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chlorinated vs non-chlorinated water

Dilber Aktas, Bekir Celebi, Mehmet Emirhan Isik, Celal Tutus, Huseyin Ozturk, Fehminaz Temel, Mecit Kizilaslan, Bao-Ping Zhu
In 2013, an oropharyngeal tularemia outbreak in Turkey affected 55 persons. Drinking tap water during the likely exposure period was significantly associated with illness (attack rate 27% vs. 11% among non-tap water drinkers). Findings showed the tap water source had been contaminated by surface water, and the chlorination device malfunctioned.
December 2015: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Christopher J Doona, Florence E Feeherry, Peter Setlow, Alexander J Malkin, Terrence J Leighton
There is a stated Army need for a field-portable, non-steam sterilizer technology that can be used by Forward Surgical Teams, Dental Companies, Veterinary Service Support Detachments, Combat Support Hospitals, and Area Medical Laboratories to sterilize surgical instruments and to sterilize pathological specimens prior to disposal in operating rooms, emergency treatment areas, and intensive care units. The following ensemble of novel, 'clean and green' chlorine dioxide technologies are versatile and flexible to adapt to meet a number of critical military needs for decontamination(6,15)...
2014: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
G Puccetti, H Fares
OBJECTIVE: An efficient sunscreen product needs to offer broad spectrum photostable UV protection during consumer use. Water resistance has become an additional criterion requested by consumers spending time near water or outdoors. Polymers generally provide water resistance to formulations and are critical to the formation and stability of a sunscreen film on skin when exposed to water. The present work introduces a new in vivo screening approach to measure water resistance using UVA-induced fluorescence imaging...
June 2014: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Meha Jain, Yili Lim, Javier A Arce-Nazario, María Uriarte
Identifying which factors influence household water management can help policy makers target interventions to improve drinking water quality for communities that may not receive adequate water quality at the tap. We assessed which perceptional and socio-demographic factors are associated with household drinking water management strategies in rural Puerto Rico. Specifically, we examined which factors were associated with household decisions to boil or filter tap water before drinking, or to obtain drinking water from multiple sources...
2014: PloS One
Karin Lautenschlager, Chiachi Hwang, Wen-Tso Liu, Nico Boon, Oliver Köster, Hans Vrouwenvelder, Thomas Egli, Frederik Hammes
Biological stability of drinking water implies that the concentration of bacterial cells and composition of the microbial community should not change during distribution. In this study, we used a multi-parametric approach that encompasses different aspects of microbial water quality including microbial growth potential, microbial abundance, and microbial community composition, to monitor biological stability in drinking water of the non-chlorinated distribution system of Zürich. Drinking water was collected directly after treatment from the reservoir and in the network at several locations with varied average hydraulic retention times (6-52 h) over a period of four months, with a single repetition two years later...
June 1, 2013: Water Research
Mir Ahmad Seyedabbasi, Charles J Newell, David T Adamson, Thomas C Sale
The relative contribution of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) dissolution versus matrix diffusion processes to the longevity of chlorinated source zones was investigated. Matrix diffusion is being increasingly recognized as an important non-DNAPL component of source behavior over time, and understanding the persistence of contaminants that have diffused into lower permeability units can impact remedial decision-making. In this study, a hypothetical DNAPL source zone architecture consisting of several different sized pools and fingers originally developed by Anderson et al...
June 2012: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
C Saby, K B Male, J H Luong
A novel electrocatalytic approach using a chemical reaction and an enzymatic reaction has been developed for the measurement of 18 chlorophenol congeners, including highly chlorinated pollutants such as pentachlorophenol, 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, and several trichlorophenols. Chlorophenols were oxidized to chlorobenzoquinones with very high yields using bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodobenzene in 0.1 M trichloroacetic acid, pH 1.5, at ambient temperature. UV-visible spectrophotometry, cyclic voltammetry, and HPLC have been used to characterize the reaction products and yields...
November 1, 1997: Analytical Chemistry
Paul J McMurdie, Laura A Hug, Elizabeth A Edwards, Susan Holmes, Alfred M Spormann
BACKGROUND: Vinyl chloride is a widespread groundwater pollutant and Group 1 carcinogen. A previous comparative genomic analysis revealed that the vinyl chloride reductase operon, vcrABC, of Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS is embedded in a horizontally-acquired genomic island that integrated at the single-copy tmRNA gene, ssrA. RESULTS: We targeted conserved positions in available genomic islands to amplify and sequence four additional vcrABC -containing genomic islands from previously-unsequenced vinyl chloride respiring Dehalococcoides enrichments...
