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Typical antipsychotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515915/superior-effects-of-quetiapine-compared-with-aripiprazole-and-iloperidone-on-mk-801-induced-olfactory-memory-impairment-in-female-mice
#1
Ahmet Mutlu, Oguz Mutlu, Guner Ulak, Furuzan Akar, Havva Kaya, Faruk Erden, Pelin Tanyeri
Cognitive dysfunction is commonly observed in schizophrenic patients and the administration of antipsychotic treatments results in different outcomes. Although the typical antipsychotic treatments, such as haloperidol, appear to be unable to improve cognition dysfunction, the atypical antipsychotic drugs (quetiapine, aripiprazole and iloperidone) exert a beneficial effect. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of atypical antipsychotics on olfactory memory in mice, utilizing the social transmission of food preference (STFP) tests to evaluate the effects of drugs on MK-801-induced cognitive dysfunction...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478793/antipsychotic-prescribing-practices-in-those-with-parkinsonism-adherence-to-guidelines
#2
Heather B Rigby, Sara Rehan, Barbara Hill-Taylor, Kara Matheson, Ingrid Sketris
Several evidence-informed treatment guidelines recommend against the use of typical antipsychotics in patients with Parkinson's disease; of the atypical antipsychotics, clozapine and quetiapine are preferred. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency with which potentially inappropriate antipsychotics are dispensed to older adults in Nova Scotia who are on levodopa-containing medications. In this cohort, 59.9% were dispensed a preferred atypical antipsychotic and 12.6% a potentially harmful typical antipsychotic...
May 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465867/differences-in-antipsychotic-related-adverse-events-in-adult-pediatric-and-geriatric-populations
#3
Hersh Sagreiya, Yi-Ren Chen, Narmadan A Kumarasamy, Karthik Ponnusamy, Doris Chen, Amar K Das
In recent years, antipsychotic medications have increasingly been used in pediatric and geriatric populations, despite the fact that many of these drugs were approved based on clinical trials in adult patients only. Preliminary studies have shown that the "off-label" use of these drugs in pediatric and geriatric populations may result in adverse events not found in adults. In this study, we utilized the large-scale U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Events Reporting System (AERS) database to look at differences in adverse events from antipsychotics among adult, pediatric, and geriatric populations...
February 26, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465709/aromatherapy-and-aromatic-plants-for-the-treatment-of-behavioural-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-clinical-evidence-and-possible-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Damiana Scuteri, Luigi Antonio Morrone, Laura Rombolà, Pina Rosa Avato, Anna Rita Bilia, Maria Tiziana Corasaniti, Shinobu Sakurada, Tsukasa Sakurada, Giacinto Bagetta
The treatment of agitation and aggression, typical Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSDs) of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), is one of the most complicated aspects of handling patients suffering from dementia. Currently, the management of these symptoms often associated with an increased pain perception, which notably reduces the patients' quality of life (QoL), relies on the employment of antipsychotic drugs. Unfortunately, the use of these pharmacological agents has some limits: in the long term, they do not result in being equally effective as in the first weeks of treatment and they present important side effects...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464848/experiences-perspectives-and-priorities-of-people-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-regarding-sleep-disturbance-and-its-treatment-a-qualitative-study
#5
Sophie Faulkner, Penny Bee
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems are very common in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and impact negatively on functioning and wellbeing. Research regarding interventions to improve sleep in this population has been lacking. Little is known regarding these patient's perspectives on sleep problems and their treatment, providing very little foundation on which to develop acceptable and patient-centred treatments. METHODS: This study aims to explore perspectives and priorities of participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders regarding sleep and sleep disturbance, and their perspectives on existing treatments...
May 2, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464773/the-role-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-sexuality-road-to-recovery-in-schizophrenia
#6
Raja Lope Adam, Hatta Sidi, Marhani Midin, Hazli Zakaria, Srijit Das, Khairi Che Mat
Sexuality is an important dimension in human beings as a form of expression of individuality. For many decades, sexual functioning has been a neglected area among patients suffering from schizophrenia. It was a presumption that patients with schizophrenia could be asexual and this could be secondary to overwhelming situations of delusion, hallucination, hostility and negative symptoms among others. The deficient in sexual functioning are due to innate factors, i.e. negative symptoms (apathy, avolition and amotivation) and also as a result of prefrontal dysfunction, i...
