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effect of chlorine on health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027793/pivotal-roles-of-metal-oxides-in-the-formation-of-environmentally-persistent-free-radicals
#1
Li Li Yang, Guorui Liu, Minghui Zheng, Rong Jin, Yuyang Zhao, Xiaolin Wu, Yang Xu
Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are emerging pollutants that can adversely affect human health. Although the pivotal roles of metal oxides in EPFR formation have been identified, few studies have investigated the influence of the metal oxide species, size, or concentration on the formation of EPFRs. In this study, EPFR formation from a polyaromatic hydrocarbon with chlorine and hydroxyl substituents (2,4-dichloro-1-naphthol) was investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022193/development-of-a-modular-vapor-intrusion-model-with-variably-saturated-and-non-isothermal-vadose-zone
#2
Dawit N Bekele, Ravi Naidu, Sreenivasulu Chadalavada
Human health risk assessment at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites requires a critical evaluation of the exposure pathways of volatile organic compounds including assessments of vapor exposure in indoor air. Although there are a number of vapor intrusion models (VIM) currently available, they rarely reproduce actual properties of soils in the vadose zone. At best, users of such models assume averaged parameters for the vadose zone based on information generated elsewhere. The objective of this study was to develop a one-dimensional steady-state VIM, indoorCARE™ model, that considers vertical spatial variations of the degree of saturation (or effective air-filled porosity) and temperature of the vadose zone...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017568/polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-depression-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-investigation-of-a-dopamine-related-neurochemical-path-in-the-german-helpcb-surveillance-program
#3
Petra Maria Gaum, Monika Gube, Thomas Schettgen, Franziska Maria Putschögl, Thomas Kraus, Bruno Fimm, Jessica Lang
BACKGROUND: Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is associated with depressive symptomatology. A cause of depressive symptoms is a disturbance in the neurotransmitter system of dopamine (DA). Animal as well as human studies report that PCBs can influence the DA system. This study examined whether PCB-related depressive symptoms are affected by DA metabolites in humans with high PCB body burden. METHODS: This study is part of the German HELPcB surveillance program (Health Effects in high Level exposure to PCB) for occupationally exposed workers and their relatives...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947237/neuropsychological-effects-of-occupational-exposure-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls
#4
B Fimm, W Sturm, A Esser, T Schettgen, K Willmes, J Lang, P M Gaum, T Kraus
In the context of a health surveillance program for former PCB-exposed workers of a transformer and capacitor recycling company in Germany, their family members, employees of surrounding companies and area residents a broad range of cognitive functions covering attention, executive processing, reasoning, memory and motor performance was examined. The study aimed at identifying potential adverse effects of PCB load on cognitive functions. Detailed analysis of PCB burden of the participants revealed rather high correlations of lower and higher chlorinated as well as dioxin-like PCBs...
September 22, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927721/agonistic-effects-of-diverse-xenobiotics-on-the-constitutive-androstane-receptor-as-detected-in-a-recombinant-yeast-cell-assay
#5
Ryo Kamata, Daisuke Nakajima, Fujio Shiraishi
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a nuclear receptor and transcription factor regulating proteins involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Agonist activation of the CAR can trigger metabolic activation and toxification as well as detoxification and clearance; accordingly, xenobiotic substances acting as CAR ligands may pose a threat to human and animal health. We used yeast cells transduced with the human CAR and the response pathway to measure the CAR-agonistic activities of 549 synthetic or natural compounds: 216 of the tested compounds exhibited CAR-agonistic effects...
September 16, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846900/antibiotic-resistome-promotion-in-drinking-water-during-biological-activated-carbon-treatment-is-it-influenced-by-quorum-sensing
#6
Ji Zheng, Tao Chen, Hong Chen
The contamination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in drinking water may pose a direct threat to human health. This study applied high-throughput qPCR and sequencing to investigate the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities during the advanced treatment of drinking water using biological activated carbon. The promotion of ARGs was observed, and the normalized copy number of ARGs increased significantly after BAC treatment, raising the number of detected ARGs from 84 to 159. Twenty-nine ARGs were identified as biofilm-influencing sources in the BAC, and they persisted after chlorination...
August 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790782/revelations-of-an-overt-water-contamination
#7
Gurpreet Singh, S K Kaushik, S Mukherji
BACKGROUND: Contaminated water sources are major cause of water borne diseases of public health importance. Usually, contamination is suspected after an increase in patient load. METHODS: Two health teams investigated the episode. First team conducted sanitary survey, and second team undertook water safety and morbidity survey. On-site testing was carried out from source till consumer end. Investigation was also undertaken to identify factors which masked the situation...
