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Typical antipsychotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783976/possible-multiple-system-atrophy-with-predominant-parkinsonism-in-a-patient-with-chronic-schizophrenia-a-case-report
#1
Hiroshi Komatsu, Masaaki Kato, Teiko Kinpara, Takashi Ono, Yoshihisa Kakuto
BACKGROUND: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult-onset, rare, and progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a varying combination of autonomic failure, cerebellar ataxia, and parkinsonism. MSA is categorized as MSA-P with predominant parkinsonism, and as MSA-C with predominant cerebellar features. The prevalence of MSA has been reported to be between 1.86 and 4.9 cases per 100,000 individuals. In contrast, approximately 1% of the population is affected by schizophrenia during their lifetime; therefore, MSA-P comorbidity is very rare in schizophrenic patients...
May 21, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752303/typical-features-of-parkinson-disease-and-diagnostic-challenges-with-microdeletion-22q11-2
#2
Erik Boot, Nancy J Butcher, Sean Udow, Connie Marras, Kin Y Mok, Satoshi Kaneko, Matthew J Barrett, Paolo Prontera, Brian D Berman, Mario Masellis, Boris Dufournet, Karine Nguyen, Perrine Charles, Eugénie Mutez, Teodor Danaila, Aurélia Jacquette, Olivier Colin, Sophie Drapier, Michel Borg, Ania M Fiksinski, Elfi Vergaelen, Ann Swillen, Annick Vogels, Annika Plate, Claudia Perandones, Thomas Gasser, Kristien Clerinx, Frédéric Bourdain, Kelly Mills, Nigel M Williams, Nicholas W Wood, Jan Booij, Anthony E Lang, Anne S Bassett
OBJECTIVE: To delineate the natural history, diagnosis, and treatment response of Parkinson disease (PD) in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), and to determine if these patients differ from those with idiopathic PD. METHODS: In this international observational study, we characterized the clinical and neuroimaging features of 45 individuals with 22q11.2DS and PD (mean follow-up 7.5 ± 4.1 years). RESULTS: 22q11.2DS PD had a typical male excess (32 male, 71...
May 11, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742478/autoimmune-phenotypes-in-schizophrenia-reveal-novel-treatment-targets
#3
REVIEW
Emily G Severance, Faith B Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
Typical and atypical antipsychotics are the first-line treatments for schizophrenia, but these classes of drugs are not universally effective, and they can have serious side effects that impact compliance. Antipsychotic drugs generally target the dopamine pathways with some variation. As research of schizophrenia pathophysiology has shifted away from a strictly dopamine-centric focus, the development of new pharmacotherapies has waned. A field of inquiry with centuries-old roots is gaining traction in psychiatric research circles and may represent a new frontier for drug discovery in schizophrenia...
May 6, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720950/sensorimotor-gating-in-depressed-and-euthymic-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-analysis-on-prepulse-inhibition-of-acoustic-startle-response-stratified-by-gender-and-state
#4
Junko Matsuo, Miho Ota, Shinsuke Hidese, Toshiya Teraishi, Hiroaki Hori, Ikki Ishida, Moeko Hiraishi, Hiroshi Kunugi
Background: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex is an operational measure of sensorimotor gating. The findings on PPI deficits in bipolar disorder (BD) are inconsistent among studies due to various confounding factors such as gender. This study aimed to assess sensorimotor gating deficits in patients with BD stratified by gender and state (depressed/euthymic), and to explore related clinical variables. Methods: Subjects were 106 non-manic BD patients (26 BD I and 80 BD II; 63 with depression and 43 euthymic) and 232 age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched (Japanese) healthy controls...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719358/antipsychotic-drugs-and-liver-injury
#5
Qinyu Lv, Zhenghui Yi
In October 2015, the drug-induced liver diseases group of the Chinese Society of Hepatology drafted and published the first Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines on Drug-induced Liver Injury in China, giving suggestions on the diagnosis and treatment of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). As a psychiatrist, I have found that in clinical practice both typical and new antipsychotic drugs can induce liver injury to varying degrees. Therefore, it is necessary to quickly and accurately determine the cause of liver injury and the type and severity of injury and establish a solution...
February 25, 2018: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715183/c-fos-expression-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-after-a-single-treatment-with-a-typical-haloperidol-and-nine-atypical-antipsychotics-a-pilot-study
#6
Alexander Kiss
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to find out whether acute effect of different doses of selected antipsychotics including aripiprazole (ARI), amisulpride (AMI), asenapine (ASE), haloperidol (HAL), clozapine (CLO), risperidone (RIS), quetiapine (QUE), olanzapine (OLA), ziprasidone (ZIP), and paliperidone (PAL) may have a stimulatory impact on the c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats weighing 280-300 g were used...
