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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426970/thalamic-regulation-of-sucrose-seeking-during-unexpected-reward-omission
#1
Fabricio H Do-Monte, Angélica Minier-Toribio, Kelvin Quiñones-Laracuente, Estefanía M Medina-Colón, Gregory J Quirk
The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) is thought to regulate behavioral responses under emotionally arousing conditions. Reward-associated cues activate PVT neurons; however, the specific PVT efferents regulating reward seeking remain elusive. Using a cued sucrose-seeking task, we manipulated PVT activity under two emotionally distinct conditions: (1) when reward was available during the cue as expected or (2) when reward was unexpectedly omitted during the cue. Pharmacological inactivation of the anterior PVT (aPVT), but not the posterior PVT, increased sucrose seeking only when reward was omitted...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425187/significance-of-measured-intraoperative-portal-vein-flows-after-thrombendvenectomy-in-deceased-donor-liver-transplants-with-portal-vein-thrombosis
#2
Mark Draoua, Nicole Titze, Amar Gupta, Hoylan T Fernandez, Michael Ramsay, Giovanna Saracino, Gregory McKenna, Testa Giuliano, Goran B Klintmalm, Peter T W Kim
BACKGROUND: Adequate portal vein (PV) flow in liver transplantation is essential for a good outcome, and it may be compromised in patients with portal vein thrombosis (PVT). This study evaluated the impact of intraoperatively measured PV flow after PV thrombendvenectomy on outcomes after deceased donor liver transplantation. STUDY DESIGN: The study included 77 patients over a 16-year period who underwent PV thrombendvenectomy with complete flow data. Patients were classified into two groups: high PV flow (>1300 mL/min, N = 55) and low PV flow (≤1300 mL/min, N = 22)...
April 20, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415909/detecting-coached-neuropsychological-dysfunction-a-simulation-experiment-regarding-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Lily Lau, Michael R Basso, Eduardo Estevis, Ashley Miller, Douglas M Whiteside, Dennis Combs, Timothy J Arentsen
OBJECTIVE: Performance validity tests (PVTs) and symptom validity tests (SVTs) are often administered during neuropsychological evaluations. Examinees may be coached to avoid detection by measures of response validity. Relatively little research has evaluated whether graduated levels of coaching has differential effects upon PVT and SVT performance. Accordingly, the present experiment evaluated the effect of graduated levels of coaching upon the classification accuracy of commonly used PVTs and SVTs and the currently accepted criterion of failing two or more PVTs or SVTs...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397452/investigation-and-optimization-of-the-effect-of-polymers-on-drug-release-of-norfloxacin-from-floating-tablets
#4
Dipak D Gadade, Kalpana Sarda, Sadhana R Shahi
BACKGROUND: Norfloxacin is fluoroquinolone anti-infective used in the treatment of urinary tract infections, prostatitis, gonorrhea and genital tract infections. It has plasma half life of 3 to 4 h requiring multiple dosing in the treatment. Releaseretarding polymers can be used to modulate the drug release of norfloxacin. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of release-retarding polymers on the drug release of norfloxacin from floating tablets...
July 2016: Polimery W Medycynie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395111/highly-soluble-p-terphenyl-and-fluorene-derivatives-as-efficient-dopants-in-plastic-scintillators-for-sensitive-nuclear-material-detection
#5
Alan Sellinger, Henok A Yemam, Adam Mahl, Uwe Greife, Jonathan Tinkham, Joshua Koubek
Plastic scintillators are commonly used as first-line detectors for special nuclear materials. Current state-of-the-art plastic scintillators based on poly(vinyltoluene) (PVT) matrices containing high loadings (>15.0 wt%) of 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) offer neutron signal discrimination in gamma radiation background (termed pulse shape discrimination, PSD), however they suffer from poor mechanical properties. In this work, a series of p-terphenyl and fluorene derivatives were synthesized and used as dopants in PVT based plastic scintillators as possible alternatives to PPO to address the mechanical property issue and to study the PSD mechanism...
