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oral and topical antibiotics in impetigo

N M D'Cunha, G M Peterson, K E Baby, J Thomas
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Impetigo is a highly contagious bacterial skin infection and is one of the most common skin infections in children. Antibiotics are the first-line treatment when multiple lesions exist, but with an increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria the successful management of impetigo in the future is an area of concern. COMMENT: Current treatment options that favour the use of oral antibiotic therapy are increasingly problematic...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Brian Z Rayala, Dean S Morrell
Skin infections account for a significant subset of dermatologic conditions of childhood. Common cutaneous viral infections in children include warts, molluscum contagiosum, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and herpes simplex. Although viral infections are self-limited and often only mildly symptomatic, they can cause anxiety, embarrassment, and health care use. Recognition of their common and atypical presentations is necessary to differentiate them from other skin conditions of similar morphology. Impetigo, cellulitis, and abscess comprise the majority of childhood bacterial skin infections and are treated with topical or systemic antibiotics that cover group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus...
February 2017: FP Essentials
Tonny Tanus, Nicole E Scangarella-Oman, Marybeth Dalessandro, Gang Li, John J Breton, John F Tomayko
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and bacteriological efficacy of topical retapamulin ointment 1% versus oral linezolid in the treatment of patients with secondarily infected traumatic lesions (SITLs; excluding abscesses) or impetigo due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, comparative study (NCT00852540). SETTING: Patients recruited from 36 study centers in the United States...
December 2014: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
Holly Hartman-Adams, Christine Banvard, Gregory Juckett
Impetigo is the most common bacterial skin infection in children two to five years of age. There are two principal types: nonbullous (70% of cases) and bullous (30% of cases). Nonbullous impetigo, or impetigo contagiosa, is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes, and is characterized by honey-colored crusts on the face and extremities. Impetigo primarily affects the skin or secondarily infects insect bites, eczema, or herpetic lesions. Bullous impetigo, which is caused exclusively by S. aureus, results in large, flaccid bullae and is more likely to affect intertriginous areas...
August 15, 2014: American Family Physician
Asha C Bowen, Steven Y C Tong, Ross M Andrews, Irene M O'Meara, Malcolm I McDonald, Mark D Chatfield, Bart J Currie, Jonathan R Carapetis
BACKGROUND: Impetigo affects more than 110 million children worldwide at any one time. The major burden of disease is in developing and tropical settings where topical antibiotics are impractical and lead to rapid emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Few trials of systemic antibiotics are available to guide management of extensive impetigo. As such, we aimed to compare short-course oral co-trimoxazole with standard treatment with intramuscular benzathine benzylpenicillin in children with impetigo in a highly endemic setting...
December 13, 2014: Lancet
M Lorrot, E Bourrat, C Doit, S Prot-Labarthe, S Dauger, A Faye, R Blondé, Y Gillet, E Grimprel, F Moulin, B Quinet, R Cohen, S Bonacorsi
Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes are the two main bacteria involved in skin infections in children. Mild infections like limited impetigo and furonculosis should preferentially be treated by topical antibiotics (mupirocine or fucidic acid). Empiric antimicrobial therapy of dermohypodermitis consists in amoxicillin-clavulanate through oral route (80 mg/kg/d) or parenteral route (150 mg/kg amoxicillin per d. in 3-4 doses) for complicated features: risk factors of extension of the infection, sepsis or fast evolution...
August 2014: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Kimberly Aikins, Narayan Prasad, Seema Menon, John G Harvey, Andrew J A Holland
Modern burn care techniques have reduced the risk of infection of the acute burn wound, resulting in more rapid healing and a lower incidence of graft loss. Secondary breakdown may still occur. The loss of epithelium in association with multifocal superficial abscesses and ulceration has been termed burns impetigo. This may result in considerable morbidity and require prolonged treatment. The events preceding development, the impact on the patient, and the ideal treatment appear unclear and poorly reported...
March 2015: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Mary Wu Chang, Radhika Nakrani
Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) is a combination preservative used in personal care and household products and is a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Recently, MI alone, without MCI, has been increasingly used in consumer products in attempts to minimize allergic reactions. Wet wipes are extensively tested and traditionally believed to be innocuous. MI in wet wipes ("baby wipes") has not been previously reported to cause ACD in children in the United States. Only 1 previous report of ACD in a child in Belgium has been recently reported...
February 2014: Pediatrics
Yi Guo, Romela Irene Ramos, John S Cho, Niles P Donegan, Ambrose L Cheung, Lloyd S Miller
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) frequently causes skin and soft tissue infections, including impetigo, cellulitis, folliculitis, and infected wounds and ulcers. Uncomplicated CA-MRSA skin infections are typically managed in an outpatient setting with oral and topical antibiotics and/or incision and drainage, whereas complicated skin infections often require hospitalization, intravenous antibiotics, and sometimes surgery. The aim of this study was to develop a mouse model of CA-MRSA wound infection to compare the efficacy of commonly used systemic and topical antibiotics...
February 2013: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ranti S Bolaji, Tushar S Dabade, Cheryl J Gustafson, Scott A Davis, Daniel P Krowchuk, Steven R Feldman
BACKGROUND: Impetigo is a highly contagious, superficial skin disease that is frequently seen in children. While data support the use of topical antibiotics for treatment, the medications actually prescribed in practice are not well documented. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prescribing pattern of dermatologists and nondermatologists when treating impetigo and the demographics of the patients treated. METHODS: National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data on office visits for impetigo were analyzed from 1997 to 2007...
