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Hyunhoo Cho, Seong Ho Ok, Seong Chun Kwon, Soo Hee Lee, Jiseok Baik, Sebin Kang, Jiah Oh, Ju-Tae Sohn
BACKGROUND: The goal of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of lipid emulsion on vasodilation caused by toxic doses of bupivacaine and mepivacaine during contraction induced by a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), in an isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. METHODS: The effects of lipid emulsion on the dose-response curves induced by bupivacaine or mepivacaine in an isolated aorta precontracted with PDBu were assessed...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Pain
Didem C Dogan, Seonghun Cho, Sun-Mi Hwang, Young-Min Kim, Hwanuk Guim, Tae-Hyun Yang, Seok-Hee Park, Gu-Gon Park, Sung-Dae Yim
Supportless Pt catalysts have several advantages over conventional carbon-supported Pt catalysts in that they are not susceptible to carbon corrosion. However, the need for high Pt loadings in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) to achieve state-of-the-art fuel cell performance has limited their application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Herein, we report a new approach to the design of a supportless Pt catalyst in terms of catalyst layer architecture, which is crucial for fuel cell performance as it affects water management and oxygen transport in the catalyst layers...
October 10, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jeonghee Yun, Kyung-Suk Cho
AIMS: Microbial community associated with hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulation was characterized in acidogenic hydrogenesis using molasses wastewater as a feedstock. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hydrogen and VFAs production were measured under an organic loading rate (OLR) from 19 to 35 g-COD·L(-1) ·d(-1) . The active microbial community was analyzed using RNA-based massively parallel sequencing technique, and their correlation patterns were analyzed using networking analysis...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Dasom Lee, Seungkwon Cho, Hwa Sung Park, Inchan Kwon
Ocular drug delivery through hydrogel contact lenses has great potential for the treatment of ocular diseases. Previous studies showed that the loading of lipophilic vitamin E to silicone-hydrogel contact lenses was beneficial in ocular drug delivery. We hypothesized that vitamin E loading to another type of popular hydrogel contact lenses, pHEMA-hydrogel contact lenses, improves ocular drug delivery by increasing the drug loading or the duration of drug release. Loading of vitamin E to pHEMA-hydrogel contact lenses significantly increased the loading of a hydrophilic drug surrogate (Alexa Fluor 488 dye) and two hydrophilic glaucoma drugs (timolol and brimonidine) to the lenses by 37...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Catriona A Burdon, Inge Spronk, Hoi Lun Cheng, Helen T O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Low glycemic index (GI) pre-exercise meals may enhance endurance performance by maintaining euglycemia and altering fuel utilization. However, evidence for performance benefits is equivocal. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a low GI (LGI) versus a high GI (HGI) pre-exercise meal on endurance performance using meta-analyses. METHODS: Data sources included MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, AUSPORT, AusportMed, Web of Science, and Scopus...
September 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
Sun-Mi Cho, Sung-Hwan Choi, Sang-Jin Sung, Hyung-Seog Yu, Chung-Ju Hwang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the optimal loading conditions for pure intrusion of the six maxillary anterior teeth with miniscrews according to alveolar bone loss. METHODS: A three-dimensional finite element model was created for a segment of the six anterior teeth, and the positions of the miniscrews and hooks were varied after setting the alveolar bone loss to 0, 2, or 4 mm. Under 100 g of intrusive force, initial displacement of the individual teeth in three directions and the degree of labial tilting were measured...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
Sing Wan Wong, Yifei Yao, Ye Hong, Zhiyao Ma, Stanton H L Kok, Shan Sun, Michael Cho, Kenneth K H Lee, Arthur F T Mak
High oxidative stress can occur during ischemic reperfusion and chronic inflammation. It has been hypothesized that such oxidative challenges could contribute to clinical risks such as deep tissue pressure ulcers. Skeletal muscles can be challenged by inflammation-induced or reperfusion-induced oxidative stress. Oxidative stress reportedly can lower the compressive damage threshold of skeletal muscles cells, causing actin filament depolymerization, and reduce membrane sealing ability. Skeletal muscles thus become easier to be damaged by mechanical loading under prolonged oxidative exposure...
