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Carb loading

Christina Schäffer, Paul Messner
Cytoplasmic protein O -glycosylation in bacteria is often required for protein maturation, but the dependence of protein export on carbohydrate modifications is less understood. In the current issue of JBC , Chen et al. describe the mechanism for posttranslational modification of a Streptococcus gordonii adhesin and its delivery to the membrane, leading to the first comprehensive model featuring the interplay of glycosyltransferases and the translocation system.
April 6, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Elena Cosimi, Oliver D Engl, Jakub Saadi, Marc-Olivier Ebert, Helma Wennemers
α-Fluorinated β-amino thioesters were obtained in high yields and stereoselectivities by organocatalyzed addition reactions of α-fluorinated monothiomalonates (F-MTMs) to N-Cbz- and N-Boc-protected imines. The transformation requires catalyst loadings of only 1 mol % and proceeds under mild reaction conditions. The obtained addition products were readily used for coupling-reagent-free peptide synthesis in solution and on solid phase. The α-fluoro-β-(carb)amido moiety showed distinct conformational preferences, as determined by crystal structure and NMR spectroscopic analysis...
October 10, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Amir A Al-Munajjed, Jeffrey E Bischoff, Mehul A Dharia, Scott Telfer, James Woodburn, Sylvain Carbes
Detailed knowledge of the loading conditions within the human body is essential for the development and optimization of treatments for disorders and injuries of the musculoskeletal system. While loads in the major joints of the lower limb have been the subject of extensive study, relatively little is known about the forces applied to the individual bones of the foot. The objective of this study was to use a detailed musculoskeletal model to compute the loads applied to the metatarsal bones during gait across several healthy subjects...
March 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
David Lembo, Shankar Swaminathan, Manuela Donalisio, Andrea Civra, Linda Pastero, Dino Aquilano, Pradeep Vavia, Francesco Trotta, Roberta Cavalli
Cyclodextrin-based nanosponges (NS) are solid nanoparticles, obtained from the cross-linking of cyclodextrins that have been proposed as delivery systems for many types of drugs. Various NS derivatives are currently under investigation in order that their properties might be tuned for different applications. In this work, new carboxylated cyclodextrin-based nanosponges (Carb-NS) carrying carboxylic groups within their structure were purposely designed as novel Acyclovir carriers. TEM measurements revealed their spherical shape and size of about 400 nm...
February 25, 2013: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Elizabeth M McNally
Dystroglycan is a prominent cell surface protein that mediates attachment to the extracellular matrix. Although broadly expressed, glycosylated dystroglycan is critically important for muscle cell adherence to its surrounding matrix. A subgroup of muscular dystrophies, which often manifest in infancy, is associated with reduced glycosylation of dystroglycan. In this issue of the JCI, Beedle et al. used conditional gene targeting of Fktn, the gene responsible for Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy, to investigate a developmental requirement for glycosylation of dystroglycan...
September 2012: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Jeffrey C Gildersleeve
Glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze glycosidic bond formation, are one of the most important but least well-characterized protein families found in nature. A new label-free, high-throughput glycan array–based strategy enables rapid profiling of tens of thousands of potential glycosyltransferase reactions.
September 2012: Nature Chemical Biology
Johannes Scholl
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH CVD HAVE CHANGED: whereas smoking prevalence declines, obesity and metabolic syndrome are on the rise. Unfortunately, the traditional low-fat diet for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) still seems to be the "mainstream knowledge" despite contradicting evidence. But lowering LDL-cholesterol by the wrong diet even may be counterproductive, if sd-LDL is raised and HDL is lowered. New insights into the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and its influence on the effects of dietary changes have led to a better approach: (1) the higher a patient's insulin resistance, the more important is the glycemic load of the diet...
2012: Cholesterol
Michiel Oosterwaal, Scott Telfer, Søren Tørholm, Sylvain Carbes, Lodewijk W van Rhijn, Ross Macduff, Kenneth Meijer, Jim Woodburn
BACKGROUND: Currently, custom foot and ankle orthosis prescription and design tend to be based on traditional techniques, which can result in devices which vary greatly between clinicians and repeat prescription. The use of computational models of the foot may give further insight in the biomechanical effects of these devices and allow a more standardised approach to be taken to their design, however due to the complexity of the foot the models must be highly detailed and dynamic. METHODS/DESIGN: Functional and anatomical datasets will be collected in a multicentre study from 10 healthy participants and 15 patients requiring orthotic devices...
2011: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Hassanatu B Mansaray, Michael Kelly, Dragoslav Vidovic, Simon Aldridge
The ability of substituted carbazol-9-yl systems to ligate in σ fashion through the amido N-donor, or to adopt alternative coordination modes through the π system of the central five-membered ring, can be tuned by systematic variation in the steric demands of substituents in the 1- and 8-positions. The differing affinities of the two modes of coordination for hard and soft metal centres can be shown to influence not only cation selectivity, but also the redox properties of the metal centre. Thus, the highly sterically sterically demanding 1,3,6,8-tetra-tert-butylcarbazolyl ligand can be used to generate the structurally characterised amido-indium(I) complex, [{(tBu(4)carb)In}(n)], (together with its isostructural thallium counterpart) in which the metal centre interacts with the central pyrrolyl ring in η(3) fashion [d(In-N)=2...
