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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223093/combined-sharon-and-anammox-processes-for-ammoniacal-nitrogen-stabilisation-in-landfill-bioreactors
#1
S Sri Shalini, Kurian Joseph
Stabilisation of ammoniacal nitrogen from solid waste and leachate significantly improved by combining novel processes like SHARON (single reactor system for high activity ammonia removal over nitrite) and ANAMMOX (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) with advantages of lower carbon requirements, aeration and N2O emissions. This paper deals with establishing combined SHARON-ANAMMOX processes in situ pilot-scale landfill bioreactors (LFBR). Molecular analysis in LFBR with changes in nitrogen, hydrazine, hydroxylamine confirmed aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidising bacteria (AOB & ANAMMOX) as key players in SHARON-ANAMMOX processes...
October 21, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223031/protonography-and-anion-inhibition-profile-of-the-%C3%AE-carbonic-anhydrase-cruca4-identified-in-the-mediterranean-red-coral-corallium-rubrum
#2
Sonia Del Prete, Daniela Vullo, Natacha Caminiti-Segonds, Didier Zoccola, Sylvie Tambutté, Claudiu T Supuran, Clemente Capasso
CruCA4 is a secreted isoform of the α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) family, which has been identified in the octocoral Corallium rubrum. This enzyme is involved in the calcification process leading to the formation of the coral calcium carbonate skeleton. We report here experiments performed on the recombinant CruCA4 with the technique of protonography that can be used to detect in a simple way the enzyme activity. We have also investigated the inhibition profile of CruCA4 with one major class of CA inhibitors, the inorganic anions...
December 5, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220697/metabolism-of-hydrogen-sulfide-h2s-and-production-of-reactive-sulfur-species-rss-by-superoxide-dismutase
#3
Kenneth R Olson, Yan Gao, Faihaan Arif, Kanika Arora, Shivali Patel, Eric R DeLeon, Thomas R Sutton, Martin Feelisch, Miriam M Cortese-Krott, Karl D Straub
Reactive sulfur species (RSS) such as H2S, HS•, H2Sn, (n = 2-7) and HS2•- are chemically similar to H2O and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) HO•, H2O2, O2•- and act on common biological effectors. RSS were present in evolution long before ROS, and because both are metabolized by catalase it has been suggested that "antioxidant" enzymes originally evolved to regulate RSS and may continue to do so today. Here we examined RSS metabolism by Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) using amperometric electrodes for dissolved H2S, a polysulfide-specific fluorescent probe (SSP4), and mass spectrometry to identify specific polysulfides (H2S2-H2S5)...
November 20, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219761/the-fate-of-nitrite-and-nitrate-during-anaerobic-digestion
#4
K Ghyselbrecht, A Monballiu, M H Somers, I Sigurnjak, E Meers, L Appels, B Meesschaert
Anaerobic digestion is widely used to produce renewable energy. However, the main drawback is the limited conversion efficiency of organic matter. Applying an advanced oxidation process (AOP) as a digestate post-treatment is able to increase this conversion efficiency but will also lead to the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite or nitrate. In this lab scale study, the fate of the latter in the digester was investigated. Nitrite and nitrate were therefore added in concentrations that could arise from rate limiting ammonium concentrations (1...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219187/integrated-molecular-biochemical-and-physiological-assessment-unravels-key-extraction-method-mediated-influences-on-rat-neonatal-cardiomyocytes
#5
Leonardo Jensen, Elida Neri, Vinicius Bassaneze, Nathalia Corrêa De Almeida Oliveira, Rafael Dariolli, Thiago Lauro Turaça, Débora Levy, Douglas Veronez, Mariana Sacrini Ayres Ferraz, Adriano Mesquita Alencar, Sérgio Paulo Bydlowski, Idágene Aparecida Cestari, José Eduardo Krieger
Neonatal cardiomyocytes are instrumental for disease modeling, but the effects of different cell extraction methods on basic cell biological processes remain poorly understood. We assessed the influence of two popular methods to extract rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, Pre-plating (PP) and Percoll (PC) on cell structure, metabolism, and function. Cardiomyocytes obtained from PP showed higher gene expression for troponins, titin, and potassium and sodium channels compared to PC. Also, PP cells displayed higher levels of troponin I protein...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218039/the-anaerobically-induced-srna-paii-affects-denitrification-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pa14
#6
Muralidhar Tata, Fabian Amman, Vinay Pawar, Michael T Wolfinger, Siegfried Weiss, Susanne Häussler, Udo Bläsi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can thrive by anaerobic respiration in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients using nitrate as terminal electron acceptor. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the small RNA PaiI in the P. aeruginosa strain 14 (PA14). PaiI is anaerobically induced in the presence of nitrate and depends on the two-component system NarXL. Our studies revealed that PaiI is required for efficient denitrification affecting the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215258/plasma-functionalized-solution-a-potent-antimicrobial-agent-for-biomedical-applications-from-antibacterial-therapeutics-to-biomaterial-surface-engineering
#7
Joo Young Park, Sanghoo Park, Wonho Choe, Hae In Yong, Cheorun Jo, Kijung Kim
Deadly diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria and viruses have increasingly victimized humans; thus, the importance of disinfection has increased in medical settings as well as in food and agricultural industries. Plasma contains multiple bactericidal agents, including reactive species, charged particles, and photons, which can have synergistic effects. In particular, the chemicals formed in aqueous solution during plasma exposure have the potential for high antibacterial activity against various bacterial infections...