September 20, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Pallinti Purushotham, Sung Hyun Cho, Sara M Díaz-Moreno, Manish Kumar, B Tracy Nixon, Vincent Bulone, Jochen Zimmer
Plant cell walls are a composite material of polysaccharides, proteins, and other noncarbohydrate polymers. In the majority of plant tissues, the most abundant polysaccharide is cellulose, a linear polymer of glucose molecules. As the load-bearing component of the cell wall, individual cellulose chains are frequently bundled into micro and macrofibrils and are wrapped around the cell. Cellulose is synthesized by membrane-integrated and processive glycosyltransferases that polymerize UDP-activated glucose and secrete the nascent polymer through a channel formed by their own transmembrane regions...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ji-Hye Lee, Yoon-Hyuk Huh, Chan-Jin Park, Lee-Ra Cho
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of implant coronal wall thickness on load-bearing capacity and screw joint stability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental implants were customized after investigation of the thinnest coronal wall thickness of commercially available implant systems with a regular platform diameter. Implants with four coronal wall thicknesses (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 mm) were fabricated. Three sets of tests were performed. The first set was a failure test to evaluate load-bearing capacity and elastic limit...
September 2016: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Andrew C D'Lugos, Nicholas D Luden, Justin M Faller, Jeremy D Akers, Alec I McKenzie, Michael J Saunders
The effects of protein supplementation on cycling performance, skeletal muscle function, and heart rate responses to exercise were examined following intensified (ICT) and reduced-volume training (RVT). Seven cyclists performed consecutive periods of normal training (NT), ICT (10 days; average training duration 220% of NT), and RVT (10 days; training duration 66% of NT). In a crossover design, subjects consumed supplemental carbohydrate (CHO) or an equal amount of carbohydrate with added protein (CP) during and following each exercise session (CP = +0...
2016: Nutrients
Jeong Hee Yun, Kyung-Suk Cho
This study was undertaken to investigate the reduction of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) to decrease methane generation and recover hydrogen production during the long-term operation of biohydrogen production in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) using molasses wastewater. Reduction of HRT can be a simple and economic method to immediately control unfavorable methane generated during continuous operation of a hydrogen production system. The steady-state performance of the CSTR showed a hydrogen content of 41...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
D C Chen, X D Du, G Z Yin, K B Yang, Y Nie, N Wang, Y L Li, M H Xiu, S C He, F D Yang, R Y Cho, T R Kosten, J C Soares, J P Zhao, X Y Zhang
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia patients have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) than normals. We examined the relationship between IGT and clinical phenotypes or cognitive deficits in first-episode, drug-naïve (FEDN) Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: A total of 175 in-patients were compared with 31 healthy controls on anthropometric measures and fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin and lipids. They were also compared using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)...
September 8, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Mayzonee Ligaray, Sang Soo Baek, Hye-Ok Kwon, Sung-Deuk Choi, Kyung Hwa Cho
PAHs are potentially carcinogenic substances that are persistent in the environment. Increasing concentrations of PAHs were observed due to rapid urbanization, thus; monitoring PAHs concentrations is necessary. However, it is expensive to conduct intensive monitoring activities of a large number of PAHs. This study addressed this issue by developing a multimedia model coupled with a hydrological model (i.e., Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)) for Taehwa River (TR) watershed in Ulsan, the industrial capital of South Korea...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Raymond Wing Moon Lam, Sunny Akogwu Abbah, Wang Ming, Mathanapriya Naidu, Felly Ng, Hu Tao, James Goh Cho Hong, Kang Ting, Wong Hee Kit
During reconstructive bone surgeries, supraphysiological amounts of growth factors are empirically loaded onto scaffolds to promote successful bone fusion. Large doses of highly potent biological agents are required due to growth factor instability as a result of rapid enzymatic degradation as well as carrier inefficiencies in localizing sufficient amounts of growth factor at implant sites. Hence, strategies that prolong the stability of growth factors such as BMP-2/NELL-1, and control their release could actually lower their efficacious dose and thus reduce the need for larger doses during future bone regeneration surgeries...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Matthew S Davitz, William E Wu, Brian J Soher, James S Babb, Ivan I Kirov, Jeffrey Huang, Girish Fatterpekar, Oded Gonen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess the sensitivity of non-localized, whole-head (1)H-MRS to an individual's serial changes in total-brain NAA, Glx, Cr and Cho concentrations - metabolite metrics often used as surrogate markers in neurological pathologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, four back-to-back (single imaging session) and three serial (successive sessions) non-localizing, ~3min (1)H-MRS (TE/TR/TI=5/10(4)/940ms) scans were performed on 18 healthy young volunteers: 9 women, 9 men: 29...
