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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679831/nitrogen-fate-in-a-subtropical-mangrove-swamp-potential-association-with-seawater-groundwater-exchange
#1
Kai Xiao, Jiapeng Wu, Hailong Li, Yiguo Hong, Alicia M Wilson, Jiu Jimmy Jiao, Meghan Shananan
Coastal mangrove swamps play an important role in nutrient cycling at the land-ocean boundary. However, little is known about the role of periodic seawater-groundwater exchange in the nitrogen cycling processes. Seawater-groundwater exchange rates and inorganic nitrogen concentrations were investigated along a shore-perpendicular intertidal transect in Daya Bay, China. The intertidal transect comprises three hydrologic subzones (tidal creek, mangrove and bare mudflat zones), each with different physicochemical characteristics...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677610/a-new-electrochemical-sensor-for-highly-sensitive-and-selective-detection-of-nitrite-in-food-samples-based-on-sonochemical-synthesized-calcium-ferrite-cafe-2-o-4-clusters-modified-screen-printed-carbon-electrode
#2
Paramasivam Balasubramanian, Ramki Settu, Shen-Ming Chen, Tse-Wei Chen, Ganapathi Sharmila
Herein, we report a novel, disposable electrochemical sensor for the detection of nitrite ions in food samples based on the sonochemical synthesized orthorhombic CaFe2 O4 (CFO) clusters modified screen printed electrode. As synthesized CFO clusters were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformer infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry (i-t)...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677543/garcinia-morella-fruit-a-promising-source-of-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-agents-induces-breast-cancer-cell-death-via-triggering-apoptotic-pathway
#3
Bhaswati Choudhury, Raghuram Kandimalla, R Elancheran, Rupjyoti Bharali, Jibon Kotoky
A rapid rise in cancer cases worldwide, especially breast cancer in females, instigates the need for more effective and less side effect causing drugs from natural origin. Thereby, in the present study, Garcinia morella fruit was investigated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-breast cancer activity. Preliminary antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of different fractions and crude methanol extract of G. morella fruit suggested chloroform fraction as the bioactive fraction. Time course analysis (by 24 h, 48 h and 72 h) of the bioactive fraction (1...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676863/nitrite-stress-disrupts-the-structural-integrity-and-induces-oxidative-stress-response-in-the-intestines-of-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#4
Yafei Duan, Jiasong Zhang, Yun Wang, Qingsong Liu, Dalin Xiong
The acute toxicity of nitrite on the mucosal morphology and oxidative stress response was investigated in the intestines of Litopenaeus vannamei after the exposure of 20 mg/L nitrite for 72 hr. The duration of nitrite stress influenced the shrimp survival, and the cumulative mortality rate was 36.7% at 72 hr. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stain showed that nitrite stress damaged the intestine connective and epithelium tissue. Specifically, nitrite stress increased the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (O2 - generation capacity), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and malondialdehyde (MDA)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676814/potential-of-carnosine-a-histamine-precursor-in-rat-model-of-bilateral-common-carotid-artery-occlusion-induced-vascular-dementia
#5
Nidhi Tiwari, Pankaj Bhatia, Amit Kumar, Amteshwar S Jaggi, Nirmal Singh
The present study investigates the potential of Carnosine a histamine precursor, in rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo) induced vascular dementia (VaD). Wistar rats were subjected to BCCAo procedure under anesthesia to induce VaD. The rats were subjected to Morris water-maze (MWM) test (6th day onwards post-surgery). MWM test was employed to assess learning and memory of the animals whereby ELT (escape latency time), TSTQ (time spent in target quadrant) and Path length (distance travelled) taken as important parameters...
April 20, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676145/identifying-and-quantifying-the-intermediate-processes-during-nitrate-dependent-iron-ii-oxidation
#6
James Jamieson, Henning Prommer, Anna Kaksonen, Jing Sun, Adam Siade, Anna Yusov, Benjamin C Bostick
Microbially driven nitrate-dependent iron (Fe) oxidation (NDFO) in subsurface environments has been intensively studied. However, the extent to which Fe(II) oxidation is biologically catalyzed remains unclear because no neutrophilic iron-oxidizing and nitrate reducing autotroph has been isolated to confirm the existence of an enzymatic pathway. While mixotrophic NDFO bacteria have been isolated, understanding the process is complicated by simultaneous abiotic oxidation due to nitrite produced during denitrification...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674754/preparation-of-a-nile-red-pd-based-fluorescent-co-probe-and-its-imaging-applications-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#7
Keyin Liu, Xiuqi Kong, Yanyan Ma, Weiying Lin
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a key gaseous signaling molecule in living cells and organisms. This protocol illustrates the synthesis of a highly sensitive Nile Red (NR)-Pd-based fluorescent probe, NR-PdA, and its applications for detecting endogenous CO in tissue culture cells, ex vivo organs, and zebrafish embryos. In the NR-PdA synthesis process, 3-diethylamine phenol reacts with sodium nitrite in the acidic condition to afford 5-(diethylamino)-2-nitrosophenol hydrochloride (compound 1), which is further treated with 1-naphthalenol at a high temperature to provide the NR dye via a cyclization reaction...
