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high-resolution MRI

Stephen F Cauley, Kawin Setsompop, Berkin Bilgic, Himanshu Bhat, Borjan Gagoski, Lawrence L Wald
PURPOSE: Fast MRI acquisitions often rely on efficient traversal of k-space and hardware limitations, or other physical effects can cause the k-space trajectory to deviate from a theoretical path in a manner dependent on the image prescription and protocol parameters. Additional measurements or generalized calibrations are typically needed to characterize the discrepancies. We propose an autocalibrated technique to determine these discrepancies. METHODS: A joint optimization is used to estimate the trajectory simultaneously with the parallel imaging reconstruction, without the need for additional measurements...
October 21, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Olivia Geisseler, Tobias Pflugshaupt, Ladina Bezzola, Katja Reuter, David Weller, Bernhard Schuknecht, Peter Brugger, Michael Linnebank
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that cortical lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) substantially contribute to clinical disease severity. The present study aimed at investigating clinical, neuroanatomical, and cognitive correlates of these cortical lesions with a novel approach, i.e. by comparing two samples of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients, one group with and the other without cortical lesions. METHODS: High-resolution structural MRI was acquired from 42 RRMS patients and 43 controls (HC)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Neurology
Soh Youn Suh, Robert A Clark, Alan Le, Joseph L Demer
Purpose: To investigate changes in volumes of extraocular muscle (EOM) compartments in unilateral superior oblique (SO) palsy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: High-resolution, surface-coil MRI was obtained in 19 patients with unilateral SO palsy and 19 age-matched orthotropic control subjects. Rectus EOMs and the SO were divided into two anatomic compartments for volume analysis in patients with unilateral SO palsy, allowing comparison of total compartmental volumes versus controls...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Carolina Rodriguez-Tirado, Takanori Kitamura, Yu Kato, Jeffery W Pollard, John S Condeelis, David Entenberg
Metastasis to secondary sites such as the lung, liver and bone is a traumatic event with a mortality rate of approximately 90% (1). Of these sites, the lung is the most difficult to assess using intravital optical imaging due to its enclosed position within the body, delicate nature and vital role in sustaining proper physiology. While clinical modalities (positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT)) are capable of providing noninvasive images of this tissue, they lack the resolution necessary to visualize the earliest seeding events, with a single pixel consisting of nearly a thousand cells...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
E H Baker, S W Levin, Z Zhang, A B Mukherjee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is a devastating neurodegenerative storage disease caused by palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 deficiency, which impairs degradation of palmitoylated proteins (constituents of ceroid) by lysosomal hydrolases. Consequent lysosomal ceroid accumulation leads to neuronal injury, resulting in rapid neurodegeneration and childhood death. As part of a project studying the treatment benefits of a combination of cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetyl cysteine, we made serial measurements of patients' brain volumes with MR imaging...
October 20, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Robert S C Amaral, Min Tae M Park, Gabriel A Devenyi, Vivian Lynn, Jon Pipitone, Julie Winterburn, Sofia Chavez, Mark Schira, Nancy Lobaugh, Aristotle N Voineskos, Jens C Pruessner, M Mallar Chakravarty
Recently, much attention has been focused on the definition and structure of the hippocampus and its subfields, while the projections from the hippocampus have been relatively understudied. Here, we derive a reliable protocol for manual segmentation of hippocampal white matter regions (alveus, fimbria, and fornix) using high-resolution magnetic resonance images that are complementary to our previous definitions of the hippocampal subfields, both of which are freely available at
October 17, 2016: NeuroImage
Daniel Stäb, Steffen Bollmann, Christian Langkammer, Kristian Bredies, Markus Barth
With the advent of ultra-high field MRI scanners in clinical research, susceptibility based MRI has recently gained increasing interest because of its potential to assess subtle tissue changes underlying neurological pathologies/disorders. Conventional, but rather slow, three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-echo (GRE) sequences are typically employed to assess the susceptibility of tissue. 3D echo-planar imaging (EPI) represents a fast alternative but generally comes with echo-time restrictions, geometrical distortions and signal dropouts that can become severe at ultra-high fields...
