Read by QxMD icon Read

effect of chlorine on health

Junpeng Zhang, Weiying Li, Jiping Chen, Wanqi Qi, Feng Wang, Yanyan Zhou
There is growing awareness of the antibiotic-resistance crisis and its implications for public health among clinicians, researchers, politicians, and the public. We studied bacterial antibiotic resistance transition and the role of biofilms in a drinking water distribution system (DWDS). We tracked several different antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) with resistance to tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, and norfloxacin for one year in a DWDS. The results indicated that the amount of ARB increased in tap water, presumably due to biofilm detachment...
March 22, 2018: Chemosphere
Christine P Stewart, Patricia Kariger, Lia Fernald, Amy J Pickering, Charles D Arnold, Benjamin F Arnold, Alan E Hubbard, Holly N Dentz, Audrie Lin, Theodora J Meerkerk, Erin Milner, Jenna Swarthout, John M Colford, Clair Null
Background: Poor nutrition and infectious diseases can prevent children from reaching their developmental potential. We aimed to assess the effects of improvements in water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition on early child development in rural Kenya. Methods: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, we enrolled pregnant women in their second or third trimester from three counties (Kakamega, Bungoma, and Vihiga) in Kenya's western region, with an average of 12 households per cluster...
April 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Fahmida Tofail, Lia Ch Fernald, Kishor K Das, Mahbubur Rahman, Tahmeed Ahmed, Kaniz K Jannat, Leanne Unicomb, Benjamin F Arnold, Sania Ashraf, Peter J Winch, Patricia Kariger, Christine P Stewart, John M Colford, Stephen P Luby
Background: Poor nutrition and hygiene make children vulnerable to delays in growth and development. We aimed to assess the effects of water quality, sanitation, handwashing, and nutritional interventions individually or in combination on the cognitive, motor, and language development of children in rural Bangladesh. Methods: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, we enrolled pregnant women in their first or second trimester from rural villages of Gazipur, Kishoreganj, Mymensingh, and Tangail districts of central Bangladesh, with an average of eight women per cluster...
April 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Wan-Ning Lee, Ching-Hua Huang, Guangxuan Zhu
Chlorine sanitizers used in washing fresh and fresh-cut produce can lead to generation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) that are harmful to human health. Monitoring of DBPs is necessary to protect food safety but comprehensive analytical methods have been lacking. This study has optimized three U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methods for drinking water DBPs to improve their performance for produce wash water. The method development encompasses 40 conventional and emerging DBPs. Good recoveries (60-130%) were achieved for most DBPs in deionized water and in lettuce, strawberry and cabbage wash water...
August 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Weiying Li, Junpeng Zhang, Feng Wang, Lin Qian, Yanyan Zhou, Wanqi Qi, Jiping Chen
Public health is threatened by deteriorated water quality due to bacterial regrowth and uncontrolled growth-related problems in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). To investigate the scope of this problem, a two-year field study was conducted in south China. The amount of assimilable organic carbon (AOC), total cell concentrations (TCC), and intact cell concentrations (ICC) of water samples were determined by flow cytometry. The results indicated that ICC was significantly correlated to AOC concentration when the chlorine concentration was less than 0...
March 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Jade Benjamin-Chung, Nuhu Amin, Ayse Ercumen, Benjamin F Arnold, Alan E Hubbard, Leanne Unicomb, Mahbubur Rahman, Stephen P Luby, John M Colford
Water, sanitation, and handwashing interventions may confer spillover effects on neighbors of intervention recipients by interrupting pathogen transmission. We measured geographically local spillovers in WASH Benefits, a cluster-randomized trial in rural Bangladesh, by comparing outcomes among neighbors of intervention vs. control participants. WASH Benefits randomly allocated geographically-defined clusters to a compound-level intervention (chlorinated drinking water, upgraded sanitation, and handwashing promotion) or control...
March 27, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Ling-Chuan Guo, Jianpeng Xiao, Yonghui Zhang, Shengbing Yu, Hualiang Lin, Guangning Su, Tao Liu, Xing Li, Shaomin Lv, Shannon Rutherford, Wenjun Ma
As surrogates of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), new flame retardants (NFRs) include a series of chlorinated and brominated flame retardants. Though the NFRs are thought to induce similar thyroid hormone (TH) disrupting effects as PBDEs, few studies have focused on them. Given the increasing levels of NFRs in the environment, more in depth investigation of the potential TH disrupting effects of NFRs is warranted. This research involved a health survey to collect data and examine the associations between PBDEs, NFRs and TH...