May 2, 2011: Chemistry: a European Journal
Seishi Furukawa, Hiroshi Sameshima, Li Yang, Tsuyomu Ikenoue
OBJECTIVE: The newborn rat model has been developed to elucidate the mechanism and management of perinatal brain damage. Our study hypothesis is that an acetylcholine receptor agonist (carbachol) reduces hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced brain damage in a well-established newborn rat model. STUDY DESIGN: 7-day-old Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups at random: carbachol preinjection and HI (Carb/HI), saline preinjection and HI (Saline/HI), and only HI (HI). Rats were subjected to left carotid artery ligation followed by 2 hours of hypoxia (8% oxygen)...
February 2011: Reproductive Sciences
Karma L Pearce, Manny Noakes, Jennifer Keogh, Peter M Clifton
BACKGROUND: Large postprandial glucose peaks are associated with increased risk of diabetic complications and cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of carbohydrate distribution on postprandial glucose peaks with continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGMS), when consuming a moderate carbohydrate diet in energy balance in subjects with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Twenty-three subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to each of four 3-d interventions in a crossover design with a 4-d washout period...
March 2008: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Manuel Efentakis, Ioulia Pagoni, Marilena Vlachou, Konstantinos Avgoustakis
The objective of this investigation was to explore the effects of drug solubility on the evolution of matrix dimensions and gel layer's during drug release and investigate the relationship between these effects and the mechanism and the rate of drug release. Two hydrophilic swellable polymers Polyox (POL) and cross-linked Carbopol (CARB) were employed as carriers. Caffeine (CAF) and theophylline (THE), two drugs having similar chemical structure but different aqueous solubility, were used as model drugs. Both drug and polymer characteristics were found to influence the dimensional changes of matrices and the development of the gel layer formed around the glassy core...
July 18, 2007: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Alexander Bove, Joseph Hebreo, Judith Wylie-Rosett, Carmen R Isasi
PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to estimate the glycemic load (GL) of nutritionally promoted fast-food menu items and to compare menu items nutritionally. METHODS: Published glycemic index (GI) values and nutritional information from the Web sites of Subway and Burger King were used to calculate the GL of nutritionally promoted items. Menu items were compared based on calories, macronutrients, saturated fat, GI, and GL as basic items and as often served...
September 2006: Diabetes Educator
Arumugham Muthuvel, Rathinam Rajamani, Sundaramahalingam Manikandan, Rathinasamy Sheeladevi
BACKGROUND: Formic acid is a toxic metabolite responsible for the metabolic acidosis in methanol poisoning. Formate dehydrogenase (EC converts formate into CO2 in the presence of NAD. We examined the in vitro and in vivo efficiency of formate dehydrogenase-loaded carrier erythrocytes along with carbicarb in eliminating the formate in methanol-intoxicated folate-deficient rats. METHOD: Formate dehydrogenase-loaded erythrocytes were prepared by hypotonic dialysis method...
May 2006: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Jennifer B Keogh, Jessica A Grieger, Manny Noakes, Peter M Clifton
OBJECTIVE: It is unknown whether a low-fat diet, which may elevate triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, harms the endothelium. Our aim was to determine whether a low-fat, high-carbohydrate (CARB) diet impaired endothelial vasodilation compared with high saturated fat (SFA), monounsaturated fat (MUFA), or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) diets. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty healthy subjects were randomly crossed over to 4, 3-week isocaloric diets high in PUFA, MUFA, or SFA, containing at least 25 g of the relevant fat or a low-fat, CARB, high-glycemic load diet...
June 2005: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Christie-Joy Brodrick, Harry A Dwyer, Mohammad Farshchi, D Bruce Harris, Foy G King
A nontrivial portion of heavy-duty vehicle emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM) occurs during idling. Regulators and the environmental community are interested in curtailing truck idling emissions, but current emissions models do not characterize them accurately, and little quantitative data exist to evaluate the relative effectiveness of various policies. The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of accessory loading and engine speed on idling emissions from a properly functioning, modern, heavy-duty diesel truck and to compare these results with data from earlier model year vehicles...
September 2002: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Feixing Chen, Zengjie Zhang
Based on field investigation and experimental data analysis, ecological economic principles were applied to study the structure and function, the characteristics of material and energy flows, and the economic and ecological benefits of a rice-crab model. The results show that rice-crab model had a higher integral benefit than rice model, and its net income, cost-benefit ratio, and labor productivity were increased by 382%, 67.7% and 295%, respectively. In view of the ecological benefits produced, the total nitrogen, alkaline-hydrolyzal nitrogen, total phosphorus, rapidly available phosphorus, rapidly available potassium, and organic matter in the soil after 1-year carb breeding were increased by 10...
March 2002: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Y Suzuki, T Nakano, M Sears
PURPOSE: We investigated patterns of evoked calcium signals to learn about the function of the calcium second messenger system in ciliary epithelium. METHODS: Isolated infact ciliary processes were loaded with fluo-3/AM and observed with a Bio-Rad MRC-600 laser scanning confocal imaging system, before, during, and after perfusion with catecholamines, cholinergic agents, and autocoids. RESULTS: One microM acetylcholine (ACH) and 10 microM carbachol (CARB) induced an atropine-sensitive increase in intracellular free calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i), considerably greater in NPE than in PE...
February 1997: Current Eye Research
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