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effect of chlorine on health

Thespina Yamanis, Elisabeth Nolan, Susan Shepler
BACKGROUND: Future infectious disease epidemics are likely to disproportionately affect countries with weak health systems, exacerbating global vulnerability. To decrease the severity of epidemics in these settings, lessons can be drawn from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. There is a dearth of literature on public perceptions of the public health response system that required citizens to report and treat Ebola cases. Epidemiological reports suggested that there were delays in diagnosis and treatment...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
L W B Olaniyan, N Mkwetshana, A I Okoh
Triclosan (TCS) is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent present as an active ingredient in some personal care products such as soaps, toothpastes and sterilizers. It is an endocrine disrupting compound and its increasing presence in water resources as well as in biosolid-amended soils used in farming, its potential for bioaccumulation in fatty tissues and toxicity in aquatic organisms are a cause for concern to human and environmental health. TCS has also been detected in blood, breast milk, urine and nails of humans...
2016: SpringerPlus
Y Wang, K Hollis-Hansen, X Ren, Y Qiu, W Qu
OBJECTIVES: Obesity has become a global epidemic and threat to public health. A good understanding of the causes can help attenuate the risk and spread. Environmental pollutants may have contributed to the rising global obesity rates. Some research reported associations between chemical pollutants and obesity, but findings are mixed. This study systematically examined associations between chemical pollutants and obesity in human subjects. METHODS: Systematic review of relevant studies published between 1 January 1995 and 1 June 2016 by searching PubMed and MEDLINE®...
October 5, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Charlotte J Sparrenbom, Sofia Åkesson, Sara Johansson, David Hagerberg, Torleif Dahlin
Globally, an enormous number of polluted areas are in need of remediation to prevent adverse effects on health and environment. In situ remediation and especially the monitoring thereof needs further development to avoid costly and hazardous shipments associated with excavation. The monitoring of in situ remediation actions needs easier and cheaper nondestructive methods for evaluation and verification of remediation degree and degradation status of the contaminants. We investigate the Direct Current resistivity and time-domain Induced Polarization tomography (DCIP) method and its use within the context of a DNAPL (Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids) contaminated site in Varberg, Sweden, where an in situ remediation pilot test has been performed by stimulated reductive dechlorination by push injection...
September 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Lucy Annang Ingram, Chiwoneso B Tinago, Robin Estrada, Sacoby Wilson, Louisiana Wright Sanders, Tina Bevington, Bethany Carlos, Evangeline Cornelius, Erik R Svendsen, Julia Ball
INTRODUCTION: In 2005, a train derailment and subsequent chlorine spill ravaged the rural town of Graniteville in South Carolina, resulting in one of the worst chlorine gas exposures in US. HISTORY: Significant health and economic challenges persist in the community more than a decade later. Healthcare providers offered healthcare services to community members in the immediate aftermath of the disaster, and many still live in the community and continue to provide healthcare services...
July 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Nobumitsu Sakai, Emmy Dayana, Azizi Abu Bakar, Minoru Yoneda, Nik Meriam Nik Sulaiman, Mustafa Ali Mohd
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in surface water collected in the Selangor River basin, Malaysia, to identify the occurrence, distribution, and dechlorination process as well as to assess the potential adverse effects to the Malaysian population. Ten PCB homologs (i.e., mono-CBs to deca-CBs) were quantitated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The total concentration of PCBs in the 10 sampling sites ranged from limit of detection to 7.67 ng L(-1). The higher chlorinated biphenyls (tetra-CBs to deca-CBs) were almost not detected in most of the sampling sites, whereas lower chlorinated biphenyls (mono-CBs, di-CBs, and tri-CBs) dominated more than 90 % of the 10 homologs in all the sampling sites...
