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Insular anatomy

Alex R Carter, Mark P McAvoy, Joshua S Siegel, Xin Hong, Serguei V Astafiev, Jennifer Rengachary, Kristi Zinn, Nicholas V Metcalf, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
Visuospatial attention depends on the integration of multiple processes, and people with right hemisphere lesions after a stroke may exhibit severe or no visuospatial deficits. The anatomy of core components of visuospatial attention is an area of intense interest. Here we examine the relationship between the disruption of core components of attention and lesion distribution in a heterogeneous group (N = 70) of patients with right hemisphere strokes regardless of the presence of clinical neglect. Deficits of lateralized spatial orienting, measured as the difference in reaction times for responding to visual targets in the contralesional or ipsilesional visual field, and deficits in re-orienting attention, as measured by the difference in reaction times for invalidly versus validly cued targets, were measured using a computerized spatial orienting task...
December 20, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Kazuya Motomura, Atsushi Natsume, Kentaro Iijima, Shunichiro Kuramitsu, Masazumi Fujii, Takashi Yamamoto, Satoshi Maesawa, Junko Sugiura, Toshihiko Wakabayashi
OBJECTIVE Maximum extent of resection (EOR) for lower-grade and high-grade gliomas can increase survival rates of patients. However, these infiltrative gliomas are often observed near or within eloquent regions of the brain. Awake surgery is of known benefit for the treatment of gliomas associated with eloquent regions in that brain function can be preserved. On the other hand, intraoperative MRI (iMRI) has been successfully used to maximize the resection of tumors, which can detect small amounts of residual tumors...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Wendy Huang, Arnau Benet, Olivia Kola, Michael T Lawton
OBJECT Management of complex aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) can be challenging. Lesions not amenable to endovascular techniques or direct clipping might require a bypass procedure with aneurysm obliteration. Various bypass techniques are available, but an algorithmic approach to classifying these lesions and determining the optimal bypass strategy has not been developed. The objective of this study was to propose a comprehensive and flexible algorithm based on MCA aneurysm location for selecting the best of multiple bypass options...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Carsten R Bjarkam, Andreas N Glud, Dariusz Orlowski, Jens Christian H Sørensen, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher
During the last 20 years pigs have become increasingly popular in large animal translational neuroscience research as an economical and ethical feasible substitute to non-human primates. The anatomy of the pig telencephalon is, however, not well known. We present, accordingly, a detailed description of the surface anatomy and cytoarchitecture of the Göttingen minipig telencephalon based on macrophotos and consecutive high-power microphotographs of 15 μm thick paraffin embedded Nissl-stained coronal sections...
October 24, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Emmanuel Mandonnet, Juan Martino, Silvio Sarubbo, Francesco Corrivetti, Schahraed Bouazza, Damien Bresson, Hugues Duffau, Sebastien Froelich
BACKGROUND: Advances in the oncological and functional results of insular surgery have been reported recently. Such successes have been made possible by the advent of the transopercular approach under awake monitoring and by the improved anatomical and functional knowledge of the white matter pathways surrounding the insula. Nonetheless, given the rarity of insular tumors, it is difficult to get familiar with the complex 3D anatomy of the different neuronal and vascular structures encountered during a transopercular insular resection...
October 17, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Philippe Metellus, Salah Boussen, Maxime Guye, Agnes Trebuchon
BACKGROUND: Resection of tumors located within the insula of the dominant hemisphere represents a technical challenge due to complex anatomy including surrounding vasculature and the relationship to functional (motor and language) structures. We report here the case of a successful resection of a left insular glioma in a native deaf signer during an awake craniotomy. CASE DESCRIPTION: Subject A.G., a congenitally deaf right-handed patient who is a native user of Sign Language, presented a seizure one week before he was referred to our department...
