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effect of chlorine on health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223814/a-metabolomics-strategy-to-assess-the-combined-toxicity-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-and-short-chain-chlorinated-paraffins-sccps
#1
Feidi Wang, Haijun Zhang, Ningbo Geng, Xiaoqian Ren, Baoqin Zhang, Yufeng Gong, Jiping Chen
The combined toxicity of mixed chemicals is usually evaluated according to several specific endpoints, and other potentially toxic effects are disregarded. In this study, we provided a metabolomics strategy to achieve a comprehensive understanding of toxicological interactions between mixed chemicals on metabolism. The metabolic changes were quantified by a pseudotargeted analysis, and the types of combined effects were quantitatively discriminated according to the calculation of metabolic effect level index (MELI)...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195980/comparative-stability-and-efficacy-of-selected-chlorine-based-biocides-against-escherichia-coli-in-planktonic-and-biofilm-states
#2
Ana Meireles, Carla Ferreira, Luís Melo, Manuel Simões
Microbial contamination is an unavoidable problem in industrial processes. Sodium hypochlorite (SH) is the most common biocide used for industrial disinfection. However, in view of the current societal concerns on environmental and public health aspects, there is a trend to reduce the use of this biocide as it can lead to the formation of organochlorinated carcinogenic compounds. In this work the efficacy of SH was assessed against Escherichia coli in planktonic and biofilm states and compared with three alternative chlorine-based biocides: neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEOW), chlorine dioxide (CD) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC)...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143341/a-toxicogenomics-approach-to-screen-chlorinated-flame-retardants-tris-2-chloroethyl-phosphate-and-tris-2-chloroisopropyl-phosphate-for-potential-health-effects
#3
Boris V Krivoshiev, Gerrit T S Beemster, Katrien Sprangers, Ronny Blust, Steven J Husson
Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) is a pervasive flame retardant that has been identified as a chemical of concern given its health effects and therefore its use has since been tightly regulated. Tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), an analogue of TCEP, is believed to be its replacement. However, compared to TCEP, little is known of the toxicological impacts of TCIPP. We used RNA sequencing as unbiased and sensitive tool to identify and compare effects on a transcriptome level of TCEP and TCIPP in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135009/bacterial-species-identifiable-magnetic-nanosystems-for-early-sepsis-diagnosis-and-extracorporeal-photodynamic-blood-disinfection
#4
Jianhao Wang, Hao Wu, Yanmei Yang, Rong Yan, Yuan Zhao, Yanhao Wang, Aihong Chen, Shilong Shao, Pengju Jiang, Yong-Qiang Li
Despite the numerous bacteria detection and elimination techniques available nowadays, sensitive diagnosis and treatment of sepsis (caused by the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream), especially at the early stage, remain big challenges. Here we report a nanosystem for early sepsis diagnosis and complete extracorporeal blood disinfection, based on iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with chlorin e6 molecules and bacterial species-identifiable aptamers (Fe3O4-Ce6-Apt). We demonstrate that the Fe3O4-Ce6-Apt nanosystem can achieve simultaneous blood bacterial species identification and enrichment in a single step, and the enriched bacteria can be easily detected with the assistance of fluorescence microscopic determination...
November 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111247/effects-of-a-behavior-change-campaign-on-household-drinking-water-disinfection-in-the-lake-chad-basin-using-the-ranas-approach
#5
Jonathan Lilje, Hans-Joachim Mosler
Worldwide, an estimated 700 million people rely on unimproved drinking water sources; even more consume water that is not safe to drink. Inadequate drinking water quality constitutes a major risk factor for cholera and other diarrheal diseases around the globe, especially for young children in developing countries. Household water treatment and safe storage systems represent an intermediate solution for settings that lack infrastructure supplying safe drinking water. However, the correct and consistent usage of such treatment technologies rely almost exclusively on the consumer's behavior...