December 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214526/high-intensity-interval-training-lowers-blood-pressure-and-improves-apelin-and-nox-plasma-levels-in-older-treated-hypertensive-individuals
#8
Mohammad Reza Izadi, Alireza Ghardashi Afousi, Maryam Asvadi Fard, Mohammad Ali Babaee Bigi
Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apelin levels and NO bioavailability are impaired in older hypertensive patients. Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training on blood pressure, apelin, and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals. Thirty treated hypertensive subjects (61.70 ± 5.78 years, 17 males, 13 females) were randomly divided into 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (n = 15) and control (n = 15)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213078/functional-status-of-microvascular-vasomotion-is-impaired-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#9
Mingming Liu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Bing Wang, Qingbin Wu, Bingwei Li, Ailing Li, Honggang Zhang, Ruijuan Xiu
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that microcirculation plays a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In the current study, we demonstrated that pancreatic islet microvascular vasomotion of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) lost the ability to regulate blood flow perfusion and exhibited a lower microvascular blood perfusion pattern which was negative correlated with blood glucose level. SHRs administrated with insulin revealed an improvement of pancreatic islet microvascular vasomotion and blood perfusion pattern...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212831/impaired-pulmonary-arterial-vasoconstriction-and-nitric-oxide-mediated-relaxation-underlie-severe-pulmonary-hypertension-in-sugen-hypoxia-rat-model
#10
Helen Christou, Hannes Hudalla, Zoe Michael, Evgenia Filatava, Jun Li, Minglin Zhu, Jose Possomato-Vieira, Carlos Dias-Junior, Stella Kourembanas, Raouf A Khalil
Pulmonary vasoreactivity could determine the responsiveness to vasodilators and in turn the prognosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). We hypothesized that pulmonary vasoreactivity is impaired, and examined the underlying mechanisms, in the sugen-hypoxia rat model of severe PH. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with sugen (20 mg/kg sc) and exposed to hypoxia (9% O2) for 3 weeks followed by 4 weeks in normoxia (Su/Hx), or treated with sugen alone (Su) or hypoxia alone (Hx) or neither (Nx). After hemodynamic measurements, the heart was assessed for right ventricular hypertrophy (Fulton's Index), the pulmonary artery, aorta and mesenteric arteries were isolated for vascular function studies, and contractile markers were measured in pulmonary artery using quantitative PCR...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210703/high-rate-nitrification-of-electronic-industry-wastewater-by-using-nitrifying-granules
#11
Yoshiaki Hasebe, Hiroaki Meguro, Yuuki Kanai, Masahiro Eguchi, Toshifumi Osaka, Satoshi Tsuneda
Nitrifying granules have a high sedimentation property and an ability to maintain a large amount of nitrifying bacteria in a reaction tank. Our group has examined the formation process of nitrifying granules and achieved high-rate nitrification for an inorganic synthetic wastewater using these granules. In this research, a pilot-scale test plant with an 850-liter reaction tank was assembled in a semiconductor manufacturing factory in order to conduct a continuous water conduction test using real electronics industry wastewater...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210696/effects-of-the-chemical-characteristics-and-concentration-of-inorganic-suspended-solids-on-nitrification-in-freshwater
#12
Quynh Nga Le, Chihiro Yoshimura, Manabu Fujii
The effect of inorganic suspended solids (ISS) on nitrification in freshwater samples has been described inconsistently and remains unclear. This study therefore investigated the effects of the chemical characteristics and concentration of ISS on the nitrification rate by focusing on Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi as the two most dominant nitrification species in freshwater. Batch-wise experiments were conducted using three chemically well-characterized ISS (i.e. the clay minerals montmorillonite, sericite, and kaolinite in the concentration range 0-1,000 mg L-1)...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209598/inflammatory-mediators-in-tracheal-aspirates-of-preterm-infants-participating-in-a-randomized-trial-of-permissive-hypercapnia
#13
Sarah Gentner, Mandy Laube, Ulrike Uhlig, Yang Yang, Hans W Fuchs, Jens Dreyhaupt, Helmut D Hummler, Stefan Uhlig, Ulrich H Thome
Background: Ventilator-induced lung injury is considered to be a main factor in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Optimizing ventilator strategies may reduce respiratory morbidities in preterm infants. Permissive hypercapnia has been suggested to attenuate lung injury. We aimed to determine if a higher PCO2 target range results in less lung injury compared to the control target range and possibly reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines and acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) in tracheal aspirates (TA), which has not been addressed before...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209281/nitrifier-gene-abundance-and-diversity-in-sediments-impacted-by-acid-mine-drainage
#14
Bhargavi Ramanathan, Andrew M Boddicker, Timberley M Roane, Annika C Mosier