October 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Lihua Liu, Yifan Li, Mehmet Coelhan, Hing Man Chan, Wanli Ma, Liyan Liu
Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and might cause adverse environmental and human health effects. Little is known about the relative toxicity of different SCCP compounds especially during development. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare effects of seven SCCP groups at environmentally relevant levels, using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. Observations on malformation, survival rates at 96 h post fertilization (hpf), and hatching rates at 72 hpf indicated that the C10- groups (C10H18Cl4, 1,2,5,6,9,10-C10H16Cl6 and C10H15Cl7) were more toxic than the C12- groups (C12H22Cl4, C12H19Cl7 and 1,1,1,3,10,12,12,12-C12H18Cl8) and Cereclor 63L...
September 8, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Waleed M Sweileh, Sa'ed H Zyoud, Samah W Al-Jabi, Ansam F Sawalha, Naser Y Shraim
BACKGROUND: Water - related diseases are worldwide health concern. Microbial contamination and contaminant products in water are a source of disease outbreaks and development of cumulative toxic effects. Ensuring safe water is one of the goals to be achieved at the global level. The aim of this study was to assess publications on drinking and recreational water from a health point of view to understand current problems and future research trends in this field. METHODS: Scopus, the largest scientific electronic database, was used to retrieve related articles and present the results as bibliometric tables and maps...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Daljeet Kaur, Nishi Kant Bhardwaj, Rajesh Kumar Lohchab
Pulp and paper mills are indispensable for any nation as far as the growth of the nation is concerned. Due to fast growth in population, urbanization and industrialization, the demand and consumption of paper has increased tremendously. These put high load on our natural resources and force the industry to look for alternative raw material. Rice straw is a lignocellulosic material abundantly available in wood short countries like China, India, Bangladesh, etc. and can be used as raw material for this industry...
August 16, 2016: Waste Management
Jennifer Weidhaas, Lian-Shin Lin, Karen Buzby
There are an estimated 30,000 chemicals in commerce used in quantities >1016kg per year in the US. Unfortunately there is limited information on the chemicals partitioning and reactivity properties. These orphaned or understudied chemicals are viewed as non-hazardous but can still pose serious economic, health, environmental and societal impacts as evidenced by the January 2014 spill of 37,900L of crude-MCHM (primarily 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol) and stripped-PPH (primarily dipropylene glycol phenyl ether and propylene glycol phenyl ether) into the Elk River near Charleston, WV...
August 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
E Ricci
OBJECTIVE: Chronic ulcers are an intractable problem in many patients and are associated with impaired quality of life and high health-care costs. In an attempt to improve outcome, our centre began cleansing wounds with a novel spray acidoxidising solution (Nexodyn) with unique physicochemical features, pH <3.0; oxidation reduction potential >1000mV; and free chlorine content (>95% HClO). METHOD: A retrospective analysis was conducted in patients with numerous comorbidities and an unsatisfactory response to standard therapy...
August 2016: Journal of Wound Care
Joseph A Cichocki, Kathryn Z Guyton, Neela Guha, Weihsueh A Chiu, Ivan Rusyn, Lawrence H Lash
Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene or tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are high-production volume chemicals with numerous industrial applications. As a consequence of their widespread use, these chemicals are ubiquitous environmental contaminants to which the general population is commonly exposed. It is widely assumed that TCE and PCE are toxicologically similar; both are simple olefins with three (TCE) or four (PCE) chlorines. Nonetheless, despite decades of research on the adverse health effects of TCE or PCE, few studies have directly compared these two toxicants...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Gary W Hoyle, Erik R Svendsen
Chlorine gas is a toxic respiratory irritant that is considered a chemical threat agent because of the potential for release in industrial accidents or terrorist attacks. Chlorine inhalation damages the respiratory tract, including the airways and distal lung, and can result in acute lung injury. Some individuals exposed to chlorine experience a full recovery from acute injury, whereas others develop persistent adverse effects, such as respiratory symptoms, inflammation, and lung-function decrements. In animal models, chlorine can produce persistent inflammation, remodeling, and obstruction in large or small airways, depending on species...