2011: BMC Genomics
A Mavridou, E Smeti, G Mandilara, G Mandilara, P Boufa, M Vagiona-Arvanitidou, A Vantarakis, G Vassilandonopoulou, O Pappa, V Roussia, A Tzouanopoulos, M Livadara, I Aisopou, V Maraka, E Nikolaou, G Mandilara
In this study ten laboratories in Greece compared the performance of reference method TTC Tergitol 7 Agar (with the additional test of beta-glucuronidase production) with five alternative methods, to detect E. coli in water, in line with European Water Directive recommendations. The samples were prepared by spiking drinking water with sewage effluent following a standard protocol. Chlorinated and non-chlorinated samples were used. The statistical analysis was based on the mean relative difference of confirmed counts and was performed in line with ISO 17994...
2010: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Sangya-Sangam K Tiwari, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Jeannie Darby, Z G Kariuki, Marion W Jenkins
OBJECTIVE: Measure effectiveness of intermittent slow sand filtration for reducing child diarrhoea among households using unimproved water sources in rural Kenya. METHODS: A randomized controlled trail was conducted among populations meeting a high-risk profile for child diarrhoea from drinking river water in the River Njoro watershed. Intervention households (30) were provided the concrete BioSand Filter and instructed on filter use and maintenance. Control households (29) continued normal practices...
November 2009: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
J-M Rivera, L Aguilar, J J Granizo, A Vos-Arenilla, M-J Giménez, J-M Aguiar, J Prieto
Surveillance of Legionella spp. in hospital water systems was performed in forty-four inpatient healthcare facilities in Spain during 2005-2006. A total of 2,341 samples were collected: 470 from cooling systems (cooling towers) and 1,871 from potable water systems. The latter included 211 from cold-water tanks and 260 from hot-water tanks, totalling 471 from central water reservoirs 136 from showers, 1,172 from unfiltered taps and 92 from filtered taps, totalling 1,400 from peripheral points. Temperature, chlorine levels and the presence of Legionella spp...
December 2007: Journal of Hospital Infection
C Chauret, C Volk, L Stover, T S Dykstra, R C Andrews, G A Gagnon
This research was conducted to assess the impact of various disinfectants on bacterial water quality within model distribution systems (i.e. annular reactors). After colonization with non-disinfected water, annular reactors were treated with relatively low doses of chlorine (0.4 mg/l), chlorine dioxide (0.15 mg/l), or chloramines (0.9 mg/l). Under the tested conditions, bacterial inactivation varied as a function of disinfectant type (ranking by efficiency per mg of oxidant: ClO2 > Cl2 > ClNH2) and sample type (bulk water vs...
December 2005: Journal of Water and Health
Gregory V Korshin, Wells W Wu, Mark M Benjamin, Oana Hemingway
This study examined correlations between the differential absorbance at 272nm (deltaA272) and the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in chlorinated water from the Tolt River, a water source for Seattle, WA. The DBPs investigated included chloroform (CHCl3), dichlorobromomethane (CHCl2Br), mono-, di- and trichloroacetic acids (MCAA, DCAA, and TCAA, respectively), chloral hydrate (CH), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (TCP). Whereas the kinetics of DBP formation are complex and are non-linear, the same DBP data represented as a function of deltaA272 are quite simple...
July 2002: Water Research
K Fekadu, W Parzefall, L Kronberg, R Franzen, R Schulte-Hermann, S Knasmüller
The genotoxic effects of three chlorohydroxyfuranones (CHFs), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2[5H]-furanone (MX), 3-chloro-4-(chloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2[5H]furanone (CMCF) and 3,4,-dichloro-5-hydroxy-2[5H]furanone (MCA), which are formed as byproducts of water disinfection with chlorine, were investigated in bacterial differential DNA repair assays in vitro and in animal-mediated assays in vivo. As indicators of DNA damage, E. coli K-12 strains were used that differ in their repair capacity (uvrB/recA vs...
1994: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
K P Cantor, R Hoover, P Hartge, T J Mason, D T Silverman, R Altman, D F Austin, M A Child, C R Key, L D Marrett
Data from a population-based case-control interview study of incident bladder cancer in 10 areas of the United States were used to estimate relative risks among white men (2,116 cases, 3,892 controls) and women (689 cases, 1,366 controls) according to beverage intake level and type of water source. Individual year-by-year profiles of water source and treatment were developed by linking lifetime residential information with historical water utility data from an ancillary survey. Risk of bladder cancer increased with intake level of beverages made with tap water...
December 1987: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
R A Young
Known differences in chemical content of biological apatites, specifically the dense (sp.g. greater than 2.95) portion of human tooth enamel (TE), and of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (OHAp) imply atomic-scale crystal-structural differences, via major and minor substitutions, which can impart very different characteristics to the two materials. Further, some substitutions are shown to produce important effects not predictable from study of pure materials alone. A number of crystal-detail differences between TE and OHAp, both at room temperature and in response to heating (which occurs to some degree locally in hard tissue in vivo as a result of grinding, laser action, etc...
November 1975: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
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