September 1, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Michael M Safaee, Dario J Englot, Seunggu J Han, Michael T Lawton, Mitchel S Berger
Insular gliomas represent a unique surgical challenge due to the complex anatomy and nearby vascular elements associated within the Sylvian fissure. For certain tumors, the transsylvian approach provides an effective technique for achieving maximal safe resection. The goal of this manuscript and video are to present and discuss the surgical nuances and appropriate application of splitting the Sylvian fissure. Our hope is that this video highlights the safety and efficacy of the transsylvian approach for appropriately selected insular gliomas...
November 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Antonella Tramacere, Pier Francesco Ferrari
In the current opinion paper, we provide a comparative perspective on specific aspects of primate empathic abilities, with particular emphasis on the mirror neuron system associated with mouth/face actions and expression. Mouth and faces can be very salient communicative classes of stimuli that allow an observer access to the emotional and physiological content of other individuals. We thus describe patterns of activations of neural populations related to observation and execution of specific mouth actions and emotional facial expressions in some species of monkeys and in humans...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
Karine Michaud, Hugues Duffau
Once considered a "no man's land" especially when invaded by a diffuse low grade glioma (DLGG), the insula remains to this day a surgical challenge. Surgery for insular DLGG involves consideration of its hidden location under the potentially eloquent operculae, the proximity to vascular tree and high density of functions not only in the insular cortex but also in the white fiber pathways passing under the insular lobe. The natural history of DLGG and the potential benefits and consequences of the surgical approach also need a close look...
May 9, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Vita Droutman, Antoine Bechara, Stephen J Read
This paper presents a coherent account of the role of the insular cortex (IC) in decision-making. We follow a conceptualization of decision-making that is very close to one previously proposed by Ernst and Paulus (2005): that the decision process is a progression of four phases: (1) re-focusing attention; (2) evaluation; (3) action; and (4) outcome processing, and we present evidence for the insula's role in all these phases. We review the existing work on insula's functional anatomy that subdivides the IC into posterior, dorsal anterior and ventral anterior regions...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
A E Bykanov, D I Pitskhelauri, G F Dobrovol'skiy, M A Shkarubo
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the surgical anatomy of the insular cortex, morphology and vascularization of the insula and adjacent opercula in terms of transsylvian and transcortical approaches, and identification of the permissible anatomical boundaries for resection of glial tumors of the insula. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 18 anatomical specimens fixed in an alcohol-glycerol solution. Perfusion of the internal carotid artery with red latex was used to study the arterial system...
2015: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Vance T Lehman, David F Black, Matt A Bernstein, Kirk M Welker
PURPOSE: The temporal lobe is anatomically and functionally complex. However, relatively few radiologic signs are described to facilitate recognition of temporal lobe sulci and gyri in clinical practice. We devised and tested 8 radiologic signs of temporal lobe anatomy. METHODS: Images from volumetric magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo imaging were analyzed of 100 temporal lobes from 26 female and 24 male patients. Patient age ranged from 1 to 79 years (mean 19 years; standard deviation 16 years)...
May 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Matthieu Delion, Philippe Mercier, Gilles Brassier
We present a vascular anatomical study of the arteries and veins of the sylvian fissure and insula.A good knowledge of the sylvian fissure, the insula, and their vascular relationship would seem mandatory before performing surgery in this area, whatever the type of surgery (aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, insular tumors).We start with the sylvian fissure and insula morphology, followed by the MCA description and its perforators, with special attention paid to the insular perforators. We demonstrate that the long insular perforators penetrating in the superior part of the posterior short gyrus and long gyri vascularize, respectively, the corticonuclear and corticospinal fasciculi...
2016: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
Arnau Benet, Shawn L Hervey-Jumper, Jose Juan González Sánchez, Michael T Lawton, Mitchel S Berger
OBJECTIVE: Transcortical and transsylvian corridors have been previously described as the main surgical approaches to the insula, but there is insufficient evidence to support one approach versus the other. The authors performed a cadaveric comparative study regarding insular exposure, surgical window and freedom, between the transcortical and transsylvian approaches (with and without cutting superficial sylvian bridging veins). Surgical anatomy and skull surface reference points to the different insular regions are also described...