April 2012: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Sander Koning, Renske van der Sande, Arianne P Verhagen, Lisette W A van Suijlekom-Smit, Andrew D Morris, Christopher C Butler, Marjolein Berger, Johannes C van der Wouden
BACKGROUND: Impetigo is a common, superficial bacterial skin infection, which is most frequently encountered in children. There is no generally agreed standard therapy, and guidelines for treatment differ widely. Treatment options include many different oral and topical antibiotics as well as disinfectants. This is an updated version of the original review published in 2003. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of treatments for impetigo, including non-pharmacological interventions and 'waiting for natural resolution'...
2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Witold Owczarek, Anna Wydrzyńska, Elwira Paluchowska
Antibiotics are used for systemic and topical skin diseases treatment, taking advantage of their antiseptic, bacteriostatic and also their anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties. In case of localized external skin layers infections, a topical treatment is adequate. In case of widespread and deeper infections a systemic treatment is needed. The latter dermatological diseases are mostly treated by beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillins and cefalosporins) macrolides and tetracycline. In topical treatment mostly erythromycin, clindamycin, mupirocyne and fusidic acid are used...
May 2011: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
J A H Eekhof, A Knuistingh Neven, S P Gransjean, W J J Assendelft
Oral flucloxacillin is less effective than local antibiotics for impetigo in limited disease. Topical metronidazole and azelaic acid are effective for rosacea. Betadine is effective for minor infections following partial thickness burns. Terbinafine is effective against fungal infections of the nail. Miconazole is effective against oral thrush.
September 2009: Journal of Family Practice
Ribhi Shawar, Nicole Scangarella-Oman, Marybeth Dalessandro, John Breton, Monique Twynholm, Gang Li, Harmony Garges
Retapamulin is a novel semisynthetic pleuromutilin antibiotic specifically designed for use as a topical agent. The unique mode of action by which retapamulin selectively inhibits bacterial protein synthesis differentiates it from other nonpleuromutilin antibacterial agents that target the ribosome or ribosomal factors, minimizing the potential for target-specific cross-resistance with other antibacterial classes in current use. In vitro studies show that retapamulin has high potency against the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and coagulase-negative staphylococci) commonly found in skin and skin-structure infections (SSSIs), including S...
February 2009: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Nicole E Scangarella-Oman, Ribhi M Shawar, Samuel Bouchillon, Daryl Hoban
Retapamulin is a new topical pleuromutilin antibiotic for the treatment of skin and skin-structure infections, including impetigo. In vitro studies indicate that retapamulin has a unique mode of action that minimizes the potential for target-specific cross-resistance with other antibacterials and a limited potential for resistance development. Its spectrum of activity includes the most likely causative pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. In the Global Surveillance Program, retapamulin was highly active in vitro, including against strains of S...
April 2009: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
H Hofmann, C Schnopp
We review important aspects of bacterial skin diseases in children, most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes) and Borrelia burgdorferi. For early diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis in children it is important to be familiar with the variable clinical presentation of erythema migrans and early hematogenic dissemination with multiple erythemata migrantia. Treatment of impetigo in children requires consideration of concomitant diseases, the specific pathogen as well as local resistance patterns...
March 2009: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
F Moulin, B Quinet, J Raymond, Y Gillet, R Cohen
The skin infections are common in pediatrics, ranging from furonculosis or impetigo to the severe forms of necrotizing dermohypodermitis. The general antibiotic treatments are not always indicated but when they are, they must take into account the resistance of two main species of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes), the pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamic parameters and the severity and type of infection. Two situations should be treated by topical treatements: limited impetigo and furonculosis...
October 2008: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
K Islam, S P Hawser
Magainin is developing MSI-78, a 22-amino acid peptide, based on compounds discovered in frog skin, as a topical anti-infective. It has broad-spectrum activity, covering Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, anaerobic bacteria and Candida albicans. The compound also has potential for the treatment of impetigo and healing wounds with various infections. In July 1998, Magainin filed an NDA with the US FDA for the treatment of infections in diabetic foot ulcers [292671]. It expects to launch the drug during the second quarter of 1999 [275844]...
September 1998: IDrugs: the Investigational Drugs Journal
Lawrence Charles Parish, Jennifer L Parish
Retapamulin is the first agent in the new pleuromutilin class of antibacterials to become commercially available for clinical use in humans. Retapamulin acts as a potent inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis and has a unique mode of antibiotic action. To date, retapamulin has not demonstrated any clinically relevant, target-specific crossresistance with other antibiotic classes, and has shown a low potential for resistance selection in vitro. In preclinical studies, retapamulin demonstrated pronounced in vitro activity against staphylococcal, streptococcal and anaerobic Gram-positive clinical isolates associated with skin and skin structure infections...
February 2008: Drugs of Today
Charles Cole, John Gazewood
Impetigo is a highly contagious, superficial skin infection that most commonly affects children two to five years of age. The two types of impetigo are nonbullous impetigo (i.e., impetigo contagiosa) and bullous impetigo. The diagnosis usually is made clinically, but rarely a culture may be useful. Although impetigo usually heals spontaneously within two weeks without scarring, treatment helps relieve the discomfort, improve cosmetic appearance, and prevent the spread of an organism that may cause other illnesses (e...
March 15, 2007: American Family Physician
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