July 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774621/zebrafish-embryo-toxicity-of-15-chlorinated-brominated-and-iodinated-disinfection-by-products
#8
David Hanigan, Lisa Truong, Michael Simonich, Robert Tanguay, Paul Westerhoff
Disinfection to protect human health occurs at drinking water and wastewater facilities through application of non-selective oxidants including chlorine. Oxidants also transform organic material and form disinfection by-products (DBPs), many of which are halogenated and cyto- and genotoxic. Only a handful of assays have been used to compare DBP toxicity, and researchers are unsure which DBP(s) drive the increased cancer risk associated with drinking chlorinated water. The most extensive data set employs an in vitro model cell, Chinese hamster ovary cells...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774616/gene-expression-changes-in-blood-rna-after-swimming-in-a-chlorinated-pool
#9
Lucas A Salas, Laia Font-Ribera, Mariona Bustamante, Lauro Sumoy, Joan O Grimalt, Sarah Bonnin, Maria Aguilar, Heidi Mattlin, Manuela Hummel, Anna Ferrer, Manolis Kogevinas, Cristina M Villanueva
Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBP) such as trihalomethanes (THM) in swimming pools has been linked to adverse health effects in humans, but their biological mechanisms are unclear. We evaluated short-term changes in blood gene expression of adult recreational swimmers after swimming in a chlorinated pool. Volunteers swam 40min in an indoor chlorinated pool. Blood samples were drawn and four THM (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform) were measured in exhaled breath before and after swimming...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774609/disinfection-byproduct-regulatory-compliance-surrogates-and-bromide-associated-risk
#10
Chelsea Kolb, Royce A Francis, Jeanne M VanBriesen
Natural and anthropogenic factors can alter bromide concentrations in drinking water sources. Increasing source water bromide concentrations increases the formation and alters the speciation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed during drinking water treatment. Brominated DBPs are more toxic than their chlorinated analogs, and thus have a greater impact on human health. However, DBPs are regulated based on the mass sum of DBPs within a given class (e.g., trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids), not based on species-specific risk or extent of bromine incorporation...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772152/long-term-time-trends-in-human-intake-of-pops-in-the-czech-republic-indicate-a-need-for-continuous-monitoring
#11
Katarína Bányiová, Milena Černá, Ondřej Mikeš, Klára Komprdová, Anežka Sharma, Tenzing Gyalpo, Pavel Čupr, Martin Scheringer
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from the group of persistent organic pollutants are detected in human tissues years or even decades after their ban. Exposure to PCBs and OCPs can pose risks to human health. In the present study, we calculated the daily intakes of PCBs and OCPs in the Czech population and investigated the long-term trends of human exposure to POPs. Data on POP concentrations from a 16-year period of breast-milk monitoring were used. A toxicokinetic model with consideration of compound-specific elimination half-lives was used to calculate the mothers' daily intake of PCBs and OCPs representing the intake of POPs by all exposure routes...
July 31, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740247/inactivation-mechanism-of-escherichia-coli-induced-by-slightly-acidic-electrolyzed-water
#12
Zhangying Ye, Shuo Wang, Tao Chen, Weishan Gao, Songming Zhu, Jinsong He, Zhiying Han
Foodborne disease outbreak caused by food microbiological contamination is a serious public health problem. Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW), a new ultra-high effect and wide-spectrum disinfectant that is colourless, odourless, and harmless to humans and the environment, is directly used on food surfaces in Japan and America. However, the underlying inactivation mechanism remains unknown. In this study, biochemical and cellular changes were observed to investigate the bactericidal mechanism of SAEW against Escherichia coli (E...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719305/optimizing-household-chlorination-marketing-strategies-a-randomized-controlled-trial-on-the-effect-of-price-and-promotion-on-adoption-in-haiti
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Michael Ritter, Eveline Camille, Christophe Velcine, Rose-Kerline Guillaume, Daniele Lantagne
Household water treatment can reduce diarrheal morbidity and mortality in developing countries, but adoption remains low and supply is often unreliable. To test effects of marketing strategies on consumers and suppliers, we randomized 1,798 households in rural Haiti and collected data on purchases of a household chlorination product for 4 months. Households received randomly selected prices ($0.11-$0.56 per chlorine bottle), and half received monthly visits from sales agents. Each $0.22 drop in price increased purchases by 0...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706466/modeling-the-potential-impact-of-emerging-innovations-on-achievement-of-sustainable-development-goals-related-to-maternal-newborn-and-child-health
#14
Tara Herrick, Claudia Harner-Jay, Craig Shaffer, Greg Zwisler, Peder Digre, Amie Batson
BACKGROUND: Innovations that improve the affordability, accessibility, or effectiveness of health care played a major role in the Millennium Development Goal achievements and will be critical for reaching the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) health targets. Mechanisms to identify and prioritize innovations are essential to inform future investment decisions. METHODS: Innovation Countdown 2030 crowdsourced health innovations from around the world and engaged recognized experts to systematically assess their lifesaving potential by 2030...