May 2, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463344/minimizing-weight-gain-for-patients-taking-antipsychotic-medications-the-potential-role-for-early-use-of-metformin
#7
Victoria Hendrick, Robert Dasher, Michael Gitlin, Mehrban Parsi
BACKGROUND: Patients taking antipsychotic medications are at high risk for weight gain, which in turn leads to poor health outcomes, nonadherence with treatment, and low self-esteem. METHODS: We reviewed published studies of pharmacologic interventions aimed at minimizing antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Treatments initiated prior to onset of weight gain were compared with those that started once weight gain already had occurred. RESULTS: Although data are limited, adjunctive medications for weight management appear to be more effective when initiated at or near the time when patients are first exposed to antipsychotic medications...
May 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463343/biological-treatment-of-acute-agitation-or-aggression-with-schizophrenia-or-bipolar-disorder-in-the-inpatient-setting
#8
Christoph U Correll, Xin Yu, Yutao Xiang, John M Kane, Prakash Masand
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are chronic illnesses that commonly present with symptoms of acute agitation and aggression. These symptoms must be managed rapidly to prevent potential harm to the patient and others, including their caregivers, peers, and health care workers. A number of treatment options are available to clinicians to manage acute agitation and aggression, including non-pharmacologic behavioral and environmental de-escalation strategies, as well as biological treatment options such as pharmacologic agents and electroconvulsive therapy...
May 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443529/selective-attention-and-mismatch-negativity-in-antipsychotic-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients-before-and-after-6-months-of-antipsychotic-monotherapy
#9
B Oranje, B Aggernaes, H Rasmussen, B H Ebdrup, B Y Glenthøj
BACKGROUND: Attention deficits have been frequently reported in schizophrenia. It has been suggested that treatment with second-generation antipsychotics can ameliorate these deficits. In this study, the influence of 6 months treatment with quetiapine, a compound with less affinity for dopamine D2 receptors than for serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors, on electrophysiological parameters of attention was investigated in a group of antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients compared with a group of age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
April 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437058/psychotic-and-bipolar-disorders-antipsychotic-drugs
#10
Sarah D Holder, Alaina L Edmunds, Sherri Morgan
Antipsychotic drugs block dopamine receptors and are used to manage psychosis as well as other mental illnesses that may or may not have psychotic features, such as bipolar disorders and major depressive disorder. First-generation antipsychotic drugs are more likely to cause adverse effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia. Adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotic drugs typically are related to metabolic abnormalities such as weight gain, abnormal blood glucose levels, and elevated lipid levels...
April 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437056/psychotic-and-bipolar-disorders-schizophrenia
#11
Alaina L Edmunds
Schizophrenia is the most common psychotic illness, typically appearing between the late teenage years and the mid-30s. The first episode of psychosis may be preceded by a prodromal period. Schizophrenia symptoms fall into six common symptom clusters: delusions and hallucinations, disorganization of speech, cognitive dysfunction, negative symptoms, affective symptoms, and motor system abnormalities. The diagnosis is based on criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, including exclusion of other possible medical or psychiatric etiologies of psychosis...
April 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412910/aripiprazole-a-drug-that-displays-partial-agonism-and-functional-selectivity
#12
Erin W Tuplin, Matthew R Holahan
The treatment of schizophrenia is challenging due to the wide range of symptoms (positive, negative, cognitive) associated with the disease. Typical antipsychotics that antagonize D2 receptors are effective in treating positive symptoms, but extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS) are a common occurrence. Atypical antipsychotics targeting 5-TH2A and D2 receptors are more effective at treating cognitive and negative symptoms compared to typical antipsychotics, but these drugs also result in side-effects such as metabolic syndromes...
April 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389998/psychotropic-drug-related-fall-incidents-in-nursing-home-residents-living-in-the-eastern-part-of-the-netherlands
#13
Sarah I M Janus, Gezinus H Reinders, Jeannette G van Manen, Sytse U Zuidema, Maarten J IJzerman
BACKGROUND: Older people are more susceptible to falls than younger people. Therefore, as the Dutch population ages, the total number of falls and costs associated with them will rise. The use of psychotropic drugs is associated with an increased risk of falling. To create tailored fall-prevention programmes, information on the magnitude of the association between fall incidents and specific psychotropic drugs or drug classes is needed. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to delineate the associations between fall incidents and specific psychotropic drugs or drug classes...