May 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674241/protective-effect-of-betulinic-acid-against-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-induced-cognitive-impairment-and-neuronal-damage-in-rats-possible-neurotransmitters-and-neuroinflammatory-mechanism
#8
Madhu Kaundal, Rahul Deshmukh, Mohd Akhtar
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to explore the therapeutic potential of Betulinic acid (BA) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced memory damage in experimental rats. METHODS: STZ (3 mg/kg bilaterally) as intracerebroventrical (icv) route was administered on day 1 and 3 in rats. Donepezil (5 mg/kg/day po), used as standard, and BA (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg/day po) were administered after 1 h of 1st STZ infusion up to 21 days. Object recognition task (ORT) for non-spatial, Morris water maze (MWM) for spatial and locomotor activity were performed to evaluate behavioral changes in rats...
December 6, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674104/electrochemical-biointerfaces-based-on-carbon-nanotubes-mesoporous-silica-hybrid-material-bioelectrocatalysis-of-hemoglobin-and-biosensing-applications
#9
Marcos Eguílaz, Reynaldo Villalonga, Gustavo Rivas
We are reporting a novel biosensing platform based on a hybrid nanomaterial that combines the advantages of Nafion-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and mesoporous silica MCM41 nanoparticles functionalized with hemoglobin (Hb). MWCNTs-MCM41-Hb hybrid bioconjugate was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques after deposition at glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). The combination of the high surface area, biocompatibility and protein loading capacity of MCM41 nanoparticles and the high surface area and catalytic properties of MWCNTs allowed the direct electron transfer (DET) between Hb and the electrode surface...
April 4, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672270/role-of-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-in-controlling-diabetic-nephropathy-in-rats
#10
Lakhwinder Singh, Atul Arya, Sumeet Gupta
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a downregulator of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), resulting in reduced nitric oxide level and low expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by which nitric oxide level get reduced. In the present study, we examined the role of ANP in reduced nitric oxide level, which may be responsible in controlling diabetic nephropathy in rats. METHODS: Serum nitrite/nitrate ratio, blood urea nitrogen, protein in urine, urinary output, serum creatinine, serum cholesterol, kidney weight, kidney hypertrophy, renal cortical collagen content, thiobarbituric acid level, and antioxidant enzymatic activities were assessed...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671587/oxidation-of-fe-ii-organic-matter-complexes-in-the-presence-of-the-mixotrophic-nitrate-reducing-fe-ii-oxidizing-bacterium-acidovorax-sp-bofen1
#11
Chao Peng, Anneli Sundman, Casey Bryce, Charlotte Catrouillet, Thomas Borch, Andreas Kappler
Fe(II)-organic-matter (Fe(II)-OM) complexes are abundant in the environment and may play a key role for the behavior of Fe and pollutants. Mixotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (NRFeOx) reduce nitrate coupled to the oxidation of organic compounds and Fe(II). Fe(II) oxidation may occur enzymatically or abiotically by reaction with nitrite that forms during heterotrophic denitrification. However, it is unknown whether Fe(II)-OM complexes can be oxidized by NRFeOx. We used cell-suspension experiments with the mixotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium Acidovorax sp...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670639/fdc1-and-leaf-type-ferredoxins-channel-electrons-from-photosystem-i-to-different-downstream-electron-acceptors
#12
Xiaoqian Guan, Shuai Chen, Chia Pao Voon, Kam-Bo Wong, Mikko Tikkanen, Boon L Lim
Plant-type ferredoxins in Arabidopsis transfer electrons from the photosystem I to multiple redox-driven enzymes involved in the assimilation of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Leaf-type ferredoxins also modulate the switch between the linear and cyclic electron routes of the photosystems. Recently, two novel ferredoxin homologs with extra C-termini were identified in the Arabidopsis genome (AtFdC1, AT4G14890; AtFdC2, AT1G32550). FdC1 was considered as an alternative electron acceptor of PSI under extreme ferredoxin-deficient conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669501/biopharmaceutical-potential-of-selegiline-loaded-chitosan-nanoparticles-in-the-management-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Rajalakshmi Rukmangathen, Indira Muzib Yallamalli, Prasanna Raju Yalavarthi
Selegiline hydrochloride, a hydrophilic anti-Parkinson' moiety, undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism and has low bioavailability. A process to obtain of selegiline (SH) loaded chitosan nanoparticles was attempted to circumvent the above problem, through intranasal delivery. SH loaded polymeric nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation of chitosan with tripolyphosphate, and stabilized by tween 80/ poloxamer 188. The resulting nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, entrapment efficiency, particle size, zeta potential and surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy...
April 18, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668934/ammonia-oxidation-ecology-physiology-biochemistry-and-why-they-must-all-come-together
#14
Laura E Lehtovirta-Morley
Ammonia oxidation is a fundamental core process in the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2 -) is the first and rate-limiting step in nitrification and is carried out by distinct groups of microorganisms. Ammonia oxidation is essential for nutrient turnover in most terrestrial, aquatic and engineered ecosystems and plays a major role, both directly and indirectly, in greenhouse gas production and environmental damage. Although ammonia oxidation has been studied for over a century, this research field has been galvanised in the past decade by the surprising discoveries of novel ammonia oxidising microorganisms...
