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Kian F Wong, James Teng, Michael W L Chee, Kinjal Doshi, Julian Lim
Mindfulness based training (MBT) is becoming increasingly popular as a means to improve general wellbeing through developing enhanced control over metacognitive processes. In this preliminary study, we tested a cohort of 36 nurses (mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.52; 2 male) who participated in an 8-week MBT intervention to examine the improvements in sustained attention and its energetic costs that may result from MBT. Changes in sustained attention were measured using the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and electroencephalography (EEG) was collected both during PVT performance, and during a brief period of meditation...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Marlysa B Sullivan, Matt Erb, Laura Schmalzl, Steffany Moonaz, Jessica Noggle Taylor, Stephen W Porges
Yoga therapy is a newly emerging, self-regulating complementary and integrative healthcare (CIH) practice. It is growing in its professionalization, recognition and utilization with a demonstrated commitment to setting practice standards, educational and accreditation standards, and promoting research to support its efficacy for various populations and conditions. However, heterogeneity of practice, poor reporting standards, and lack of a broadly accepted understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms involved in yoga therapy limits the structuring of testable hypotheses and clinical applications...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Claudia Laperchia, Yuan-Zhong Xu, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi, Tiziana Cotrufo, Marina Bentivoglio
Neuron populations of the lateral hypothalamus which synthesize the orexin (OX)/hypocretin or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) peptides play crucial, reciprocal roles in regulating wake stability and sleep. The disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also called sleeping sickness, caused by extracellular Trypanosoma brucei ( T. b .) parasites, leads to characteristic sleep-wake cycle disruption and narcoleptic-like alterations of the sleep structure. Previous studies have revealed damage of OX and MCH neurons during systemic infection of laboratory rodents with the non-human pathogenic T...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
H Abdella, M K Shaker, Iman Fawzy Montasser, M Sobhi, H Aly, A Sayed, S Saleh, A El Dorry
BACKGROUND/AIM: Portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) is a common complication in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and it was considered a relative contraindication for transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) by many centers. This study aimed to assess the outcomes after TACE in patients with branch PVT regarding Child classification, radiological response, and 1-year survival. METHODS: Thirty HCC patients (24 male, 6 females) Child A cirrhotics with branch PVT underwent TACE...
March 13, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Tufan Çınar, Mert Ilker Hayıroğlu, Veysel Ozan Tanık, Emre Aruğaslan, Muhammed Keskin, Mahmut Uluganyan, Ahmet Öz, Metin Çağdaş, Ahmet Taha Alper
Prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT) is a potentially life-threatening complication associated with high morbidity and mortality. The CHA2DS2-VASc is a clinical score used to determine thromboembolism risk in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients. Therefore; in this study, we aimed to determine predictive value of the CHA2DS2-VASc score for development of PVT in patients with mechanical prosthetic valve. This was a retrospective study included 417 consecutive patients with mechanic prosthetic valve in whom transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was performed due to different clinical indications from January 2004 to June 2016...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Douglas M Whiteside, Kristen Caraher, Amanda Hahn-Ketter, Owen Gaasedelen, Michael R Basso
The development of more sophisticated performance validity measures is important due to concerns with coaching as well as providing clinicians with a greater variety of options when assessing performance validity. Examinees with noncredible performance may find it more difficult to elude detection by PVTs derived from arithmetical summation or logistic regression. The present study evaluated the classification accuracy of several executive functioning (EF) variables as PVTs both individually and when combined into derived variables...
March 9, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Dinesh Puri, Anil Bhandari, Praveen Kumar Gaur, Mohd Yasir, S Sadish Kumar, Deepak Choudhary
OBJECTIVE: The aim of present research work was to develop a herbal fast disintegrating tablet containing Fagonia schweinfurthii Hadidi dried extract and determining its antihistaminic activity using guinea pig ileum. METHOD: The tablets were formulated by wet granulation technique using three different superdisintegrants (croscarmillose, crospovidone and sodium starch glycolate) at three different use levels. The tablets were evaluated for various physical properties like hardness, friability weight variation etc...
