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Basal ganglia calcification and neonate

Karl-Heinz Deeg
Prenatal, neonatal meningoencephalitis and infections of the brain in older infants are often associated with serious complications which can be diagnosed by sonography through the open fontanelles. Most frequently postmeningitic hydrocephalus and subdural effusions occur. Rarer complications are brain abscesses and ventriculitis which are caused by gram negative bacteria such as E. coli, Serratia marcescens, Proteus and Enterobacter. A serious complication after ventriculitis is the development of compartment hydrocephalus...
April 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
José Daniel Vieira de Castro, Licia Pacheco Pereira, Daniel Aguiar Dias, Lindenberg Barbosa Aguiar, Joanira Costa Nogueira Maia, Jesus Irajacy Fernandes da Costa, Eveline Campos Monteiro de Castro, Francisco Edson de Lucena Feitosa, Francisco Herlânio Costa Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: The new epidemic of Zika virus infection raises grave concerns, especially with the increasingly-recognized link between emerging cases of microcephaly and this infectious disease. Besides small cranial dimensions, there are striking morphologic anomalies in the fetal brain. Key anomalies include cortical developmental malformations and a peculiar distribution of pathologic calcifications. These potentially indicate a new pattern of congenital central nervous system infection...
October 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Peter Štrafela, Alenka Vizjak, Jerica Mraz, Jernej Mlakar, Jože Pižem, Nataša Tul, Tatjana Avšič Županc, Mara Popović
CONTEXT: -The 2015 outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil resulted in a 20-times increased prevalence of congenital microcephaly in stillborns and neonates and was instrumental in raising the suspicion of a causal association between Zika virus and microcephaly. OBJECTIVE: -To provide a comprehensive description of the neuropathologic features of congenital Zika virus infection. DESIGN: -Autopsy evaluation of the brain from a fetus of 32 weeks and 6 days of gestation, with a prenatal diagnosis of microcephaly associated with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed, fetal, Zika virus infection...
January 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Sergio Cavalheiro, Amanda Lopez, Suzana Serra, Arthur Da Cunha, Marcos Devanir S da Costa, Antonio Moron, Henrique M Lederman
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to describe some radiological features in the newborns with microcephaly caused by Zika virus infection during pregnancy. METHODS: We radiologically analyzed 13 cases of newborns with microcephaly born to mothers who were infected by the Zika virus in the early stage of pregnancy. RESULTS: The most frequently observed radiological findings were microcephaly and decreased brain parenchymal volume associated with lissencephaly, ventriculomegaly secondary to the lack of brain tissue (not hypertensive), and coarse and anarchic calcifications mainly involving the subcortical cortical transition, and the basal ganglia...
June 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Nathalie Boddaert, Francis Brunelle, Isabelle Desguerre
Clinical features (progressive psychomotor retardation, seizures, movement disorders and motor signs in both central and peripheral systems, sensorineural defects, and psychiatric symptoms) and brain imaging are the keys to diagnosis. CT is indicated for the detection of calcifications and blood, and for angiography. MRI in all three axes requires T1, T2, FLAIR (from 1 year on), eventually T2* or contrast administration, and diffusion in any acute condition. MR spectroscopy allows the dectection of lactate and creatine deficiency, elevated choline in high membrane turnover, and low NAA in neuronal death...
2013: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Kazuyuki Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Kato, Ayako Sasaki, Masayo Kanai, Kiyoshi Hayasaka
Congenital microcephaly with intracranial calcification is a rare condition presented in heterogeneous diseases. Here, we report the case of a 1-year-old boy with severe congenital microcephaly and diffuse calcification. Neuroimaging studies showed a diffuse simplified gyral pattern; a very thin cortex; ventricular dilatation; very small basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem; and cerebellar hypoplasia with diffuse calcification. Clinical features of intrauterine infections, such as neonatal jaundice, hepatomegaly, and thrombocytopenia, were not found...