October 20, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Jeong-Hee Kim, Jong-Hoon Kim, Young-Don Son, Yo-Han Joo, Sang-Yoon Lee, Hang-Keun Kim, Myung-Kyun Woo
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the patterns of interregional correlations of serotonin transporter (SERT) availability with glucose metabolism using 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) with (11)C-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylthio)benzonitrile ([(11)C]DASB) and [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) in antipsychotic-free patients with schizophrenia in order to shed new light on the disrupted functional connectivity in schizophrenia...
October 16, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Xiaoqing Wang, Arun A Joseph, Oleksandr Kalentev, K Dietmar Merboldt, Dirk Voit, Volkert B Roeloffs, Maaike van Zalk, Jens Frahm
OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel method for rapid myocardial T1 mapping at high spatial resolution. METHODS: The proposed strategy represents a single-shot inversion-recovery (IR) experiment triggered to early diastole during a brief breathhold. The measurement combines an adiabatic inversion pulse with a real-time readout by highly undersampled radial FLASH, iterative image reconstruction and T1 fitting with automatic deletion of systolic frames. The method was implemented on a 3 T MRI system using a GPU-equipped bypass computer for online application...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Henk-Jan Westeneng, Renée Walhout, Milou Straathof, Ruben Schmidt, Jeroen Hendrikse, Jan H Veldink, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Leonard H van den Berg
BACKGROUND: In patients with a C9orf72 repeat expansion (C9+), a neuroimaging phenotype with widespread structural cerebral changes has been found. We aimed to investigate the specificity of this neuroimaging phenotype in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: 156 C9- and 14 C9+ patients with ALS underwent high-resolution T1-weighted MRI; a subset (n=126) underwent diffusion-weighted imaging. Cortical thickness, subcortical volumes and white matter integrity were compared between C9+ and C9- patients...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
David S Thylur, Russell E Jacobs, John L Go, Arthur W Toga, John K Niparko
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF-MRI) at 11.7 T to visualize membranous structures of the human inner ear. SPECIMENS: Three temporal bones were extracted from cadaveric human heads for use with small-bore UHF-MRI. INTERVENTION: Ex vivo cadaveric temporal bone specimens were imaged using an 11.7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner via T1- and T2-weighted-imaging with and without contrast...
October 12, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Archontis Giannakidis, Gerd Melkus, Guang Yang, Grant T Gullberg
Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) allows a unique insight into the microstructure of highly-directional tissues. The selection of the most proper distance function for the space of diffusion tensors is crucial in enhancing the clinical application of this imaging modality. Both linear and nonlinear metrics have been proposed in the literature over the years. The debate on the most appropriate DT-MRI distance function is still ongoing. In this paper, we presented a framework to compare the Euclidean, affine-invariant Riemannian and log-Euclidean metrics using actual high-resolution DT-MRI rat heart data...
November 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Marcus Unterrainer, Norbert Galldiks, Bogdana Suchorska, Lara-Caroline Kowalew, Vera Wenter, Christine Schmid-Tannwald, Maximilian Niyazi, Peter Bartenstein, Karl-Josef Langen, Nathalie L Albert
PURPOSE: In patients with brain metastasis, PET using labeled amino acids has gained clinical importance, mainly regarding the differentiation of viable tumor tissue from treatment-related effects. However, there is still limited knowledge concerning the uptake characteristics in patients with newly diagnosed and untreated brain metastases. Hence, we evaluated the uptake characteristics in these patients using dynamic O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) positron-emission-tomography (PET)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Faysal F Altahawi, Kevin J Blount, Nicholas P Morley, Esther Raithel, Imran M Omar
PURPOSE: To compare a faster, new, high-resolution accelerated 3D-fast-spin-echo (3D-FSE) acquisition sequence (CS-SPACE) to traditional 2D and high-resolution 3D sequences for knee 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients received knee MRIs that included routine 2D (T1, PD ± FS, T2-FS; 0.5 × 0.5 × 3 mm(3); ∼10 min), traditional 3D FSE (SPACE-PD-FS; 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 mm(3); ∼7.5 min), and accelerated 3D-FSE prototype (CS-SPACE-PD-FS; 0...