March 19, 2018: Chemosphere
Pooja Jain, Paolo Vineis, BenoƮt Liquet, Jelle Vlaanderen, Barbara Bodinier, Karin van Veldhoven, Manolis Kogevinas, Toby J Athersuch, Laia Font-Ribera, Cristina M Villanueva, Roel Vermeulen, Marc Chadeau-Hyam
Epidemiological studies provide evidence that environmental exposures may affect health through complex mixtures. Formal investigation of the effect of exposure mixtures is usually achieved by modelling interactions, which relies on strong assumptions relating to the identity and the number of the exposures involved in such interactions, and on the order and parametric form of these interactions. These hypotheses become difficult to formulate and justify in an exposome context, where influential exposures are numerous and heterogeneous...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Ane Urtiaga, Alvaro Soriano, Jordi Carrillo-Abad
The concerns about the undesired impacts on human health and the environment of long chain perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) have driven industrial initiatives to replace PFASs by shorter chain fluorinated homologues. 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) is applied as alternative to PFOS in metal plating and fluoropolymer manufacture. This study reports the electrochemical treatment of aqueous 6:2 FTSA solutions on microcrystalline BDD anodes. Bench scale batch experiments were performed, focused on assessing the effect of the electrolyte and the applied current density (5-600 A m-2 ) on the removal of 6:2 FTSA, the reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and the fluoride release...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Jie Wu, Jian Ye, Huanlong Peng, Meirou Wu, Weiwei Shi, Yongmei Liang, Wei Liu
In the Pearl River Delta area, the upstream municipal wastewater is commonly discharged into rivers which are a pivotal source of downstream drinking water. Solar irradiation transforms some of the dissolved organic matter discharged from the wastewater, also affecting the formation of disinfection by-products in subsequent drinking water treatment plants. The effect of simulated solar radiation on soluble microbial products extracted from activated sludge was documented in laboratory experiments. Irradiation was found to degrade macromolecules in the effluent, yielding smaller, more reactive intermediate species which reacted with chlorine or chloramine to form higher levels of noxious disinfection by-products...
March 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Lucy Annang Ingram, Chiwoneso B Tinago, Bo Cai, Louisiana Wright Sanders, Tina Bevington, Sacoby Wilson, Kathryn M Magruder, Erik Svendsen
Psychological stressors have been observed immediately following disasters, yet less is known about the long-term effects on the mental health of vulnerable communities. In 2005, Graniteville, S.C. was ravaged by a train derailment that leaked approximately 60 tons of chlorine gas and left several people dead in the small community. The purpose of this study was to examine the mental health of Graniteville-area residents in the nine years following the train disaster using a mixed methods approach. Using the photovoice method, participants reported compromised mental health with symptoms consistent with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, fear, and anxiety...
2018: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Shan-Shan Liu, Hong-Mei Qu, Dong Yang, Hui Hu, Wei-Li Liu, Zhi-Gang Qiu, Ai-Ming Hou, Jianhua Guo, Jun-Wen Li, Zhi-Qiang Shen, Min Jin
The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance has posed a major threat to both human health and environmental ecosystem. Although the disinfection has been proved to be efficient to control the occurrence of pathogens, little effort is dedicated to revealing potential impacts of disinfection on transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), particularly for free-living ARGs in final disinfected effluent of urban wastewater treatment plants (UWWTP). Here, we investigated the effects of chlorine disinfection on the occurrence and concentration of both extracellular ARGs (eARGs) and intracellular ARGs (iARGs) in a full-scale UWWTP over a year...
March 1, 2018: Water Research
Zahoor A Wani, Tanveer Ahmad, Yedukondalu Nalli, Asif Ali, Avneet Pal Singh, Ram A Vishwakarma, Nasheeman Ashraf, Syed Riyaz-Ul-Hassan
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most expensive spices in the world due to its medicinal and aromatic value. However, saffron production is severely affected by the corm rot disease throughout the saffron producing countries. In this study, we report a basidiomycetous latent pathogen of saffron, designated as CSE26, capable of producing phytotoxic compounds. CSE26 is a highly odorous basidiomycete with monomitic hyphal system. Molecular phylogeny of ITS and 28S ribosomal gene sequence of CSE26 assigned it as Porostereum spadiceum...
February 28, 2018: Current Microbiology
Mathias Altmann, Chiara Altare, Nanette van der Spek, Jean-Christophe Barbiche, Jovana Dodos, Mahamat Bechir, Myriam Ait Aissa, Patrick Kolsteren
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions have a small but measurable benefit on stunting, but not on wasting. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of a household WASH package on the performance of an Outpatient Therapeutic feeding Program (OTP) for severe acute malnutrition (SAM). We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial embedded in a routine OTP. The study population included 20 health centers (clusters) from Mao and Mondo districts in Chad. Both arms received the OTP. The intervention arm received an additional household WASH package (chlorine, soap, water storage container, and promotion on its use)...