May 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668898/the-activity-of-nitrifying-microorganisms-in-a-high-altitude-andean-wetland
#15
Verónica Molina, Cristina Dorador, Camila Fernández, Laura Bristow, Yoanna Eissler, Martha Hengst, Klaudia Hernandez, Lasse Mork Olsen, Chris Harrod, Francisca Marchant, Cristobal Anguita, Marcela Cornejo
High altitude wetland holds freshwater springs, evaporitic ponds and lagoon with variable salinity and nutrients, potentially influencing the ecology of nitrifying communities. In this study, nitrifying microorganisms in Salar de Huasco (Chile) were surveyed to determine bacterial and archaeal contribution to ammonium (AO), nitrite oxidation (NO), ammonium uptake (AU) during wet and dry seasons. The activity signals from these group were assessed by specific amoA-qPCR transcription, 15N tracer studies and addition of group specific inhibitor experiments for nitrifying microorganisms (N1-guanyl-1, 7-diaminoheptane [GC7]-archaeal specific and allylthiourea [ATU]-bacterial specific)...
April 12, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668882/hopanoid-producing-bacteria-in-the-red-sea-include-the-major-marine-nitrite-oxidizers
#16
Jenan J Kharbush, Luke R Thompson, Mohamed Fauzi Haroon, Rob Knight, Lihini I Aluwihare
Hopanoids, including the extended side chain-containing bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs), are bacterial lipids found abundantly in the geological record and across Earth's surface environments. However, the physiological roles of this biomarker remain uncertain, limiting interpretation of their presence in current and past environments. Recent work investigating the diversity and distribution of hopanoid producers in the marine environment implicated low-oxygen regions as important loci of hopanoid production, and data from marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) suggested that the dominant hopanoid producers in these environments are nitrite-utilizing organisms, revealing a potential connection between hopanoid production and the marine nitrogen cycle...
April 12, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667816/nitrate-photochemistry-at-the-air-ice-interface-and-in-other-ice-reservoirs
#17
Alexander S McFall, Kasey C Edwards, Cort Anastasio
The photolysis of snowpack nitrate (NO3-) is an important source of gaseous reactive nitrogen species that affect atmospheric oxidants, particularly in remote regions. However, it is unclear whether nitrate photochemistry differs between the three solute reservoirs in/on ice: in liquid-like regions (LLRs) in the ice; within the solid ice matrix; and in a quasi-liquid layer (QLL) at the air-ice interface, where past work indicates photolysis is enhanced. In this work, we explore the photoformation of nitrite in these reservoirs using laboratory ices...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666943/the-gtn-patch-a-simple-and-effective-new-approach-to-cardioprotection
#18
Derek M Yellon, Zhenhe He, Rayomand Khambata, Amrita Ahluwalia, Sean M Davidson
There remains a significant un-met need to reduce the extent of myocardial injury caused by ischaemia and reperfusion injury in patients experiencing an ST-elevation MI. Although nitric oxide is central to many cardioprotective strategies currently undergoing investigation, cardioprotection from the delivery of nitrates/nitrites has been inconsistently observed. The route of administration appears to be a critical variable. The glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) patch is commonly used as a simple and practical means of delivering nitric oxide to patients with ischaemic heart disease, but whether acute cardioprotection can be achieved by application of a GTN patch has not been investigated before...
April 17, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666878/-methemoglobinemia-after-inhalation-of-poppers
#19
U Janssens, S Hillen, T Janssens, J Grafe
BACKGROUND: This case report presents a case of symptomatic methemoglobinemia (MetHb 31.6%) after inhalation of volatile nitrites (poppers). METHODS: The patient's medical history and symptoms are discussed together with pathophysiology of methemoglobinemia, diagnostics, and antidote therapy. Pulse oxymetry, arterial blood gas analysis, and CO-oximetry receive particular attention as well as antidote therapy with methylene blue. RESULTS: The patient was treated successfully with intravenous methylene blue...
April 17, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665543/vertical-distribution-of-ammonia-oxidizing-microorganisms-across-a-soil-profile-of-the-chinese-loess-plateau-and-their-responses-to-nitrogen-inputs
#20
Jinjin Tao, Tongshuo Bai, Rui Xiao, Peng Wang, Fuwei Wang, Alexander M Duryee, Yi Wang, Yi Zhang, Shuijin Hu
Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) oxidize ammonia into nitrite, the first and rate-limiting step of microbial nitrification, and exert major controls over soil nitrogen transformations. The Loess Plateau in northwest China is characterized with deep soils that are often exposed to the surface and reactive nitrogen (N) inputs due to erosion and human removal of the surface soil. However, few have examined the distribution of AOA and AOB along the profile of Loess Plateau soils and their responses to N inputs...
April 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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