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Minah Han, Byeongjoon Kim, Jongduk Baek
We investigate the detectability of breast cone beam computed tomography images using human and model observers and the variations of exponent, β, of the inverse power-law spectrum for various reconstruction filters and interpolation methods in the Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) reconstruction. Using computer simulation, a breast volume with a 50% volume glandular fraction and a 2mm diameter lesion are generated and projection data are acquired. In the FDK reconstruction, projection data are apodized using one of three reconstruction filters; Hanning, Shepp-Logan, or Ram-Lak, and back-projection is performed with and without Fourier interpolation...
2018: PloS One
Ana E López-Pérez, Kulmira Nurgali, Raquel Abalo
Beyond their well-known role in embryonic development of the central and peripheral nervous system, neurotrophins, particularly nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, exert an essential role in pain production and sensitization. This has mainly been studied within the framework of somatic pain, and even antibodies (tanezumab and fasinumab) have recently been developed for their use in chronic somatic painful conditions, such as osteoarthritis or low back pain. However, data suggest that neurotrophins also exert an important role in the occurrence of visceral pain and visceral sensitization...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Tomoyuki Kawada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Thomas Matheve, Simon Brumagne, Annick A A Timmermans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Christopher L Camp, Andrea M Spiker, John M Zajac, Dave Pearson, Alec M Sinatro, Joshua S Dines, Anil S Ranawat, Struan H Coleman
INTRODUCTION: The relationship of hip range of motion (ROM) to shoulder, elbow, abdominal, and back injuries remains undefined. METHODS: We assessed hip ROM on players reporting to Major League Spring Training for an organization over six seasons (2010 to 2015). Hip ROM was correlated with player abdominal, back, shoulder, and elbow injury status for those seasons using multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 258 player-seasons (129 pitchers and 129 position players) resulted in 20 back and 35 abdominal injuries across all players and 28 elbow and 25 shoulder injuries in pitchers...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Steven L Sayers, Frances K Barg, Shahrzad Mavandadi, Tanya H Hess, Andreea Crauciuc
This concurrent embedded mixed methods study explored important aspects of communication occurring between military service members and their intimate partners during a combat deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. Fifty-eight participants (32 military veterans and 26 non-veteran partners) participated in an interview using standardized self-report measures assessing the current level of relationship satisfaction, trauma symptoms of the veteran, and the veterans' trauma exposure. Participants also participated in a semistructured interview focused on combat deployment and reintegration experiences...
February 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Thalía Domínguez Bucio, Ali Z Khokhar, Goran Z Mashanovich, Frederic Y Gardes
We report the design and fabrication of a compact angled multimode interferometer (AMMI) on a 600 nm thick N-rich silicon nitride platform (n=1.92) optimized to match the International Telecommunication Union coarse wavelength division (de)multiplexing standard in the O telecommunication band. The demonstrated device exhibited a good spectral response with Δλ=20  nm, BW3 dB ∼11  nm, IL<1.5  dB, and XT∼20  dB. Additionally, it showed a high tolerance to dimensional errors <120  pm/nm and low sensitivity to temperature variations <20  pm/°C, respectively...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Esther Morencos, Blanca Romero-Moraleda, Carlo Castagna, David Casamichana
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of match period on the movement patterns of hockey players according to their playing position under the introduction of quarters. METHODS: Sixteen sub-elite level Spanish National League male hockey players participated in the study (age: 25.5 ± 2.9 years; body mass: 74.6 ± 5.5 kg). Global Positioning Systems (GPS) devices were used to monitor players running performance during 17 competitive matches (113 match-play profiles)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Trevor A Hamlin, Marcel Swart, F Matthias Bickelhaupt
The reaction potential energy surface (PES) and, thus, the mechanism of bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) depend profoundly on the nature of the nucleophile and leaving group, but also on the central, electrophilic atom, its substituents, as well as on the medium in which the reaction takes place. Here, we provide an overview of recent studies and demonstrate how changes in any one of the aforementioned factors affect the SN2 mechanism. One of the most striking effects is the transition from a double-well to a single-well PES when the central atom is changed from a second-period (e...
March 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Yoav Kessler
Removal has been suggested to play a key role in controlling the contents of working memory. The present study examined the aftereffects of removal in a working memory updating task. Participants performed the reference-back paradigm, a version of the n-back task that is composed of two trial types: reference trials that required working memory updating and comparison trials that did not require updating. N-2 repetition effects-the difference in performance between trials that presented the same stimulus as the one presented two trials before (ABA sequences) and trials in which the stimulus differed from the two previous stimuli (ABC sequences)-were examined...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Mette Korshøj, Marie Birk Jørgensen, David M Hallman, Julie Lagersted-Olsen, Andreas Holtermann, Nidhi Gupta
Objective Low-back pain (LBP) is a massive health problem. Sitting at work has been suggested to be both a risk and protective factor for LBP. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the association between total and temporal patterns of objectively measured sitting duration and individual time course of LBP. Methods The analysis was performed among 665 participants from the DPhacto cohort of mainly blue-collar workers. Sitting at work was measured by accelerometry at baseline, expressed in total duration and temporal pattern [% of working time spent in brief bursts (≤5 minutes), moderate (>5 - ≤20 minutes) and prolonged periods (>20 minutes)] of sitting...