February 2012: Journal of Child Neurology
Marius Widerøe, Christian Brekken, Annemieke Kavelaars, Tina Bugge Pedersen, Pål Erik Goa, Cobi Heijnen, Jon Skranes, Ann-Mari Brubakk
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in the neonatal brain results in a prolonged injury process. Longitudinal studies using noninvasive methods can help elucidate the mechanisms behind this process. We have recently demonstrated that manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can depict areas with activated microglia and astrogliosis 7 days after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to follow brain injury after HI in rats longitudinally and compare manganese enhancement of brain areas to the development of injury and presence of reactive astrocytes and microglia...
2011: Neonatology
E Silverman, E Jaeggi
Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is characterized by the transplacental passage of maternal anti-Ro and/or anti-La antibodies and characteristic illnesses in the foetus/neonate. Most attention has focused on the most serious complication- cardiac involvement. This article will focus on non-cardiac involvement. Skin involvement (cutaneous NLE) is present in 15-25% of children with NLE. The rash of NLE tends to be photosensitive but may be present at birth or in non-sun exposed areas. It is most frequently seen around the eyes, not in the malar area, but also occurs in other parts of the body...
September 2010: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Jia-Woei Hou
BACKGROUND: Several progeroid disorders presenting a specific "old-man" appearance since birth or childhood have been described. Here, five patients with a history of severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation and pseudohydrocephaloid cranium noted after birth that were suggestive of neonatal progeroid syndrome (NPS) or Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome are reported. We discuss the natural course of the syndrome. METHODS: A series of anthropometric measurements, imaging, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and endocrine investigations to assess metabolic complications such as hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia were performed on these five patients who were followed for 1-7 years...
June 2009: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Ana Alarcon, Alfredo Garcia-Alix, Fernando Cabañas, Angel Hernanz, Dora Pascual-Salcedo, Ana Martin-Ancel, Marta Cabrera, Alfredo Tagarro, Jose Quero
OVERVIEW: In newborns with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, neuroimaging is the best available predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings in congenital CMV infection have seldom been described. Neonates with central nervous system infections present high CSF Beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)-m) levels. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine whether CSF beta(2)-m is increased in newborns with symptomatic congenital CMV infection, and (2) to examine its correlation with neuroimaging findings...
September 2006: European Journal of Pediatrics
A C de Mol, S Vrancken, A J Eggink, F M Verduyn Lunel, A Warris
A newborn male was diagnosed with congenital rubella syndrome. His 31-year-old mother had had erythematous exanthema during a period of amenorrhea lasting 7 weeks; she was not vaccinated and had never had a rubella infection. The infection was confirmed serologically. The mother gave birth to an icteric, microcephalic, dysmature neonate with hepatosplenomegaly and exanthema with multiple, small purple-red spots. Ultrasound cardiography revealed a persistently open arterial duct and a small defect of the ventricular septum...
April 1, 2006: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Anurag Bajpai, Madhulika Kabra, Rohini Thapliyal, Sheffali Gulati, Veena Kalra
A one-year-boy presented with constipation, fever, failure to thrive and developmental delay from the neonatal period. Investigations revealed persistent hypernatremia and deranged renal functions. Diagnostic work-up was suggestive of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Computerized tomography of head revealed calcification in the frontal, thalamic and basal ganglia region. The rare association of NDI and intracranial calcification is discussed.
June 2005: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Julie S Prendiville, David A Cabral, Kenneth J Poskitt, Sheila Au, Michael A Sargent
Computerized tomography (CT) of the brain was performed in 10 of 11 consecutive infants with neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) (five boys and six girls). Ten of the 11 infants had brain neurosonography. Nine of 10 infants had abnormal CT scans. There was diffuse, markedly reduced attenuation of the cerebral white matter in four infants studied in the first week of life, and also in an infant 5 weeks of age. Patchy reduced subcortical white matter attenuation was observed in another 5-week-old infant. Basal ganglia calcifications were present in two infants at 2 months of age, one of whom also had mild ventriculomegaly...