October 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027793/pivotal-roles-of-metal-oxides-in-the-formation-of-environmentally-persistent-free-radicals
#6
Lili Yang, Guorui Liu, Minghui Zheng, Rong Jin, Yuyang Zhao, Xiaolin Wu, Yang Xu
Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are emerging pollutants that can adversely affect human health. Although the pivotal roles of metal oxides in EPFR formation have been identified, few studies have investigated the influence of the metal oxide species, size, or concentration on the formation of EPFRs. In this study, EPFR formation from a polyaromatic hydrocarbon with chlorine and hydroxyl substituents (2,4-dichloro-1-naphthol) was investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022193/development-of-a-modular-vapor-intrusion-model-with-variably-saturated-and-non-isothermal-vadose-zone
#7
Dawit N Bekele, Ravi Naidu, Sreenivasulu Chadalavada
Human health risk assessment at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites requires a critical evaluation of the exposure pathways of volatile organic compounds including assessments of vapor exposure in indoor air. Although there are a number of vapor intrusion models (VIM) currently available, they rarely reproduce actual properties of soils in the vadose zone. At best, users of such models assume averaged parameters for the vadose zone based on information generated elsewhere. The objective of this study was to develop a one-dimensional steady-state VIM, indoorCARE™ model, that considers vertical spatial variations of the degree of saturation (or effective air-filled porosity) and temperature of the vadose zone...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017568/polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-depression-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-investigation-of-a-dopamine-related-neurochemical-path-in-the-german-helpcb-surveillance-program
#8
Petra Maria Gaum, Monika Gube, Thomas Schettgen, Franziska Maria Putschögl, Thomas Kraus, Bruno Fimm, Jessica Lang
BACKGROUND: Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is associated with depressive symptomatology. A cause of depressive symptoms is a disturbance in the neurotransmitter system of dopamine (DA). Animal as well as human studies report that PCBs can influence the DA system. This study examined whether PCB-related depressive symptoms are affected by DA metabolites in humans with high PCB body burden. METHODS: This study is part of the German HELPcB surveillance program (Health Effects in high Level exposure to PCB) for occupationally exposed workers and their relatives...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947237/neuropsychological-effects-of-occupational-exposure-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls
#9
B Fimm, W Sturm, A Esser, T Schettgen, K Willmes, J Lang, P M Gaum, T Kraus
In the context of a health surveillance program for former PCB-exposed workers of a transformer and capacitor recycling company in Germany, their family members, employees of surrounding companies and area residents a broad range of cognitive functions covering attention, executive processing, reasoning, memory and motor performance was examined. The study aimed at identifying potential adverse effects of PCB load on cognitive functions. Detailed analysis of PCB burden of the participants revealed rather high correlations of lower and higher chlorinated as well as dioxin-like PCBs...
December 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927721/agonistic-effects-of-diverse-xenobiotics-on-the-constitutive-androstane-receptor-as-detected-in-a-recombinant-yeast-cell-assay
#10
Ryo Kamata, Daisuke Nakajima, Fujio Shiraishi
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a nuclear receptor and transcription factor regulating proteins involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Agonist activation of the CAR can trigger metabolic activation and toxification as well as detoxification and clearance; accordingly, xenobiotic substances acting as CAR ligands may pose a threat to human and animal health. We used yeast cells transduced with the human CAR and the response pathway to measure the CAR-agonistic activities of 549 synthetic or natural compounds: 216 of the tested compounds exhibited CAR-agonistic effects...
September 18, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846900/antibiotic-resistome-promotion-in-drinking-water-during-biological-activated-carbon-treatment-is-it-influenced-by-quorum-sensing
#11
Ji Zheng, Tao Chen, Hong Chen
The contamination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in drinking water may pose a direct threat to human health. This study applied high-throughput qPCR and sequencing to investigate the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities during the advanced treatment of drinking water using biological activated carbon. The promotion of ARGs was observed, and the normalized copy number of ARGs increased significantly after BAC treatment, raising the number of detected ARGs from 84 to 159. Twenty-nine ARGs were identified as biofilm-influencing sources in the BAC, and they persisted after chlorination...
January 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790782/revelations-of-an-overt-water-contamination
#12
Gurpreet Singh, S K Kaushik, S Mukherji
BACKGROUND: Contaminated water sources are major cause of water borne diseases of public health importance. Usually, contamination is suspected after an increase in patient load. METHODS: Two health teams investigated the episode. First team conducted sanitary survey, and second team undertook water safety and morbidity survey. On-site testing was carried out from source till consumer end. Investigation was also undertaken to identify factors which masked the situation...