October 15, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Benjamin D Levine, Kambiz Motamedi, Leanne L Seeger
The clinical diagnosis of synovial tumors and synovial proliferative processes is difficult, as symptoms and physical examination findings are often nonspecific. Advanced imaging modalities, such as MRI, high-resolution ultrasound, and computed tomography, can aid clinical decision-making by providing accurate diagnosis of such diseases in many cases. This article focuses on those specific imaging features of synovial tumors and proliferative processes that can provide accurate diagnosis and guide appropriate patient management...
November 2016: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
Gabriella Szatmáry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article presents an imaging-based approach to the differential diagnosis of visual symptoms. RECENT FINDINGS: Many neurologic disorders may present with visual symptoms. Therefore, neurologists must be familiar with the array of pathophysiologic processes that cause visual symptoms. Orbital imaging is challenging owing to the small structures and different tissue interfaces within and surrounding the orbital compartment. Some of the emerging three-dimensional MRI sequences are promising and compare well with high-resolution two-dimensional sequences in the orbits...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Tao Xie, Wei Sun, Xiaobiao Zhang, Tengfei Liu, Hailing Ding, Fan Hu, Yong Yu, Ye Gu
BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated the value of three-dimensional (3D) fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting non-iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhoea and compared it with regular MRI and 3D magnetisation prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE) MRI sequences, as well as high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging. We also present the endoscopic experiences of such cases. METHOD: From June 2011 to Feb 2016, 17 patients with non-iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea were included...
October 13, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Fabienne Harrisberger, Roman Buechler, Renata Smieskova, Claudia Lenz, Anna Walter, Laura Egloff, Kerstin Bendfeldt, Andor E Simon, Diana Wotruba, Anastasia Theodoridou, Wulf Rössler, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Undine E Lang, Karsten Heekeren, Stefan Borgwardt
Reduction in hippocampal volume is a hallmark of schizophrenia and already present in the clinical high-risk state. Nevertheless, other subcortical structures, such as the thalamus, amygdala and pallidum can differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls. We studied the role of hippocampal and subcortical structures in clinical high-risk individuals from two cohorts. High-resolution T1-weighted structural MRI brain scans of a total of 91 clinical high-risk individuals and 64 healthy controls were collected in two centers...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Michele R Colonna, Giuseppe Tallarida, Francesco Stagno d'Alcontres, Salvatore Noto, Aurora Parodi, Alberto Tagliafico
Five years after both right ulnar and median nerve decompression for paraesthesias and palsy, a patient, coming from Nigeria but living in Italy, came to our unit claiming to have persistent pain and combined median and ulnar palsy. Under suspicion of leprosy, skin and left sural nerve biopsy were performed. Skin tests were negative, but Schwann cells resulted as positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB), leading to the diagnosis of Pure Neuritic Leprosy (PNL). The patient was given PB multidrug therapy and recovered from pain in two months...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Christine Gonzales, Hikari A I Yoshihara, Nahzli Dilek, Julie Leignadier, Melita Irving, Pascal Mieville, Lothar Helm, Olivier Michielin, Juerg Schwitter
BACKGROUND: 19F-MRI and 19F-MRS can identify specific cell types after in-vitro or in-vivo 19F-labeling. Knowledge on the potential to track in-vitro 19F-labeled immune cells in tumor models by 19F-MRI/MRS is scarce. AIM: To study 19F-based MR techniques for in-vivo tracking of adoptively transferred immune cells after in-vitro 19F-labeling, i.e. to detect and monitor their migration non-invasively in melanoma-bearing mice. METHODS: Splenocytes (SP) were labeled in-vitro with a perfluorocarbon (PFC) and IV-injected into non-tumor bearing mice...
2016: PloS One
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