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Darshan Khangura, L Romayne Kurukulasuriya, Adam Whaley-Connell, James R Sowers
The presence of hypertension in individuals with type 2 diabetes augments the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this regard, data support that management of hypertension in this high-risk population is a critical risk reduction strategy. In recent years, a number of work groups have redefined hypertension, management strategies, and targets. In this context, there is still considerable discussion on an appropriate target for blood pressure in the diabetic population. However, despite this discussion on target blood pressure, it is widely recognized that there is considerable residual risk for heightened cardiovascular events in the hypertensive, diabetic population despite widespread awareness and treatment...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Michel Burnier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: European Heart Journal
Jiannan Dai, Lei Xing, Haibo Jia, Yinchun Zhu, Shaotao Zhang, Sining Hu, Lin Lin, Lijia Ma, Huimin Liu, Maoen Xu, Xuefeng Ren, Huai Yu, Lulu Li, Yanan Zou, Shaosong Zhang, Gary S Mintz, Jingbo Hou, Bo Yu
Aims: Plaque erosion is a significant substrate of acute coronary thrombosis. This study sought to determine in vivo predictors of plaque erosion in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods and results: A prospective series of 822 STEMI patients underwent pre-intervention optical coherence tomography. Using established diagnostic criteria, 209 had plaque erosion (25.4%) and 564 had plaque rupture (68.6%). Plaque erosion was more frequent in women <50 years when compared with those ≥50 years of age (P = 0...
March 13, 2018: European Heart Journal
Satoshi Murao, Yasunori Takata, Mitsugi Yasuda, Haruhiko Osawa, Fumikazu Kohi
Background: Considering sex differences, salt sensitivity and insulin resistance (IR), the effect of sodium restriction and increased potassium intake on blood pressure remains unclear in normotensive Asian individuals, compared to that in hypertensive patients. Methods: To assess the influence of sodium and potassium intake in normotensive individuals, we evaluated the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion rate in 3,392 drug-naïve normotensive Japanese individuals (average age: 48...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Belén Pérez-Pevida, Daniela Stefania Trifu, Anna Kamocka, Julia Álvarez Hernández
CONTEXT: Bariatric surgery has beneficial effects on obesity and associated comorbidities such as glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and renal and hepatic function. Nevertheless, this surgery is not free of complications and possible side effects due to restrictive and/or malabsorptive related components. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a 60-year-old woman whose past medical history included morbid obesity, hypertension and Scopinaro biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) with duodenal switch in 1998...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Claudia Kruger, Susan J Burke, J Jason Collier, Trang-Tiffany Nguyen, J Michael Salbaum, Krisztian Stadler
Early podocyte loss is characteristic of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in obesity and diabetes. Since treatments for hyperglycemia and hypertension do not prevent podocyte loss, there must be additional factors causing podocyte depletion. The role of oxidative stress has been implicated in CKD but it is not known how exactly free radicals affect podocyte physiology. To assess this relationship, we investigated the effects of lipid radicals on podocytes, as lipid peroxidation is a major form of oxidative stress in diabetes...
March 6, 2018: Redox Biology
Ana M Molina, Thomas E Hutson, Dmitry Nosov, Piotr Tomczak, Oleg Lipatov, Cora N Sternberg, Robert Motzer, Tim Eisen
BACKGROUND: Tivozanib is a selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2 and 3 tyrosine kinases. This open-label, crossover clinical study (AV-951-09-902) provided access to tivozanib for patients who progressed on sorafenib in TIVO-1, comparing tivozanib with sorafenib in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: Patients enrolled in this single-arm, phase 2 crossover study were previously randomised to sorafenib on TIVO-1, progressed and then crossed over to tivozanib...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Dustin P Joubert, Jorge Z Granados, Jonathan M Oliver, Bethany L Noack, Peter W Grandjean, Christopher R Woodman, Steven E Riechman, Stephen F Crouse
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to compare acute bouts of aquatic treadmill (ATM) and land treadmill (LTM) exercise on flow-mediated dilation (FMD), post-exercise blood pressure (BP), plasma nitrate/nitrite (PN), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in untrained, pre-hypertensive men. DESIGN: In a counterbalanced, crossover design, 19 untrained, pre-hypertensive men completed bouts of ATM and LTM on separate days. FMD was measured pre-exercise and 1-hour post-exercise...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Felicia C Chow, Michael R Wilson, Kunling Wu, Ronald J Ellis, Ronald J Bosch, Benjamin P Linas
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of first-ever stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) and associated risk factors in a cohort of persons living with HIV infection (PLWH). DESIGN: Observational cohort study METHODS:: We determined incidence rates of first-ever stroke/TIA in PLWH after ART initiation from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group ALLRT cohort and its parent trials. Poisson regression models evaluated baseline and time-varying covariates as risk factors for stroke/TIA...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Aditya Choudhary, Manoj K Goyal, Rajveer Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Neurology India
Afroditi Despina Lalou, Marek Czosnyka, Joseph Donnelly, John D Pickard, FMedSci, Eva Nabbanja, Nicole C Keong, Matthew Garnett, Zofia H Czosnyka
OBJECTIVE Normal pressure hydrocephalus is not simply the result of a disturbance in CSF circulation, but often includes cardiovascular comorbidity and abnormalities within the cerebral mantle. In this study, the authors have examined the relationship between the global autoregulation pressure reactivity index (PRx), the profile of disturbed CSF circulation and pressure-volume compensation, and their possible effects on outcome after surgery. METHODS The authors studied a cohort of 131 patients in whom a clinical suspicion of normal pressure hydrocephalus was investigated...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Hannah M Carl, A Karim Ahmed, Nancy Abu-Bonsrah, Rafael De la Garza Ramos, Eric W Sankey, Zachary Pennington, Ali Bydon, Timothy F Witham, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Ziya L Gokaslan, Justin M Sacks, C Rory Goodwin, Daniel M Sciubba