April 1, 2018: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714994/issues-in-geriatric-care-alzheimer-disease
#7
Kathy Kemle, Richard J Ackermann
Alzheimer disease (AD) occurs in 8.8% of older US adults and is the sixth leading cause of death among older adults. Medicare annual wellness visits require screening for cognitive impairment but do not specify screening methods. Numerous screening instruments are available. If results are positive, evaluation with well-validated assessment tools is needed. If cognitive impairment is confirmed, laboratory tests and imaging studies should be obtained to rule out reversible etiologies. If patients meet diagnostic criteria for AD, clinicians should educate patients and families on the expected course and help them complete advance directives...
May 2018: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713098/successful-management-of-psychotropics-induced-stuttering-priapism-with-pseudoephedrine-in-a-patient-with-schizophrenia
#8
Srinagesh Mannekote Thippaiah, Soumya Nagaraja, Badari Birur, Ananda Pandurangi
Stuttering Priapism is a recurrent, persistent penile erection in the absence of sexual desire due to altered genital hemodynamics, affecting the arterial component (high flow, non-ischemic) or the veno-occlusive mechanism (low flow, ischemic). Both typical and atypical antipsychotics increase the risk for priapism with greater implications in typicals than atypicals. Prompt recognition and treatment are important as 40% to 50% of patients with stuttering priapism may develop an erectile dysfunction if left untreated...
February 5, 2018: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707225/a-quantitative-analysis-of-antipsychotic-prescribing-trends-for-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia-in-england-and-wales
#9
Rossela Roberts, Abigail Neasham, Chania Lambrinudi, Afshan Khan
Objective: This study aims to assess the current antipsychotic prescribing trends for the treatment of schizophrenia and to compare them with available guidelines and research evidence. Design: An observational retrospective quantitative analysis. Setting: Data were collected from the prescribing cost analysis for the period between 2007 and 2014, including all drugs from the British National Formulary 4.2.1 and 4.2.2. Prescriptions were included from primary and secondary healthcare settings in England and Wales...
April 2018: JRSM Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704613/regional-brain-volume-changes-following-chronic-antipsychotic-administration-are-mediated-by-the-dopamine-d2-receptor
#10
Elisa Guma, Jill Rocchetti, Gabriel A Devenyi, Arnaud Tanti, Axel Mathieu, Jason P Lerch, Guillaume Elgbeili, Blandine Courcot, Naguib Mechawar, M Mallar Chakravarty, Bruno Giros
BACKGROUND: Neuroanatomical alterations are well established in patients suffering from schizophrenia, however the extent to which these changes are attributable to illness, antipsychotic drugs (APDs), or their interaction is unclear. APDs have been extremely effective for treatment of positive symptoms in major psychotic disorders. Their therapeutic effects are mediated, in part, through blockade of D2-like dopamine (DA) receptors, i.e. the D2, D3 and D4 dopamine receptors. Furthermore, the dependency of neuroanatomical change on DA system function and D2-like receptors has yet to be explored...
April 25, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702305/all-cause-mortality-in-older-adults-with-affective-disorders-and-dementia-under-treatment-with-antipsychotic-drugs-a-matched-cohort-study
#11
Alejandro G Szmulewicz, Augusto Ferraris, Agustín Rodriguez, Lucía Campos Cervera, Macarena Lopez Gonzalez, Federico Man, Federico Angriman, Diego Martino
We aimed to compare the mortality risk between patients with affective disorders and dementia under treatment with antipsychotics. To do this, a matched-cohort study based on an electronic database of a tertiary teaching hospital in Argentina was performed. Antipsychotic exposure was defined as any antipsychotic drug initiated by the patient. Primary outcome was defined as all-cause mortality during the 5-year follow-up period. To estimate the association between baseline diagnosis (affective disorders vs. dementia) and all-cause mortality, we used a multivariate generalized linear model with robust standard errors...
April 19, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701157/pharmacological-treatment-of-body-dysmorphic-disorder
#12
Kevin Hong, Vera Nezgovorova, Genoveva Uzunova, Danya Schlussel, Eric Hollander
Body dysmorphic disorder is a challenging disorder that manifests as erroneously perceived flaws in one's physical appearance and repetitive behaviors in response to appearance concerns. This disorder is also frequently comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and autism spectrum disorder. It is currently understood to arise from a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Treatment of body dysmorphic disorder typically consists of a combination of pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy...
April 26, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680151/vmat2-inhibitors-and-the-path-to-ingrezza-valbenazine
#13
Nicole D Harriott, John P Williams, Evan B Smith, Haig P Bozigian, Dimitri E Grigoriadis
The dopaminergic system plays a key role in the central nervous system, regulating executive function, arousal, reward, and motor control. Dysregulation of this critical monoaminergic system has been associated with diseases of the central nervous system including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorders and addiction. Drugs that modify the dopaminergic system by modulating the activity of dopamine have been successful in demonstrating clinical efficacy by providing treatments for these diseases...