January 2003: Pediatric Dermatology
Junko Arii, Yuzo Tanabe, Michiko Makino, Hirokazu Sato, Yoichi Kohno
Children who develop clinical hypothyroidism in early childhood have various degrees of irreversible brain damage, albeit less severe than cases detected by neonatal screening test for hypothyroidism in the first months of the life. We report three patients with hypothyroidism of childhood onset after a normal neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone screening who showed deceleration in linear growth, spasticity in the lower limbs with deformity, mild intellectual impairment, and multiple calcifications in the basal ganglia and subcortical areas...
April 2002: Journal of Child Neurology
M J Rodríguez, G Ursu, F Bernal, V Cusí, N Mahy
Deregulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis is widely considered as one of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Whether this alteration can result in cerebral calcification was investigated in basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus of human premature and term neonates together with glial reaction. In all samples nonarteriosclerotic calcifications were observed, their number and size were area-specific and increased in term neonates. Basal ganglia always presented the highest degree of calcification and hippocampus the lowest, located mainly in the CA1 subfield...
February 2001: Neurobiology of Disease
F Feillet, B Mousson, Y Grignon, J V Leonard, M Vidailhet
A neonate presented in the first weeks after birth with vomiting. He was unresponsive, with hypotonia, macrocephaly, and lactic acidosis. The cranial computed tomographic scan revealed a hypodense brain, with increased brain volume and extensive cerebral edema. He died at 6 weeks of age; postmortem examination revealed necrotizing encephalopathy with marked brain edema, spongiosis, thalamic necrosis, and basal ganglia calcifications. Enzyme studies of the mitochondrial respiratory chain revealed complex I deficiency in both muscle and liver...
April 1999: Pediatric Neurology
K Im, D S Kim
The first case was 7-month-old immunodeficiency girl in whom the diagnosis of Acanthamoeba pneumonia was established by culture of a bronchial washing. The patient had been ill for a month when she was admitted due to neonatal thrombocytopenia with respiratory difficulty and treated with gammaglobulin and steroid. Her chest X-ray showed diffuse alveolar consolidation on the left lung with interstitial hazziness and a partial sign of hyperinflation on the right lung. Laboratory tests showed that the Candida antigen was negative and Pneumocystis carinii was not detected...
October 1998: Yonsei Medical Journal
Y C Chang, C C Huang, C C Liu
Five young infants with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) underwent cranial ultrasonographic examinations and/or computed tomographic examinations. Only two of these infants were small for their gestational age, and none of them were microcephalic at birth. Deafness and ocular lesions were found in four patients, and congenital heart disease was found in three. All had abnormal ultrasonographic findings: linear-shaped hyperechogenicity over the basal ganglia was noted for five patients, periventricular punctate hyperechogenicity was noted for three, and subependymal cysts were observed in two...
March 1996: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
S al Shahwan, M L Rossi, M A al Thagafi
We present a female neonate in her second week of life with borderline microcephaly, microphthalmia and progressive ascending sensory and motor deficit leading to complete paralysis with respiratory failure and death at 27 days of age. Neurological imaging revealed, in addition to cerebral atrophy, marked hydrocephalus, ependymal basal ganglia calcification, leptomeningeal enhancement, and patchy myelitis throughout the entire spinal cord. CSF cytological examination revealed the presence of a mononuclear pleocytosis with Toxoplasma gondii trophozoites free in the CSF and within the cytoplasm of some macrophages, and a 100-fold raised protein content...
July 1996: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Z Ergaz, I Arad
In recent years intrauterine intravascular transfusion has become the method of choice for the treatment of severe fetal erythroblastosis. Despite the association of the procedure with fetal complications such as bradycardia and overtransfusion, later neonatal neurological consequences have been only rarely reported. A case is described of a neonate who underwent repeated intrauterine intravascular transfusion for treatment of erythroblastosis and who later developed calcification in the thalamus and the basal ganglia...
1994: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
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