OBJECTIVE Resection of metastatic spine tumors can improve patients' quality of life by addressing pain or neurological compromise. However, resections are often complicated by wound dehiscence, infection, instrumentation failures, and the need for reoperation. Moreover, when reoperations are needed, the most common indication is surgical site infection and wound breakdown. In turn, wound reoperations increase morbidity as well as the length and cost of hospitalization. The aim of this study was to examine perioperative risk factors associated with increased rate of wound reoperations after metastatic spine tumor resection...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Junjing Su, Charmilie C Logan, Alun D Hughes, Kim H Parker, Niti M Dhutia, Carl Christian Danielsen, Ulf Simonsen
Arterial stiffness and wave reflection are important components of the ventricular afterload. Therefore, we aimed to assess the arterial wave characteristics and mechanical properties of the proximal pulmonary arteries (PAs) in the hypoxic pulmonary hypertensive rat model. After 21 days in normoxic or hypoxic chambers (24 animals in each group), the animals underwent transthoracic echocardiography and pulmonary artery catheterization with a dual-tipped pressure and Doppler flow sensor wire. Wave intensity analysis (WIA) was performed...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Fedir N Kiskin, C-Hong Chang, Christopher J Z Huang, Baraa Kwieder, Christine Cheung, Benjamin J Dunmore, Felipe Serrano, Sanjay Sinha, Nicholas W Morrell, Amer A Rana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Ningning Wang, Xueyan Li, Qi Zhang, Hao Zhang, Li Zhou, Nan Wu, Ming Jin, Changchun Qiu, Keyong Zhang
Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) gene is one of the most-studied candidate genes related to essential hypertension (EH). Pulse pressure (PP) may reflect vascular stiffness, especially in patients with EH, and has been used to predict EH. Previous evidence has indicated that obesity is a traditional risk factor of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between the obesity status and ACE gene polymorphisms on the development of high level of PP. A total of 1980 adults (1024 hypertensive and 956 normotensive) were included in this study and genotyped for ACE gene polymorphisms...
March 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
D Valenzuela, F Moya, M Luco, J L Tapia
50 years ago, Northway described Broncopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants exposed to mechanical ventilation. Since then, their survival has increased, nevertheless a "new BPD" has appeared and its incidence has not diminished. One of the characteristics of this pathology is the the abnormal vascular remodeling, which in its most severe expression is known as Pulmonary Hyper tension (PH); with an incidence of 17% in patients with BPD, which is proportional to the severity of the disease (33% in severe BPD), and as mortality factor (up to 48% 2-year mortality in PH-BPD)...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Maria Luz Fernandez, Minu Sara Thomas, Bruno S Lemos, Diana M DiMarco, Amanda Missimer, Melissa Melough, Ock K Chun, Ana Gabriela Murillo, Hana Alyousef, Isabel Medina-Vera
BACKGROUND: Telomerase Activator 65 (TA-65), a compound extracted from Astragalus membranaceus has been used in Chinese traditional medicine for extending life span. Scarce information exists on the effects of TA-65 on parameters of metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: We recruited 40 patients with MetS to determine the effects of TA-65 on dyslipidemias, hypertension, and oxidative stress in this at-risk population. The study was a double-blind, randomized crossover design in which patients were allocated to consume either 16 mg daily of a TA-65 supplement or a placebo for 12 weeks...
March 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ye Seul Yang, Min Hyuk Lim, Seong Ok Lee, Eun Roh, Chang Ho Ahn, Soo Heon Kwak, Young Min Cho, Sungwan Kim, Andrea Mari, Kyong Soo Park, Hye Seung Jung
AIMS: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are anti-hypertensive drugs with renal protective effect. Additionally, they have been associated with the delayed onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk populations, and some ARB were reported to increase insulin secretion and sensitivity in patients with prediabetes. Therefore, we studied the effects of ARB on insulin secretion in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients were enrolled in this open-labeled, active comparator-controlled and crossover study...
March 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Beatriz V R Pereira, Gregorio Nolazco Matus, Monica Jones Costa, André Cordeiro Alves Dos Santos, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Janaina Braga do Carmo, Bruno Nunes
Over time, many pollutants of anthropogenic origin have caused the contamination of aquatic ecosystems. Among several characteristics, these compounds can reach the trophic chain, causing deleterious interactions with the biota. Pharmaceutical substances can be included in this scenario as emerging contaminants that reach the aquatic environment because of direct human and veterinary usage, and release by industrial effluents, as well as through domestic dumping of surplus drugs. The effects of these compounds on exposed organisms have been studied since the 1990s, but ecotoxicological data for such chemicals are still scarce especially concerning aquatic organisms from tropical regions...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shadi Saleh, Mohamad Alameddine, Angie Farah, Nour El Arnaout, Hani Dimassi, Carles Muntaner, Christo El Morr
OBJECTIVES: Assess the effect of selected low-cost eHealth tools on diabetes/hypertension detection and referrals rates in rural settings and refugee camps in Lebanon and explore the barriers to showing-up to scheduled appointments at Primary Healthcare Centers (PHC). METHODS: Community-based screening for diabetes and hypertension was conducted in five rural and three refugee camp PHCs using an eHealth netbook application. Remote referrals were generated based on pre-set criteria...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
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