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Daniel Gerrity, Mayara Arnold, Eric Dickenson, Duane Moser, Joshua D Sackett, Eric C Wert
Microbial community structure in the ozone-biofiltration systems of two drinking water and two wastewater treatment facilities was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Collectively, these datasets enabled comparisons by facility, water type (drinking water, wastewater), pre-oxidation (ozonation, chlorination), media type (anthracite, activated carbon), media depth, and backwash dynamics. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in drinking water filters, whereas Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and Planctomycetes were differentially abundant in wastewater filters...
February 13, 2018: Water Research
Xia Su, Ying Tian, Hongzhuan Zhou, Yinglong Li, Zhenhua Zhang, Beiyu Jiang, Bing Yang, Jue Zhang, Jing Fang
In recent years, plasma activated solution (PAS) have made a good progress in the disinfection of medical device, tooth whitening, fruit preservation. In this study, we investigated the inactivation efficacy of Newcastle disease virus by PAS. Water, 0.9% NaCl and 0.3% H2 O2 were excited by plasma to obtain the corresponding solutions PAS(H2 O), PAS(NaCl) and PAS(H2 O2 ). The complete inactivation of virus after PAS treatment for 30 min was confirmed by the embryo lethality assay (ELA) and hemagglutination (HA) test...
February 23, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Clair Null, Christine P Stewart, Amy J Pickering, Holly N Dentz, Benjamin F Arnold, Charles D Arnold, Jade Benjamin-Chung, Thomas Clasen, Kathryn G Dewey, Lia C H Fernald, Alan E Hubbard, Patricia Kariger, Audrie Lin, Stephen P Luby, Andrew Mertens, Sammy M Njenga, Geoffrey Nyambane, Pavani K Ram, John M Colford
BACKGROUND: Poor nutrition and exposure to faecal contamination are associated with diarrhoea and growth faltering, both of which have long-term consequences for child health. We aimed to assess whether water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition interventions reduced diarrhoea or growth faltering. METHODS: The WASH Benefits cluster-randomised trial enrolled pregnant women from villages in rural Kenya and evaluated outcomes at 1 year and 2 years of follow-up. Geographically-adjacent clusters were block-randomised to active control (household visits to measure mid-upper-arm circumference), passive control (data collection only), or compound-level interventions including household visits to promote target behaviours: drinking chlorinated water (water); safe sanitation consisting of disposing faeces in an improved latrine (sanitation); handwashing with soap (handwashing); combined water, sanitation, and handwashing; counselling on appropriate maternal, infant, and young child feeding plus small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements from 6-24 months (nutrition); and combined water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition...
January 29, 2018: Lancet Global Health
Chuan-Hai Li, Xiao-Min Ren, Ting Ruan, Lin-Ying Cao, Yan Xin, Liang-Hong Guo, Guibin Jiang
Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonates (Cl-PFAESs) are the alternative products of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the metal plating industry in China. The similarity in chemical structures between Cl-PFAESs and PFOS makes it reasonable to assume they possess similar biological activities. In the present study, we investigated whether Cl-PFAESs could induce cellular effects through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) signaling pathways like PFOS. By using fluorescence competitive binding assay, we found two dominant Cl-PFAESs (6:2 Cl-PFAES and 8:2 Cl-PFAES) bound to PPARs with affinity higher than PFOS...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Aditya Aryasomayajula, Caroline Wojnas, Ranjith Divigalpitiya, Ponnambalam Ravi Selvaganapathy, Peter Kruse
Free chlorine is widely used in industry as a bleaching and oxidizing agent. Its concentration is tightly monitored to avoid environmental contamination and deleterious human health effects. Here, we demonstrate a solid state chemiresistive sensor using graphene like carbon (GLC) to detect free chlorine in water. A 15-20 nm thick GLC layer on a PET substrate was modified with a redox-active aniline oligomer (phenyl-capped aniline tetramer, PCAT) to increase sensitivity, improve selectivity and impart fouling resistance...
January 25, 2018: ACS Sensors
Xing-Fang Li, William A Mitch
While drinking water disinfection has effectively prevented waterborne diseases, an unintended consequence is the generation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Epidemiological studies have consistently observed an association between consumption of chlorinated drinking water with an increased risk of bladder cancer. Out of the >600 DBPs identified, regulations focus on a few classes, such as trihalomethanes (THMs), whose concentrations were hypothesized to correlate with the DBPs driving the toxicity of disinfected waters...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"