July 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774621/zebrafish-embryo-toxicity-of-15-chlorinated-brominated-and-iodinated-disinfection-by-products
#13
David Hanigan, Lisa Truong, Michael Simonich, Robert Tanguay, Paul Westerhoff
Disinfection to protect human health occurs at drinking water and wastewater facilities through application of non-selective oxidants including chlorine. Oxidants also transform organic material and form disinfection by-products (DBPs), many of which are halogenated and cyto- and genotoxic. Only a handful of assays have been used to compare DBP toxicity, and researchers are unsure which DBP(s) drive the increased cancer risk associated with drinking chlorinated water. The most extensive data set employs an in vitro model cell, Chinese hamster ovary cells...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774616/gene-expression-changes-in-blood-rna-after-swimming-in-a-chlorinated-pool
#14
Lucas A Salas, Laia Font-Ribera, Mariona Bustamante, Lauro Sumoy, Joan O Grimalt, Sarah Bonnin, Maria Aguilar, Heidi Mattlin, Manuela Hummel, Anna Ferrer, Manolis Kogevinas, Cristina M Villanueva
Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBP) such as trihalomethanes (THM) in swimming pools has been linked to adverse health effects in humans, but their biological mechanisms are unclear. We evaluated short-term changes in blood gene expression of adult recreational swimmers after swimming in a chlorinated pool. Volunteers swam 40min in an indoor chlorinated pool. Blood samples were drawn and four THM (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform) were measured in exhaled breath before and after swimming...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774609/disinfection-byproduct-regulatory-compliance-surrogates-and-bromide-associated-risk
#15
Chelsea Kolb, Royce A Francis, Jeanne M VanBriesen
Natural and anthropogenic factors can alter bromide concentrations in drinking water sources. Increasing source water bromide concentrations increases the formation and alters the speciation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed during drinking water treatment. Brominated DBPs are more toxic than their chlorinated analogs, and thus have a greater impact on human health. However, DBPs are regulated based on the mass sum of DBPs within a given class (e.g., trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids), not based on species-specific risk or extent of bromine incorporation...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772152/long-term-time-trends-in-human-intake-of-pops-in-the-czech-republic-indicate-a-need-for-continuous-monitoring
#16
Katarína Bányiová, Milena Černá, Ondřej Mikeš, Klára Komprdová, Anežka Sharma, Tenzing Gyalpo, Pavel Čupr, Martin Scheringer
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from the group of persistent organic pollutants are detected in human tissues years or even decades after their ban. Exposure to PCBs and OCPs can pose risks to human health. In the present study, we calculated the daily intakes of PCBs and OCPs in the Czech population and investigated the long-term trends of human exposure to POPs. Data on POP concentrations from a 16-year period of breast-milk monitoring were used. A toxicokinetic model with consideration of compound-specific elimination half-lives was used to calculate the mothers' daily intake of PCBs and OCPs representing the intake of POPs by all exposure routes...
July 31, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740247/inactivation-mechanism-of-escherichia-coli-induced-by-slightly-acidic-electrolyzed-water
#17
Zhangying Ye, Shuo Wang, Tao Chen, Weishan Gao, Songming Zhu, Jinsong He, Zhiying Han
Foodborne disease outbreak caused by food microbiological contamination is a serious public health problem. Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW), a new ultra-high effect and wide-spectrum disinfectant that is colourless, odourless, and harmless to humans and the environment, is directly used on food surfaces in Japan and America. However, the underlying inactivation mechanism remains unknown. In this study, biochemical and cellular changes were observed to investigate the bactericidal mechanism of SAEW against Escherichia coli (E...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719305/optimizing-household-chlorination-marketing-strategies-a-randomized-controlled-trial-on-the-effect-of-price-and-promotion-on-adoption-in-haiti
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Michael Ritter, Eveline Camille, Christophe Velcine, Rose-Kerline Guillaume, Daniele Lantagne
Household water treatment can reduce diarrheal morbidity and mortality in developing countries, but adoption remains low and supply is often unreliable. To test effects of marketing strategies on consumers and suppliers, we randomized 1,798 households in rural Haiti and collected data on purchases of a household chlorination product for 4 months. Households received randomly selected prices ($0.11-$0.56 per chlorine bottle), and half received monthly visits from sales agents. Each $0.22 drop in price increased purchases by 0...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706466/modeling-the-potential-impact-of-emerging-innovations-on-achievement-of-sustainable-development-goals-related-to-maternal-newborn-and-child-health
#19
Tara Herrick, Claudia Harner-Jay, Craig Shaffer, Greg Zwisler, Peder Digre, Amie Batson
BACKGROUND: Innovations that improve the affordability, accessibility, or effectiveness of health care played a major role in the Millennium Development Goal achievements and will be critical for reaching the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) health targets. Mechanisms to identify and prioritize innovations are essential to inform future investment decisions. METHODS: Innovation Countdown 2030 crowdsourced health innovations from around the world and engaged recognized experts to systematically assess their lifesaving potential by 2030...
2017: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616398/new-photodynamic-therapy-with-next-generation-photosensitizers
#20
REVIEW
Hiromi Kataoka, Hirotada Nishie, Noriyuki Hayashi, Mamoru Tanaka, Akihiro Nomoto, Shigenobu Yano, Takashi Joh
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive antitumor treatment that uses the combination of a photosensitizer, tissue oxygen, and visible light irradiation to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, predominantly singlet oxygen. Currently, first-generation PDT using porfimer sodium with an excimer dye laser, and second-generation PDT using talaporfin sodium PDT with a semiconductor laser are approved by health insurance for use in Japan. However, the cancer cell specificity and selectivity of these treatments are inadequate...
April 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
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