April 10, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393838/functional-polymorphisms-in-dopaminergic-genes-modulate-neurobehavioral-and-neurophysiological-consequences-of-sleep-deprivation
#6
Sebastian C Holst, Thomas Müller, Amandine Valomon, Britta Seebauer, Wolfgang Berger, Hans-Peter Landolt
Sleep deprivation impairs cognitive performance and reliably alters brain activation in wakefulness and sleep. Nevertheless, the molecular regulators of prolonged wakefulness remain poorly understood. Evidence from genetic, behavioral, pharmacologic and imaging studies suggest that dopaminergic signaling contributes to the behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) consequences of sleep loss, although direct human evidence thereof is missing. We tested whether dopamine neurotransmission regulate sustained attention and evolution of EEG power during prolonged wakefulness...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391774/exploring-the-sensitivity-of-the-personality-assessment-inventory-symptom-validity-tests-in-detecting-response-bias-in-a-mixed-neuropsychological-outpatient-sample
#7
Owen J Gaasedelen, Douglas M Whiteside, Michael Basso
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have evaluated the symptom validity tests (SVTs) within the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in a neuropsychological assessment context. Accordingly, the present study explored the accuracy of PAI SVTs in identifying exaggerated cognitive dysfunction in a mixed sample of outpatients referred for neuropsychological assessment. METHOD: Participants who failed two or more Performance Validity Tests (PVTs) were classified as having exaggerated cognitive dysfunction (n = 49)...
April 10, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366816/the-impact-of-morning-light-intensity-and-environmental-temperature-on-body-temperatures-and-alertness
#8
Marije Te Kulve, Luc J M Schlangen, Lisje Schellen, Arjan J H Frijns, Wouter D van Marken Lichtenbelt
Indoor temperature and light exposure are known to affect body temperature, productivity and alertness of building occupants. However, not much is known about the interaction between light and temperature exposure and the relationship between morning light induced alertness and its effect on body temperature. Light intensity and room temperature during morning office hours were investigated under strictly controlled conditions. In a randomized crossover study, two white light conditions (4000K, either bright 1200lx or dim 5lx) under three different room temperatures (26, 29 and 32°C) were investigated...
March 30, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364449/modeling-neurocognitive-decline-and-recovery-during-repeated-cycles-of-extended-sleep-and-chronic-sleep-deficiency
#9
Melissa A St Hilaire, Melanie Rüger, Federico Fratelli, Joseph T Hull, Andrew J K Phillips, Steven W Lockley
Study Objectives: Intraindividual night-to-night sleep duration is often insufficient and variable. Here we report the effects of such chronic variable sleep deficiency on neurobehavioral performance and the ability of state-of-the-art models to predict these changes. Methods: Eight healthy males (mean age ± SD: 23.9 ± 2.4 years) studied at our inpatient intensive physiologic monitoring unit completed an 11-day protocol with a baseline 10-hour sleep opportunity and three cycles of two 3-hour time-in-bed (TIB) and one 10-hour TIB sleep opportunities...
January 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364430/signal-to-noise-ratio-in-pvt-performance-as-a-cognitive-measure-of-the-effect-of-sleep-deprivation-on-the-fidelity-of-information-processing
#10
Venkata P Chavali, Samantha M Riedy, Hans P A Van Dongen
Study Objectives: There is a long-standing debate about the best way to characterize performance deficits on the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT), a widely used assay of cognitive impairment in human sleep deprivation studies. Here, we address this issue through the theoretical framework of the diffusion model and propose to express PVT performance in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Methods: From the equations of the diffusion model for one-choice, reaction-time tasks, we derived an expression for a novel SNR metric for PVT performance...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342265/efficacy-and-safety-of-edoxaban-for-treatment-of-portal-vein-thrombosis-following-danaparoid-sodium-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#11
Yuko Nagaoki, Hiroshi Aikata, Kana Daijo, Yuji Teraoka, Fumi Shinohara, Yuki Nakamura, Masahiro Hatooka, Kei Morio, Takashi Nakahara, Tomokazu Kawaoka, Masataka Tsuge, Akira Hiramatsu, Michio Imamura, Yoshiiku Kawakami, Hidenori Ochi, Kazuaki Chayama
AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of edoxaban and warfarin for treatment of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) following danaparoid sodium in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Fifty cirrhotic patients with PVT treated initially for 2 weeks by danaparoid sodium were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. Treatment was later switched to either edoxaban (n = 20) or warfarin (n = 30). We compared the efficacy and safety of edoxaban and warfarin for up to 6 months...