March 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Rong-Ming Lyu, Alan Cowan, Ying Zhang, Yi-Hung Chen, Siok L Dun, Jaw-Kang Chang, Nae J Dun, Jin Jun Luo
In this brief review we summarize the current fndings relative to the discovery of a small peptide ligand, phoenixin (PNX). Using a bioinformatic approach, two novel peptides PNX-14 and PNX-20 containing 14 and 20 amino acids, respectively, were isolated from diverse tissues including the brain, heart, lung and stomach. Mass spectrometry analysis identified a major and minor peak corresponding to PNX-14 and PNX-20, in rat or mouse spinal cord extracts. With the use of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum, phoenixin immunoreactivity (irPNX) was detected in discrete areas of the rodent brain including several hypothalamic subnuclei and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Yuko Hashimoto, Ko Matsudaira, Susumu S Sawada, Yuko Gando, Ryoko Kawakami, Chihiro Kinugawa, Takashi Okamoto, Koji Tsukamoto, Motohiko Miyachi, Hisashi Naito, Steven N Blair
BACKGROUND: There are several studies on the relationship between low back pain and physical activity. However, the results of these studies vary, and the relationship between them remains unclear. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the association between objectively measured physical activity and low back pain in Japanese men. METHODS: The study included 4022 Japanese men [average age: 47 (10) y]. Daily amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity and step counts were measured using an accelerometer...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Bei Jia, Weihua Wu, Rui Huang, Guiyang Wang, Peixin Song, Yang Li, Yong Liu, Yali Xiong, Xiaomin Yan, Yingying Hao, Juan Xia, Zhaoping Zhang, Yuxin Chen, Chao Wu
BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a life-threatening infectious disease identified in 2009. SFTS is mainly transmitted by contact with ticks or animals; however, sporadic reports suggested that SFTS could be transmitted among humans. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to comprehensively characterize clinical features and disease progression of SFTS acquired by human-to-human transmission. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study of 90 SFTS patients was performed in a tertiary hospital of Nanjing, China, from October 2010 to October 2016...
March 15, 2018: Infectious Diseases
Jack Zigler, Nicole Ferko, Chris Cameron, Leena Patel
AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of total disc replacement, lumbar fusion, and conservative care in the treatment of single-level lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD). MATERIALS & METHODS: A network meta-analysis was conducted to determine the relative impact of lumbar DDD therapies on Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) success, back pain score, patient satisfaction, employment status, and reoperation. Odds ratios or mean differences and 95% credible intervals were reported...
March 2018: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
Peng He, Patamarerk Engsontia, Guang-Lei Chen, Qian Yin, Jun Wang, Xu Lu, Ya-Nan Zhang, Zhao-Qun Li, Ming He
BACKGROUND: The white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera Horváth, the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and the small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) are rice pests that damage rice plants by sap-sucking and by transmitting viruses. Host-seeking behavior involves chemosensory receptor genes, which include odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs) and gustatory receptors (GRs). RESULTS: We used genome and transcriptome data to identify 141 ORs, 28 GRs and 25 IRs in BPH, 135 ORs, 18 GRs and 16 IRs in WBPH and 37 ORs, 14 GRs and 6 IRs in SBPH...
March 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Thomas George Back, Kai N Sands, Tyler A Tuck
Selenium compounds play an important role in redox homeostasis in living organisms. One of their major functions is to suppress the harmful effects of hydrogen peroxide, hydroperoxides and downstream reactive oxygen species that lead to oxidative stress, which has in turn been implicated in many diseases and degenerative conditions. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx) family of selenoenzymes plays a key protective role by catalyzing the reduction of peroxides with glutathione. Considerable effort has been expended toward the discovery of small-molecule selenium compounds that mimic GPx...
March 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Mat Nicholls, Ajay Manjoo, Peter Shaw, Faizan Niazi, Jeffrey Rosen
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to compare the properties of currently available intra-articular hyaluronate (IA-HA) products widely available in the USA to those of healthy knee synovial fluid with respect to their bulk rheological properties. We hypothesize that products would have differing rheological properties, with some more closely resembling the properties and physiological aspects of healthy joint fluid HA. METHODS: We obtained reported HA product molecular weights, as well as measurements of the presence of cross-linking, zero shear rate viscosity, shear thinning ratio, and crossover frequency for the following IA-HA products available in the USA: Euflexxa® , Orthovisc® , Supartz® , Monovisc® , Synvisc® , Synvisc-One® , Gel-One® , and Hyalgan® ...
March 14, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Yan Wu, Yaojun Jiang, Xueli Han, Mingyue Wang, Jianbo Gao
Background: To investigate the repeatability and accuracy of quantitative CT (QCT) measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by low-mAs using iterative model reconstruction (IMR) technique based on phantom model. Methods: European spine phantom (ESP) was selected and measured on the Philips Brilliance iCT Elite FHD machine for 10 times. Data were transmitted to the QCT PRO workstation to measure BMD (mg/cm3 ) of the ESP (L1, L2, L3). Scanning method: the voltage of X-ray tube is 120 kV, the electric current of X-ray tube output in five respective groups A-E were: 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mAs...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Weizhi Yu, Hong Xu, Ying Xue, Dong An, Huairui Li, Wei Chen, Deqin Yu, Yiping Sun, Jianmei Ma, Yiyuan Tang, Zhaoyang Xiao, Shengming Yin
Introduction: Social isolation enhances the aggressive behavior of animals, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Epigenetic studies have suggested that Htr2c RNA editing is closely related to aggressive behavior. This study aims to obtain a fundamental understanding of how social isolation impacts adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1, RNA editing enzyme) and Htr2c RNA editing, leading to aggressive behavior, and explore the effective solutions for the recovery of this behavior...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
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