2018: Progress in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674240/the-impact-of-antipsychotics-as-a-risk-factor-for-thromboembolism
#14
REVIEW
Ewa A Ogłodek, Marek J Just, Anna D Grzesińska, Aleksander Araszkiewicz, Adam R Szromek
Patients with schizophrenia are predisposed toward developing cardiovascular disease. Although neuroleptics affect the cardiovascular system, it is also important to consider the consequences of the disease itself such as lower physical activity due to living on disability pension, inadequate nutrition, and/or nicotine addiction, being more common among patients with schizophrenia versus the general population. All these factors combined lead to an increased risk of death caused by cardiovascular conditions in schizophrenic patients...
December 15, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670407/first-episode-psychosis-as-the-initial-presentation-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-report
#15
Athena Enderami, Rose Fouladi, Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). MS with episode of psychosis is a rare entity, and to the best of our knowledge, no case has been reported from Iran till date. Case presentation: We report a case of MS with first-episode psychosis in a 27-year-old single man with no history of psychiatric disorder or drug abuse. The patient developed neurological symptoms after 3 months and was finally diagnosed as a case of MS...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648618/inflammation-in-schizophrenia-pathogenetic-aspects-and-therapeutic-considerations
#16
Norbert Müller
This paper discusses the current evidence from animal and human studies for a central role of inflammation in schizophrenia. In animal models, pre- or perinatal elicitation of the immune response may increase immune reactivity throughout life, and similar findings have been described in humans. Levels of pro-inflammatory markers, such as cytokines, have been found to be increased in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia. Numerous epidemiological and clinical studies have provided evidence that various infectious agents are risk factors for schizophrenia and other psychoses...
April 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620914/effects-of-metformin-on-spatial-and-verbal-memory-in-children-with-asd-and-overweight-associated-with-atypical-antipsychotic-use
#17
Michael G Aman, Jill A Hollway, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, Benjamin L Handen, Kevin B Sanders, James Chan, Eric Macklin, L Eugene Arnold, Taylor Wong, Cassandra Newsom, Rianne Hastie Adams, Sarah Marler, Naomi Peleg, Evdokia A Anagnostou
OBJECTIVES: Studies in humans and rodents suggest that metformin, a medicine typically used to treat type 2 diabetes, may have beneficial effects on memory. We sought to determine whether metformin improved spatial or verbal memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and overweight associated with atypical antipsychotic use. METHODS: We studied the effects of metformin (Riomet® ) concentrate on spatial and verbal memory in 51 youth with ASD, ages 6 through 17 years, who were taking atypical antipsychotic medications, had gained significant weight, and were enrolled in a trial of metformin for weight management...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614992/a-research-study-review-of-effectiveness-of-treatments-for-psychiatric-conditions-common-to-end-stage-cancer-patients-needs-assessment-for-future-research-and-an-impassioned-plea
#18
Ralph J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Rates of psychiatric conditions common to end-stage cancer patients (delirium, depression, anxiety disorders) remain unchanged. However, patient numbers have increased as the population has aged; indeed, cancer is a chief cause of mortality and morbidity in older populations. Effectiveness of psychiatric interventions and research to evaluate, inform, and improve interventions is critical to these patients' care. This article's intent is to report results from a recent review study on the effectiveness of interventions for psychiatric conditions common to end-stage cancer patients; the review study assessed the state of research regarding treatment effectiveness...
April 3, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576721/comparative-molecular-field-analysis-and-molecular-dynamics-studies-of-the-dopamine-d-2-receptor-antagonists-without-a-protonatable-nitrogen-atom
#19
Agnieszka A Kaczor, Justyna Żuk, Dariusz Matosiuk
The dopaminergic hypothesis of schizophrenia is the main concept explaining the direct reasons of schizophrenia and the effectiveness of current antipsychotics. All antipsychotics present on the market are potent dopamine D2 receptor antagonists or partial agonists. In this work we investigate a series of dopamine D2 receptor antagonists which do not fulfill the criteria of the classical pharmacophore model as they do not possess a protonatable nitrogen atom necessary to interact with the conserved Asp(3.32)...
2018: Medicinal Chemistry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574303/prevalence-and-correlates-of-antipsychotic-polypharmacy-in-hong-kong
#20
Stephanie Lock Man Lung, Ho Ming Edwin Lee, Yu Hai Eric Chen, Kit Wa Sherry Chan, Wing Chung Chang, Lai Ming Christy Hui
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) remains a common practice despite inconclusive empirical evidence of additional efficacy and potential exacerbation of side effects. Previous studies suggest APP rate is notably high in East Asia. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and correlates of APP in Hong Kong. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study of 728 patients with psychosis. The demographics and clinical information, including age, gender, diagnosis, hospitalization history, and medication were collected...
March 10, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
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