August 28, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Ying Guan, Xian-Ming Qi, Ge-Gu Chen, Feng Peng, Run-Cang Sun
This study introduces a facile and green route to fabricate film from bio-based polymers. The film has been prepared by the cross-linking reaction of quaternized hemicelluloses (QH) and chitosan (CHO) with epichlorohydrin (ECH) as crosslinker. It exhibits an excellently mechanical performance as a result of its high tensile strength (up to 37MPa). Importantly, the roughness of film was 2-5nm in the area of 400nm, and smooth surface with pores were presented on the film based on the results of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM)...
November 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Francesco Franchi, Fabiana Rollini, Niti Aggarwal, Jenny Hu, Megha Kureti, Ashwin Durairaj, Valeria E Duarte, Jung Rae Cho, Latonya Been, Martin M Zenni, Theodore A Bass, Dominick J Angiolillo
BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at increased risk of atherothrombotic events, underscoring the importance of effective platelet inhibiting therapies. Prasugrel and ticagrelor reduce thrombotic complications to a greater extent than clopidogrel. Subgroup analyses of pivotal clinical trials testing prasugrel and ticagrelor versus clopidogrel showed DM patients to have benefits that were consistent with the overall trial populations, although the magnitude of the ischemic risk reduction appeared to be enhanced with prasugrel...
September 13, 2016: Circulation
Ho-Yong Song, Yoon-Hyuk Huh, Chan-Jin Park, Lee-Ra Cho
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the stress distribution of 2-short implants (2SIs) installed in a severely atrophic maxillary molar site. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three different diameters of internal connection implants were modeled: narrow platform (NP), regular platform (RP), and wide platform (WP). The maxillary first molars were restored with one implant or two short implants. Three 2SI models (NP-oblique, NP-vertical, and NP-horizontal) and four single implant models (RP and WP in a centered or cantilevered position) were used...
August 2016: Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
Young Hwan Lee, Kui Ja Lee, Yong Hun Min, Hee Cheol Ahn, You Dong Sohn, Won Woong Lee, Young Taeck Oh, Gyu Chong Cho, Jeong Yeol Seo, Dong Hyuk Shin, Sang O Park, Seung Min Park
AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of esmolol treatment for patients with refractory ventricular fibrillation (RVF) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: This single-centre retrospective pre-post study evaluated patients who were treated between January 2012 and December 2015. Some patients had received esmolol (loading dose: 500μg/kg, infusion: 0-100μg/kg/min) for RVF (≥3 defibrillation attempts), after obtaining consent from the patient's guardian...
October 2016: Resuscitation
Long Zhe Guo, Moo Hyun Kim, Eun Seok Shin, Soe Hee Ann, Cai De Jin, Young-Rak Cho, Jong Sung Park, Kyungil Park, Tae-Ho Park, Michael S Lee, Victor L Serebruany
OBJECTIVE: The impact of thienopyridine reloading on clinical outcomes, and residual high platelet reactivity (HPR) is unclear. We sought to compare the HRP-related effect of prasugrel and clopidogrel reloading in the already clopidogrel-loaded patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, two-center, randomized, open-label study, patients with HPR who had undergone PCI after a clopidogrel (300-600mg) loading dose (LD) were enrolled...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
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