Extremely acidic and metal-rich acid mine drainage (AMD) waters can have severe toxicological effects on aquatic ecosystems. AMD has been shown to completely halt nitrification, which plays an important role in transferring nitrogen to higher organisms and in mitigating nitrogen pollution. We evaluated the gene abundance and diversity of nitrifying microbes in AMD-impacted sediments: ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Samples were collected from the Iron Springs Mining District (Ophir, CO, United States) during early and late summer in 2013 and 2014...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208961/investigation-of-different-nitrogen-reduction-routes-and-their-key-microbial-players-in-wood-chip-driven-denitrification-beds
#15
Victoria Grießmeier, Andreas Bremges, Alice C McHardy, Johannes Gescher
Field denitrification beds containing polymeric plant material are increasingly used to eliminate nitrate from agricultural drainage water. They mirror a number of anoxic ecosystems. However, knowledge of the microbial composition, the interaction of microbial species, and the carbon degradation processes within these denitrification systems is sparse. This study revealed several new aspects of the carbon and nitrogen cycle, and these findings can be correlated with the dynamics of the microbial community composition and the activity of key species...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207303/the-fate-of-cyanuric-acid-in-biological-wastewater-treatment-system-and-its-impact-on-biological-nutrient-removal
#16
Hongxue An, Jian Liu, Xiaoming Li, Qi Yang, Dongbo Wang, Ting Xie, Jianwei Zhao, Qiuxiang Xu, Fei Chen, Yali Wang, Kaixin Yi, Jian Sun, Ziletao Tao, Guangming Zeng
Cyanuric acid (CA) is widely used in living and production. It is a kind of environmental priority pollutants which exists chronically in soil and water, but is difficult to be chemically hydrolyzed or oxidized. The behavior of CA at different levels of 0, 0.01, 0.10 and 1.00 mg L-1 in biological wastewater treatment process was investigated in this paper. Experimental results showed that CA (0.01 and 0.10 mg L-1) was removed in biological wastewater treatment process, which was mainly achieved by biodegradation of particular species (Acidovorax and Pseudomonas) in the anaerobic condition...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206075/effect-of-wastewater-quality-parameters-on-coliform-inactivation-by-tin-oxide-anodes
#17
Amy L Teel, Richard J Watts
The effect of six water quality constituents on wastewater effluent disinfection by tin oxide anodes (TOAs) was investigated in single cell laboratory reactors. Several concentrations of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), alkalinity, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen were added to media containing 106 total coliform bacteria mL-1. Current was applied through the TOAs, and coliform bacteria viability was analyzed over time. Over 99.9% inactivation of coliform bacteria was found over 15 min in TOA reactors...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205124/shewanella-carassii-sp-nov-isolated-from-surface-swabs-of-crucian-carp-and-faeces-of-a-diarrhoea-patient
#18
Yujie Fang, Yonglu Wang, Zongdong Liu, Binghuai Lu, Hang Dai, Biao Kan, Duochun Wang
Two strains, 08MAS2251T and LZ2016-166, were isolated from diverse samples in China collected from the surface of crucian carp and the faeces of a diarrhoea patient, respectively. Both strains were pink-orange coloured, Gram-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, facultative anaerobic and motile bacteria, produced H2S and reduced nitrates to nitrites. Growth occurred in the presence of 0-9 % (w/v) NaCl and at 10-42 °C. The optimum conditions were with 1 % (w/v) NaCl and at 35 °C. The phylogenetic tree of 16S rRNA gene demonstrated that strains 08MAS2251T and LZ2016-166 clustered in a distinctive clade next to the species Shewanella chilikensis JC5T within the genus Shewanella...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204988/effects-of-dietary-fresh-fermented-soybean-meal-on-growth-performance-ammonia-and-particulate-matter-emissions-and-nitrogen-excretion-in-nursery-piglets
#19
Sai-Sai Cheng, Yuan Li, Shi-Jie Geng, Luan-Sha Hu, Xiong-Feng Fu, Xin-Yan Han
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fresh fermented soybean meal (FSM) on the growth performance of nursery piglets, nitrogen excretion in feces, and the concentrations of ammonia (NH3) and particulate matter (PM) in the piggery. A total of 472 nursery piglets (Landrace×Yorkshire, (16.3±0.36) kg body weight) were randomly allocated into two treatments with 236 pigs in each treatment. The pigs were fed the basal diet without fresh FSM (control) or diet containing 10% (100 g/kg) fresh FSM (FSM group), and the crude protein content of the two groups was consistent...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202488/acute-tadalafil-administration-increases-plasma-fatty-acids-without-changes-in-the-inflammatory-response-in-healthy-men
#20
Roberta Ceci, Guglielmo Duranti, Paolo Sgrò, Stefania Sabatini, Luigi Di Luigi
PURPOSE: Tadalafil, the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5I), has been shown to reduce visceral adipose tissue in rabbit and to improve lean mass content in non-obese men. In order to clarify this effect in humans, in the present study we determined the impact of an acute oral tadalafil administration on lipolysis by evaluating plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) and glycerol. FFAs are potential modulator of inflammation response that we evaluated through tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL6), interleukin 8 (IL8) and interleukin 10 (IL10) plasma levels...
December 5, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
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