July 6, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Carolyn T Chang, Jeffrey D Amack, Christopher M Whipps
Mycobacteriosis is a common bacterial infection in laboratory zebrafish caused by several different species and strains of Mycobacterium, including both rapid and slow growers. One control measure used to prevent mycobacterial spread within and between facilities is surface disinfection of eggs. Recent studies have highlighted the effectiveness of povidone-iodine (PVPI) on preventing propagation of Mycobacterium spp. found in zebrafish colonies. We evaluated the effect of disinfection using 12.5-50 ppm PVPI (unbuffered and buffered) on zebrafish exposed at 6 or 24 h postfertilization (hpf) to determine if this treatment is suitable for use in research zebrafish...
July 2016: Zebrafish
Jennifer L Lavers, Alexander L Bond
Seabirds are declining faster than any other group of birds, with plastic ingestion and associated contaminants linked to negative impacts on marine wildlife, including >170 seabird species. To provide quantitative data on the effects of plastic pollution, we sampled feathers and stomach contents from Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) and Bonin Petrel (Pterodroma hypoleuca) on Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean, and assessed our ability to detect change over time by synthesizing previous studies...
September 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Silvia Cirillo, Donatella Canistro, Fabio Vivarelli, Moreno Paolini
Drinking water (DW) disinfection represents a milestone of the past century, thanks to its efficacy in the reduction of risks of epidemic forms by water micro-organisms. Nevertheless, such process generates disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which are genotoxic both in animals and in humans and carcinogenic in animals. At present, chlorination is one of the most employed strategies but the toxicological effects of several classes of DBPs are unknown. In this investigation, a multidisciplinary approach foreseeing the chemical analysis of chlorinated DW samples and the study of its effects on mixed function oxidases (MFOs) belonging to the superfamily of cytochrome P450-linked monooxygenases of Cyprinus carpio hepatopancreas, was employed...
September 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Danae Venieri, Iosifina Gounaki, Maria Bikouvaraki, Vassilios Binas, Apostolos Zachopoulos, George Kiriakidis, Dionissios Mantzavinos
The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in wastewater and their resistant nature to antibiotics impose effective disinfection treatment for public health and environmental protection. In this work, photocatalysis with metal-doped titania under artificial and natural sunlight, chlorination and UV-C irradiation were evaluated for their potential to inactivate Klebsiella pneumoniae in real wastewater. Their overall effect on antibiotic resistance profile and target antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was also investigated...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
J-T Marois-Fiset, A Shaheed, J Brown, C C Dorea
AIMS: There is emerging evidence that point-of-use (POU) water treatment can be effective in the improvement of microbial water quality and the decrease in diarrhoeal disease incidence in humanitarian emergencies. Coagulant/disinfection products (CDPs) have the distinct advantage of providing microbial quality improvement, turbidity reductions and a free chlorine residual (FCR). The laboratory treatment performance of a novel CDP, the 'Pureit(®) ' sachet, has been evaluated under different water quality conditions...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Danyang Liu, Xiaomao Wang, Yuefeng F Xie, Hao L Tang
Formation of brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs) from bromide and natural organic matter upon chlorination imposes health risks to drinking water users. In this study, capacitive deionization (CDI) was evaluated as a potential process for DBP precursor removal. Synthetic humic acid and bromide containing saline water was used as model water prior to CDI treatment. Batch experiments were conducted at cell voltages of 0.6-, 0.9-, and 1.2V to study the influence of CDI on the ratio of bromide and dissolved organic carbon, bromine substitution factor, and DBP formation potential (FP)...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Noemí Fuster, Rosa M Pintó, Cristina Fuentes, Nerea Beguiristain, Albert Bosch, Susana Guix
The waterborne transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV), the main cause of acute hepatitis, is well documented. Recently, two ISO proposals for sensitive determination of this pathogen by RTqPCR in water and food have been published (ISO/TS 15216-1 and ISO/TS 15216-2), and could enable the formulation of regulatory standards for viruses in the near future. However, since detected viral genomes do not always correlate with virus infectivity, molecular approaches need to be optimized to better predict infectivity of contaminated samples...
September 15, 2016: Water Research
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