April 8, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370309/long-term-antipsychotic-use-and-brain-changes-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Sanna Huhtaniska, Erika Jääskeläinen, Noora Hirvonen, Jukka Remes, Graham K Murray, Juha Veijola, Matti Isohanni, Jouko Miettunen
OBJECTIVE: The association between long-term antipsychotic treatment and changes in brain structure in schizophrenia is unclear. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis on long-term antipsychotic effects on brain structures in schizophrenia focusing on studies with at least 2 years of follow-up between MRI scans. DESIGN: Studies were systematically collected using 4 databases, and we also contacted authors for unpublished data. We calculated correlations between antipsychotic dose and/or type and brain volumetric changes and used random effect meta-analysis to study correlations by brain area...
March 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368577/classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-aripiprazole
#15
Austen B Casey, Clinton E Canal
Aripiprazole was the first antipsychotic developed to possess agonist properties at dopamine D2 autoreceptors, a groundbreaking strategy that presented a new vista for schizophrenia drug discovery. The dopamine D2 receptor is the crucial target of all extant antipsychotics, and all developed prior to aripiprazole were D2 receptor antagonists. Extensive blockade of these receptors, however, typically produces extrapyramidal (movement) side effects, which plagued first-generation antipsychotics, such as haloperidol...
April 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361438/drug-utilization-of-japanese-patients-diagnosed-with-schizophrenia-an-administrative-database-analysis
#16
Stephane Cheung, Yukinobu Hamuro, Jörg Mahlich, Takanobu Nakahara, Rosarin Sruamsiri, Sunny Tsukazawa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patient characteristics require consideration for optimal treatment in order to achieve clinical remission for an improved quality of life and social functioning. Prior evidence supports long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) in the relapse prevention of schizophrenia. This study aimed to characterize Japanese patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and to compare the outcomes of LAIs and oral antipsychotics (AP) in re-hospitalization or emergency room visit rates...
June 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360793/withdrawal-emergent-dyskinesia-and-supersensitivity-psychosis-due-to-olanzapine-use
#17
Hakan Karaş, Mehmet Güdük, Ömer Saatcioğlu
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) usually appears after years of antipsychotic drug use and appears to be related to the total lifetime medication dose. In withdrawal-emergent dyskinesia (WE-D), which is considered to be a subtype of TD, dyskinetic symptoms often appear shortly after a rapid reduction in antipsychotic drug dose or sudden discontinuation of the drug. Supersensitivity psychosis, which is frequently observed along with TD and is considered to have a similar etiology as TD, is a psychotic relapse phenomenon that occurs after the withdrawal of an antipsychotic drug or a rapid reduction in the drug dosage...
June 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348953/cerebello-thalamo-cortical-networks-predict-positive-symptom-progression-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#18
Jessica A Bernard, Joseph M Orr, Vijay A Mittal
Prospective longitudinal evaluation of adolescents at ultra-high-risk (UHR) for the development of psychosis enables an enriched neurodevelopmental perspective of disease progression in the absence of many of the factors that typically confound research with formally psychotic patients (antipsychotic medications, drug/alcohol dependence). The cerebellum has been linked to cognitive dysfunction and symptom severity in schizophrenia and recent work from our team suggests that it is a promising target for investigation in UHR individuals as well...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346296/antipsychotic-drug-use-in-nursing-home-residents-with-and-without-dementia-keep-an-eye-on-the-pro-re-nata-medication
#19
Katharina Allers, Michael Dörks, Guido Schmiemann, Falk Hoffmann
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia often lead to the prescription of antipsychotics, especially in nursing homes, but their use remains controversial. This study aimed to assess antipsychotic drug use in residents with dementia compared with those without dementia. Data were obtained through the cross-sectional 'inappropriate medication in patients with renal insufficiency in nursing homes' (IMREN) study including data from 21 nursing homes. Descriptive statistics were used and factors associated with the prescription of antipsychotics were identified by logistic regression...
March 24, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341945/translational-value-of-drug-discrimination-with-typical-and-atypical-antipsychotic-drugs
#20
Joseph H Porter, Kevin A Webster, Adam J Prus
This chapter focuses on the translational value of drug discrimination as a preclinical assay for drug development. In particular, the importance of two factors, i.e., training dose and species, for drug discrimination studies with the atypical antipsychotic clozapine is examined. Serotonin receptors appear to be an important pharmacological mechanism mediating clozapine's discriminative cue in both rats and mice, although differences are clearly evident as antagonism of cholinergic muscarinic receptors is important in rats at a higher training dose (5...
March 25, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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