March 24, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331452/balloon-occlusion-technique-for-managing-portal-vein-hemorrhage-in-liver-transplantation
#12
John B Seal, Humberto Bohorquez, Naren Battula, Lucia DeGregorio, Emily Bugeaud, David S Bruce, Ian C Carmody, Ari J Cohen, George E Loss
BACKGROUND: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is relatively common among candidates for liver transplantation and can present significant intraoperative challenges. Depending on the extent of PVT, thromboendovenectomy (TEV), portal bypass, or systemic inflow may be required to restore portal inflow. While TEV is the most commonly used approach to restore anatomic portal inflow, portal vein injury and life-threatening hemorrhage are risks with this technique. CASE REPORT: We present a salvage technique for managing portal vein injury during TEV using intraluminal balloon occlusion of the portal vein during portal vein repair and reconstruction...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329124/sleep-and-alertness-in-medical-interns-and-residents-an-observational-study-on-the-role-of-extended-shifts
#13
Mathias Basner, David F Dinges, Judy A Shea, Dylan S Small, Jingsan Zhu, Laurie Norton, Adrian J Ecker, Cristina Novak, Lisa M Bellini, Kevin G Volpp
Study Objectives: Fatigue from sleep loss is a risk to physician and patient safety, but objective data on physician sleep and alertness on different duty hour schedules is scarce. This study objectively quantified differences in sleep duration and alertness between medical interns working extended overnight shifts and residents not or rarely working extended overnight shifts. Methods: Sleep-wake activity of 137 interns and 87 PGY-2/3 residents on 2-week Internal Medicine and Oncology rotations was assessed with wrist-actigraphy...
February 24, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328113/functional-equivalence-of-sleep-loss-and-time-on-task-effects-in-sustained-attention
#14
Bella Z Veksler, Glenn Gunzelmann
Research on sleep loss and vigilance both focus on declines in cognitive performance, but theoretical accounts have developed largely in parallel in these two areas. In addition, computational instantiations of theoretical accounts are rare. The current work uses computational modeling to explore whether the same mechanisms can account for the effects of both sleep loss and time on task on performance. A classic task used in the sleep deprivation literature, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), was extended from the typical 10-min duration to 35 min, to make the task similar in duration to traditional vigilance tasks...
March 22, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318305/on-demand-driver-vigilance-enhancement-without-explicit-drowsiness-detection-further-analysis-of-the-pilot-study-results
#15
R Michael Van Auken, Brad K Hagoski, Dean P Chiang, Shane Chang
OBJECTIVE: A new active safety concept that engages the driver's psychosensory pain-processing mechanism to automatically trigger vigilance enhancement on-demand was proposed in Chang ( 2012 ). This concept is based on the hypothesis that a human's pain threshold will decline as he/she becomes drowsy, consequently triggering the vigilance enhancer. The objective of this pilot study was to develop methods to test this hypothesis, the results of which could lead to further refinement of the hypothesis and methods, with the ultimate goal of developing new active safety concepts that exploit the driver's endogenous psychosensory pain-processing mechanisms...