2017: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616398/new-photodynamic-therapy-with-next-generation-photosensitizers
#15
REVIEW
Hiromi Kataoka, Hirotada Nishie, Noriyuki Hayashi, Mamoru Tanaka, Akihiro Nomoto, Shigenobu Yano, Takashi Joh
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive antitumor treatment that uses the combination of a photosensitizer, tissue oxygen, and visible light irradiation to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, predominantly singlet oxygen. Currently, first-generation PDT using porfimer sodium with an excimer dye laser, and second-generation PDT using talaporfin sodium PDT with a semiconductor laser are approved by health insurance for use in Japan. However, the cancer cell specificity and selectivity of these treatments are inadequate...
April 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594401/upconversion-nanoparticle-mediated-photodynamic-therapy-induces-autophagy-and-cholesterol-efflux-of-macrophage-derived-foam-cells-via-ros-generation
#16
Xiaobo B Han, Hongxia X Li, Yueqing Q Jiang, Hao Wang, Xuesong S Li, Jiayuan Y Kou, Yinghong H Zheng, Zhongni N Liu, Hong Li, Jing Li, Dou Dou, You Wang, Ye Tian, Liming M Yang
Macrophage-derived foam cells are a major component of atherosclerotic plaques and have an important role in the progression of atherosclerotic plaques, thus posing a great threat to human health. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as a therapeutic strategy for atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the effect of PDT mediated by upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles encapsulating chlorin e6 (UCNPs-Ce6) on the cholesterol efflux of THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells and explored the possible mechanism of this effect...
June 8, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573352/risk-based-framework-for-optimizing-residual-chlorine-in-large-water-distribution-systems
#17
Muhammad Nadeem Sharif, Ashraf Farahat, Husnain Haider, Muhammad A Al-Zahrani, Manuel J Rodriguez, Rehan Sadiq
Managing residual chlorine in large water distribution systems (WDS) to minimize human health risk is a daunting task. In this research, a novel risk-based framework is developed and implemented in a distribution network spanning over 64 km(2) for supplying water to the city of Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia) through 473-km-long water mains. The framework integrates the planning of linear assets (i.e., pipes) and placement of booster stations to optimize residual chlorine in the WDS. Failure mode and effect analysis are integrated with the fuzzy set theory to perform risk analysis...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487818/modeling-adsorption-of-brominated-chlorinated-and-mixed-bromo-chloro-dibenzo-p-dioxins-on-c60-fullerene-using-nano-qspr
#18
Piotr Urbaszek, Agnieszka Gajewicz, Celina Sikorska, Maciej Haranczyk, Tomasz Puzyn
Many technological implementations in the field of nanotechnology have involved carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes such as the buckminsterfullerene, C60. The unprecedented properties of such organic nanomaterials (in particular their large surface area) gained extensive attention for their potential use as organic pollutant sorbents. Sorption interactions can be very hazardous and useful at the same time. This work investigates the influence of halogenation by bromine and/or chlorine in dibenzo-p-dioxins on their sorption ability on the C60 fullerene surface...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486433/human-indoor-exposure-to-airborne-halogenated-flame-retardants-influence-of-airborne-particle-size
#19
Mark J La Guardia, Erika D Schreder, Nancy Uding, Robert C Hale
Inhalation of halogenated flame-retardants (HFRs) released from consumer products is an important route of exposure. However, not all airborne HFRs are respirable, and thus interact with vascular membranes within the gas exchange (alveolar) region of the lung. HFRs associated with large (>4 µm), inhalable airborne particulates are trapped on the mucosal lining of the respiratory tract and then are expelled or swallowed. The latter may contribute to internal exposure via desorption from particles in the digestive tract...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427649/hydrodynamic-cavitation-in-combination-with-the-ozone-hydrogen-peroxide-and-the-uv-based-advanced-oxidation-processes-for-the-removal-of-natural-organic-matter-from-drinking-water
#20
Matej Čehovin, Alojz Medic, Jens Scheideler, Jörg Mielcke, Achim Ried, Boris Kompare, Andreja Žgajnar Gotvajn
Natural organic matter in drinking water is causing concern especially due to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) by chlorine, as these are proven to have adverse health effects on consumers. In this research, humic acid was used as a source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in drinking water (up to 3mgL(-1)). The efficiency of DOC removal was studied by applying O3, H2O2/O3, H2O2/UV and O3/UV advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) alone and combined with hybrid hydrodynamic cavitation (HC), generated by an orifice plate, as this technology recently shows promising potential for the treatment of water, containing recalcitrant organic substances...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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