their rapid dissociation from the dopamine D2 receptor. However, support for this hypothesis is limited to a relatively small number of observations made across several decades and under different experimental conditions. Here we show that association rates, but not dissociation rates, correlate with EPS. We measured the kinetic binding properties of a series of typical and atypical APDs in a novel time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay, and correlated these properties with their EPS and prolactin-elevating liabilities at therapeutic doses...
October 2, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953799/assessing-the-critical-issues-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-schizophrenic-inpatients
#12
Francesco Franza, Barbara Solomita, Gino Aldi, Gianfranco Del Buono
Antipsychotics are effective in reducing positive and disorganization symptoms of schizophrenia. Although SGAs initially all were believed to be more efficacious and tolerable than FGAs, several data show that the SGAs are no more effective than FGAs. In clinical practice, frequent switching of antipsychotic medications is widespread for lack of efficacy, adverse side effects, and partial or not-compliance response. This study suggested that most clinically stable inpatients with schizophrenia maintain their remission states after being switched to another atypical antipsychotic; but that at the end (after 20 years) of the observation period of our study, 11...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953679/neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-with-thyroid-disorder-an-unusual-case-report
#13
Fan Zhang, Parisa Kanzali, Vadim Rubin, Chris Paras, Joel Goldman
RATIONALE: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life threatening neurologic emergency associated with neuroleptic or antipsychotic agent use. NMS is rarely related to thyroid disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of NMS in a 66-year-old male with past medical history of paranoid schizophrenia on chlorpromazine, diabetes, hypertension and asthma, who presented with a humeral fracture after a fall. Patient developed hyperpyrexia, altered consciousness, autonomic instability, elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) without rigidity...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945664/correlates-of-nonimprovement-to-pharmacotherapy-for-chronic-antidepressant-resistant-military-service-related-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-insights-from-the-veterans-affairs-cooperative-study-no-504
#14
Simon P Byrne, John H Krystal, Robert A Rosenheck, Jennier Vessicchio, Robert H Pietrzak
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic and often difficult-to-treat condition that is prevalent among military veterans. First-line pharmacotherapy for this population typically involves antidepressants; however, veterans who do not improve are sometimes prescribed antipsychotics such as risperidone. A 2011 randomized controlled trial of adjunctive risperidone versus placebo for veterans with chronic, antidepressant-resistant, military service-related PTSD revealed no difference between groups...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936010/dextromethorphan-in-cough-syrup-the-poor-man-s-psychosis
#15
Bridgette Martinak, Ramy A Bolis, Jeffrey Ryne Black, Rachel E Fargason, Badari Birur
Dextromethorphan (3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan), also known as "DXM" and "the poor man's PCP," is a synthetically produced drug that is available in more than 140 over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. Dextromethorphan (DXM) has overtaken codeine as the most widely used cough suppressant due to its availability, efficacy, and safety profile at directed doses. However, DXM is subject to abuse. When consumed at inappropriately high doses (over 1500 mg/day), DXM can induce a state of psychosis characterized by Phencyclidine (PCP)-like psychological symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia...
September 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925317/dopamine-supersensitivity-psychosis-in-schizophrenia-concepts-and-implications-in-clinical-practice
#16
Yusuke Nakata, Nobuhisa Kanahara, Masaomi Iyo
Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP) is observed in patients with schizophrenia under antipsychotic treatment, and it is characterized by rebound psychosis, an uncontrollable psychotic episode following a stable state and tardive dyskinesia. DSP, first described in patients taking typical antipsychotics in the late 1970s, sometimes appears even in patients who are treated with current atypical antipsychotics. It was recently demonstrated that DSP can have a negative impact on the long-term prognosis of schizophrenia patients and that DSP could be involved in the etiology of some cases of treatment-resistant schizophrenia...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915861/informed-decision-making-with-and-for-people-with-dementia-efficacy-of-the-prodecide-education-program-for-legal-representatives-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-prodecide-rct
#17
Julia Lühnen, Burkhard Haastert, Ingrid Mühlhauser, Tanja Richter
BACKGROUND: In Germany, the guardianship system provides adults who are no longer able to handle their own affairs a court-appointed legal representative, for support without restriction of legal capacity. Although these representatives only rarely are qualified in healthcare, they nevertheless play decisive roles in the decision-making processes for people with dementia. Previously, we developed an education program (PRODECIDE) to address this shortcoming and tested it for feasibility...
September 15, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894183/gut-microbiota-composition-is-associated-with-polypharmacy-in-elderly-hospitalized-patients
#18
Andrea Ticinesi, Christian Milani, Fulvio Lauretani, Antonio Nouvenne, Leonardo Mancabelli, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Francesca Turroni, Sabrina Duranti, Marta Mangifesta, Alice Viappiani, Chiara Ferrario, Marcello Maggio, Marco Ventura, Tiziana Meschi
Reduced biodiversity and increased representation of opportunistic pathogens are typical features of gut microbiota composition in aging. Few studies have investigated their correlation with polypharmacy, multimorbidity and frailty. To assess it, we analyzed the fecal microbiota from 76 inpatients, aged 83 ± 8. Microbiome biodiversity (Chao1 index) and relative abundance of individual bacterial taxa were determined by next-generation 16S rRNA microbial profiling. Their correlation with number of drugs, and indexes of multimorbidity and frailty were verified using multivariate linear regression models...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869705/long-acting-injectable-antipsychotics-for-prevention-and-management-of-violent-behaviour-in-psychotic-patients
#19
REVIEW
Pavel Mohr, Pavel Knytl, Veronika Voráčková, Anna Bravermanová, Tomáš Melicher
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It has been well established that long-term antipsychotic treatment prevents relapse, lowers number of rehospitalisations, and also effectively reduces violent behaviour. Although violent behaviour is not a typical manifestation of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders, the diagnosis of psychosis increases the overall risk of violence. One of the few modifiable factors of violence risk is adherence with medication. In contrast, non-adherence with drug treatment and subsequent relapse increases risk of violent acts...
September 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867897/extrapyramidal-symptoms-probably-related-to-risperidone-treatment-a-case-series
#20
Sereen Rose Thomson, Bharti Chogtu, Dipanjan Bhattacharjee, Saurabh Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Atypical antipsychotics, like risperidone purportedly, score over their typical counterparts in terms of their lower propensity toward producing extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). However, recent studies have furnished evidence to the contrary. Hereby, we present a case series implicating risperidone as the causative agent for EPS. METHODS: As a part of the pharmacovigilance programme of India, the authors have assessed 10 physician-reported cases of EPS among the 1,830 patients who were prescribed risperidone within the time period of January 2012-December 2014 in a tertiary care hospital in South India...
July 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
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