March 20, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290178/multiple-valvular-complications-of-hypereosinophilic-syndrome
#16
Zoltán Pozsonyi, Szabolcs Benedek, Pál Sármán, Lívia Jánoskuti, Tivadar Hüttl, Astrid Apor
Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is the most common cardiac abnormality in hyeperosinophilic syndrome (HES), sometimes complicated with mitral valve disease. Mitral valve disease without ventricular manifestation is very rare, however. Case reports link HES to prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT), but the optimal type of prosthetic valve in HES is not known. Herein is reported the case of a young female HES patient with secondary mitral valve degeneration and severe regurgitation. A mechanical prosthetic valve was implanted six months after she was diagnosed with HES, but despite anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy she developed PVT three months later...
November 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283739/persistent-tachycardia-within-isolated-pulmonary-veins-during-atrial-fibrillation-ablation
#17
Kenichiro Yamagata, Atsushi Doi, Hiro Kawata, Hisaki Makimoto, Teruki Yokoyama, Yuko Inoue, Hideo Okamura, Takashi Noda, Wataru Shimizu, Naohiko Aihara, Takayuki Maki, Shiro Kamakura, Kengo Kusano, Kazuhiro Satomi
During circumferential pulmonary vein (PV) isolation for ongoing atrial fibrillation (AF), distinguishing passive conduction to the pulmonary vein (PV) from rapid PV arrhythmia in the isolated PV is difficult. Hence, the purpose of this study is to investigate both the feasibility of distinguishing the PV tachycardia after circumferential PV isolation and the electrophysiological characteristics of these tachycardia. Among 178 consecutive patients who underwent circumferential PV isolation during ongoing AF, fibrillatory PV converted to a regular cycle length PV tachycardia independent of the atrial rhythm (=independent PV tachycardia) in 13 PVs among 12 (7%) patients...
March 10, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277098/barriers-and-motivations-to-volunteers-participation-in-preventive-vaccine-trials-a-systematic-review
#18
M Detoc, A Gagneux-Brunon, F Lucht, E Botelho-Nevers
The recruitment of volunteers in preventive vaccine trials (PVT) is a challenge, since vaccine hesitancy and debates on vaccines are combined to usual difficulties of enrollment in clinical trials. Areas covered: Current knowledge of the reasons leading to the volunteers' participation or non-participation in PVT mainly focuses on data from preventive HIV vaccine trials. A systematic PubMed search was conducted using PRISMA guidelines to identify articles or reviews that reported barriers and motivations to participation in PVT regardless of the targeted disease or population...
March 1, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276304/development-of-a-new-purified-vero-cell-rabies-vaccine-rabivax-s-at-the-serum-institute-of-india-pvt-ltd
#19
Prasad S Kulkarni, Ashish Sahai, Bhagwat Gunale, Rajeev M Dhere
Rabies is a 100% fatal disease with significant disease burden in Asia and Africa but preventable with vaccines and immunoglobulins. There are very few WHO prequalified cell culture derived rabies vaccines available globally for use in humans. We have developed a new purified vero cell rabies vaccine (Rabivax-S) to meet this demand. Areas covered: In this review, we have described the detailed manufacturing process of Rabivax-S and summary of preclinical and clinical development based on the data generated in-house...
April 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268647/analysis-of-loss-of-alertness-due-to-cognitive-fatigue-using-motif-synchronization-of-eeg-records
#20
Anwesha Sengupta, Abhishek Tiwari, Aritra Chaudhuri, Aurobinda Routray
Continuous and repetitive performance of cognitive tasks is likely to cause a change in the alertness levels of an individual. The present paper investigates the changes in EEG as a marker of alertness during an experiment designed to induce cognitive fatigue in subjects by continuous and repetitive performance of standard neuropsychological tests. Electroencephalogram (EEG), speech data and high-speed ocular images are recorded during the task set comprising of an Auditory Response Test (ART) Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), a Letter Counting (LC) task, and a variant of the Stroop Task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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