March 9, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Kosuke Kaida, Takashi Abe
The goal of the present study was to examine the effect of listening to self-relevant words (i.e., one's own name) on vigilant attention, arousal, and subjective sleepiness during performance of a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT). Twenty-one participants aged 20-26 years (22.2 ± 1.76) performed a PVT in four experimental conditions: one in which their own full name was pronounced every 20 s in the stimuli epochs, one in which their full name was pronounced in inverted form, one in which beeps were played, and a control condition with no stimuli...
2018: PloS One
Jonathan G Stine, Blake A Niccum, Alex N Zimmet, Nicolas Intagliata, Stephen H Caldwell, Curtis K Argo, Patrick G Northup
OBJECTIVE: Patients with cirrhosis are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and portal vein thrombosis (PVT). Cirrhosis due to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) appears to be particularly prothrombotic. We investigated hospitalized patients with NASH cirrhosis to determine if they are at increased risk for VTE. METHODS: Data on adult hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and VTE (deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism) between November 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015 were obtained...
March 6, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
S Jongen, E F P M Vuurman, J G Ramaekers, A Vermeeren
OBJECTIVE: Screening of drug-induced performance impairment is needed to provide meaningful information for users and prescribers regarding the impact of drugs on driving. The main objective was to assess the effects of oxazepam 10 mg (OXA10), oxazepam 30 mg (OXA30), and diazepam 10 mg (DIA10) on standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) in a highway driving test in actual traffic and to determine the ability of eight neurocognitive tests to detect comparable effects. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy volunteers participated in a four-way double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study...
March 2, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Xiaojuan Dong, Haixia Qin, Taoyu Wu, Hua Hu, Keren Liao, Fei Cheng, Dong Gao, Xu Lei
Introduction: One classical hypothesis among many models to explain the etiology and maintenance of insomnia disorder (ID) is hyperarousal. Aberrant functional connectivity among resting-state large-scale brain networks may be the underlying neurological mechanisms of this hypothesis. The aim of current study was to investigate the functional network connectivity (FNC) among large-scale brain networks in patients with insomnia disorder (ID) during resting state. Methods: In the present study, the resting-state fMRI was used to evaluate whether patients with ID showed aberrant FNC among dorsal attention network (DAN), frontoparietal control network (FPC), anterior default mode network (aDMN), and posterior default mode network (pDMN) compared with healthy good sleepers (HGSs)...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
Jonathan Merola, Brett E Fortune, Yanhong Deng, Maria Ciarleglio, Smbat Amirbekian, Noami Chaudhary, Alampady Shanbhogue, Rajasekhara Ayyagari, Manuel I Rodriguez-Davalos, Lewis Teperman, Hearns W Charles, Samuel H Sigal
BACKGROUND: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) develops in cirrhotic patients because of stagnation of blood flow. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creates a low-resistance conduit that restores portal venous patency and blood flow. AIM: The effect of PVT on transplant-free survival in cirrhotic patients undergoing TIPS creation was evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent TIPS creation for cirrhotic portal hypertension was carried out...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Bernardo Cortese, Gaetano DI Palma, Roberto Latini
Drug-coated balloons (DCB) have been developed in recent years to overcome some of the DES limitations. There is an established indication for the use of DCB in the treatment of in-stent restenosis and they are also variably used in various setting, in particular small coronary vessels and bifurcations. Until 2016, all DCBs available in Europe eluted paclitaxel, a highly lipophilic drug with narrow therapeutic window. In April 2016 a new sirolimus-coated balloon (SCB, Magic Touch®, Envision Scientific PVT, India), obtained the CE Mark...
February 19, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
Zhengjun Li, Marta Vidorreta, Natalie Katchmar, David C Alsop, Daniel H Wolf, John A Detre
Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) provides imaging biomarkers of task-independent brain function that can be associated with clinical variables or modulated by interventions such as behavioral training or pharmacological manipulations. These biomarkers include time-averaged regional brain function as manifested by regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured using arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI and correlated temporal fluctuations of function across brain networks with either ASL or blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI...