February 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Bahram Mohammadi, Anke Hammer, Stephan F Miedl, Daniel Wiswede, Josep Marco-Pallarés, Manfred Herrmann, Thomas F Münte
The steepness of the delay discounting function shows considerable interindividual differences. Moreover, faster devaluation of future rewards has been consistently observed in pathological gamblers (PGs). Here, we asked whether variability in delay discounting is at least partially driven by differences in the anatomy of gray and white matter. For 40 healthy young subjects (study 1) as well as 15 PG and 15 age-matched healthy controls (HCs, study 2), the individual discounting parameter k was obtained. Based on 3D T1-weighted high-resolution magnetic resonance scans and diffusion tensor imaging, we performed voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics, respectively, to examine the relation of gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter properties (as indicated by fractional anisotropy, FA) to k...
July 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Marcia N Goddard, Hanna Swaab, Serge A R B Rombouts, Sophie van Rijn
Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) is associated with several physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences. In terms of social development, there is an increased risk of autism symptomatology. However, it remains unclear how social deficits are related to abnormal brain development and to what degree underlying mechanisms of social dysfunction in 47, XXY are similar to, or different from, those in idiopathic autism (ASD). This study was aimed at investigating the neural architecture of brain structures related to social information processing in boys with 47, XXY, also in comparison with boys with idiopathic ASD...
September 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Allison Rosen, David Qixiang Chen, Dave J Hayes, Karen D Davis, Mojgan Hodaie
BACKGROUND: Interest in the anatomy of the insula is driven by its multifunctionality and the need for accurate visualization for surgical purposes. Few in vivo studies of human insular anatomy have been conducted due to methodological and anatomical challenges. OBJECTIVE: We used brain cortical morphometry tools to accurately reconstruct insular topology and permit a detailed visualization of its gyri in 3 dimensions. METHODS: Sixty healthy subjects (33 females; 37...
2015: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Juan Martino, David Mato, Enrique Marco de Lucas, Juan A García-Porrero, Andreu Gabarrós, Alejandro Fernández-Coello, Alfonso Vázquez-Barquero
OBJECT: Little attention has been given to the functional challenges of the insular approach to the resection of gliomas, despite the potential damage of essential neural networks that underlie the insula. The object of this study is to analyze the subcortical anatomy of the insular region when infiltrated by gliomas, and compare it with the normal anatomy in nontumoral hemispheres. METHODS: Ten postmortem human hemispheres were dissected, with isolation of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and the uncinate fasciculus...
October 2015: Journal of Neurosurgery
Eduardo Carvalhal Ribas, Kaan Yagmurlu, Hung Tzu Wen, Albert L Rhoton
OBJECT: The purpose of this study was to describe the location of each white matter pathway in the area between the inferior limiting insular sulcus (ILS) and temporal horn that may be crossed in approaches through the temporal stem to the medial temporal lobe. METHODS: The fiber tracts in 14 adult cadaveric cerebral hemispheres were examined using the Klingler technique. The fiber dissections were completed in a stepwise manner, identifying each white matter pathway in different planes and describing its position in relation to the anterior end of the ILS...
June 2015: Journal of Neurosurgery
Chiara Nosarti, Kie Woo Nam, Muriel Walshe, Robin M Murray, Marion Cuddy, Larry Rifkin, Matthew P G Allin
Alterations in cortical development and impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes have been described following very preterm (VPT) birth in childhood and adolescence, but only a few studies to date have investigated grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) maturation in VPT samples in early adult life. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) we studied regional GM and WM volumes in 68 VPT-born individuals (mean gestational age 30 weeks) and 43 term-born controls aged 19-20 years, and their association with cognitive outcomes (Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Visual Reproduction test of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised) and gestational age...
2014: NeuroImage: Clinical
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