February 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Rosa Zampino, Rita Lebano, Nicola Coppola, Margherita Macera, Anna Grandone, Luca Rinaldi, Ilario De Sio, Antonella Tufano, Gianfranca Stornaiuolo, Luigi E Adinolfi, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni, Gaeta G Battista, Alferio Niglio
Background/Aim: A reduction in portal vein inflow velocity seems to predispose to the emergence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT). Nonselective β-blockers (NSBBs), used to prevent variceal bleeding, may increase the development of PVT by reducing portal vein inflow velocity. In this retrospective case-control study, we evaluated the risk factors and clinical features of a first event of PVT in 130 cirrhotics, 19 (15%) with (PVT group) and 111 (85%) without PVT (non-PVT group). Patients and Methods: Patient evaluation and NNBB treatment were carried out according to the AASLD guidelines...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
Bharati Prasad, Alana D Steffen, Hans P A Van Dongen, Francis M Pack, Inna Strakovsky, Bethany Staley, David F Dinges, Greg Maislin, Allan I Pack, Terri E Weaver
Study Objectives: Significant interindividual variability in sleepiness is observed in clinical populations with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This phenomenon is only partially explained by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Understanding factors that lead to sleepiness is critical to effective management of patients with OSA. We examined demographic and other factors associated with sleepiness in OSA. Methods: Prospective study of 283 patients with newly diagnosed OSA by polysomnography (AHI ≥ 5 per hour)...
February 10, 2018: Sleep
Fanny Turon, Virginia Hernández-Gea, Juan Carlos García-Pagán
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in the setting of cirrhosis especially in relation to its potential impact on liver transplantation. In addition, the safety and efficacy of anticoagulation is reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: PVT in cirrhosis occurs in up to 26% of patients awaiting liver transplantation. Different studies have suggested that PVT impacts negatively post-liver transplantation survival, particularly in first year post-liver transplantation and when PVT is complete involving the porto-mesenteric confluence and not allowing physiological anastomosis...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Stefania Gioia, Silvia Nardelli, Chiara Pasquale, Ilaria Pentassuglio, Valeria Nicoletti, Francesca Aprile, Manuela Merli, Oliviero Riggio
BACKGROUND: The knowledge of natural history of patients with portal hypertension (PH) not due to cirrhosis is less well known than that of cirrhotic patients. AIM: To describe the clinical presentation and the outcomes of 89 patients with non-cirrhotic PH (25 with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension, INCPH, and 64 with chronic portal vein thrombosis, PVT) in comparison with 77 patients with Child A cirrhosis. METHODS: The patients were submitted to a standardized clinical, laboratory, ultrasonographic and endoscopic follow-up...
January 31, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Antonio Z Gimeno Garcia, Jose R Aparicio, Angel Barturen, Miguel Moreno, David Nicolas-Perez, Enrique Quintero
BACKGROUND: Differentiation between benign and malignant portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in the setting of a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is of paramount importance. Histological analysis is usually not carried out because of potential severe side effects of the percutaneous approach. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) may be safer and may guide the clinical management of patients with HCC. OBJECTIVE: To describe the feasibility of the EUS-FNA in a series of patients with HCC and PVT...
April 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Emel Kaya Aumann, Sadik Server, Bedriye Koyuncu Sokmen, Aysegul Oz, Esat Namal, Nagihan Inan Gurcan, Numan Cem Balci, Yaman Tokat
PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) parameters in the differential diagnosis of portal vein thrombus (PVT). METHODOLOGY: Thirty-five patients with PVT were enrolled in this retrospective study. Precontrast axial in-phase and out-of-phase T1-weighted (W) turbo field echo (TFE), axial and coronal T2-W single-shot turbo spin echo, IVIM with b values between 0 and 1300 s/mm2 and conventional DWI with b factors of 50, 400, and 800 s/mm2 with single-shot echo-planar imaging, and postcontrast dynamic T1-W volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination images obtained with 1...
February 7, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
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