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Neurosurgical anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298475/neuropelveology-an-emerging-discipline-for-the-management-of-chronic-pelvic-pain
#1
REVIEW
Marc Possover, Karl-Erik Andersson, Axel Forman
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a common condition involving multiple, organ-specific medical specialties, each with its own approach to diagnosis and treatment. Management requires knowledge of the interplay between pelvic organ function and neuro-functional anatomy, and of the neurologic and psychological aspects of CPP, but no current specialty fully encompasses this approach. Neuropelveology is an emerging discipline focusing on pathologies of the pelvic nervous system on a cross-disciplinary basis. It involves a neurological/neurosurgical approach, combining the knowledge required for a proper neurologic diagnosis, confirmation by transvaginal/transrectal examination of the pelvic nerves, and advanced laparoscopic surgery in selected cases of CPP...
December 2017: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291293/introduction-the-value-of-peripheral-nerve-surgery
#2
Robert J Spinner, Holly S Gilmer, Gregory R Trost
If a single picture is worth a thousand words, then a video, by logical extension, would be priceless. This edition showcases peripheral nerve surgery in all its grandeur and preserves it for posterity. Classic and novel surgical techniques are shown related to tumor biopsy or resection; nerve decompression for entrapment; and nerve reconstruction with direct repair or nerve transfer. Akin to a nautical chart filled with detailed maps for sailors, this Neurosurgical Focus Video Atlas provides navigational tools for neurosurgeons...
January 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288902/diagnostic-evaluation-and-surgical-management-of-pediatric-insular-epilepsy-utilizing-magnetoencephalography-and-invasive-eeg-monitoring
#3
Raheel Ahmed, Hiroshi Otsubo, Carter Snead, Elizabeth Donner, Elysa Widjaja, Ayako Ochi, James M Drake, James T Rutka
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis and surgical management of pediatric patients with insular epilepsy is challenging due to variable and indistinct seizure semiology arising within the insular cortex. In addition, surgical approaches are associated with potential morbidity given the regional neurosurgical and vascular anatomy. Our institutional experience in evaluation and surgical management of insular epilepsy patients is presented. Diagnostic evaluation, surgical treatment and seizures outcomes are highlighted...
December 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194275/preoperative-exposure-of-sigmoid-sinus-trajectory-in-posterolateral-cranial-base-approaches-using-a-new-landmark-through-a-neurosurgical-perspective
#4
Ihsan Doğan, Onur Özgüral, Ümit Eroğlu, Eyyub S M Al-Beyati, Cemil M Kilinç, Ayhan Cömert, Hasan Çağlar Uğur
The location of burr holes in posterolateral cranial base approaches should be appropriate to provide an adequate operative field, and surgical freedom is crucial for bone window opening. The aim of this study was to search for more convenient and easily detectable landmarks in comparison with current landmarks in posterolateral cranial base surgery. Twenty 3-dimensional reconstructed head and neck computed tomography angiography images (group 1) and 20 cadaver heads (group 2) were evaluated. An imaginary line connecting the angle of the mandible and the mastoid tip was extended upward...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191125/the-2017-aans-presidential-address-a-world-of-innovation
#5
Frederick A Boop
The 2016 scientific meeting of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) focused on the theme "A World of Innovation." In his presidential address, 2016 AANS President Frederick Boop compared the historical development of the specialty of neurological surgery with that of the development of global communications. In the early years, general surgeons training in the United States would spend post-residency time abroad learning from surgical masters in Europe and other places. Since Harvey Cushing's day, neurosurgeons from around the world continue to travel abroad, with many now coming to America for training at centers of excellence...
December 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119039/osirix-software-as-a-preoperative-planning-tool-in-cranial-neurosurgery-a-step-by-step-guide-for-neurosurgical-residents
#6
REVIEW
Toma Spiriev, Vladimir Nakov, Lili Laleva, Christo Tzekov
Background: OsiriX (Pixmeo, Switzerland) is an open-source Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) viewer that is gaining more and more attention in the neurosurgical community because of its user-friendly interface, powerful three-dimensional (3D) volumetric rendering capabilities, and various options for data integration. This paper presents in detail the use of OsiriX software as a preoperative planning tool in cranial neurosurgery. Methods: In January 2013, OsiriX software was introduced into our clinical practice as a preoperative planning tool...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068642/new-directions-in-3d-medical-modeling-3d-printing-anatomy-and-functions-in-neurosurgical-planning
#7
Paola Gargiulo, Iris Árnadóttir, Magnús Gíslason, Kyle Edmunds, Ingvar Ólafsson
This paper illustrates the feasibility and utility of combining cranial anatomy and brain function on the same 3D-printed model, as evidenced by a neurosurgical planning case study of a 29-year-old female patient with a low-grade frontal-lobe glioma. We herein report the rapid prototyping methodology utilized in conjunction with surgical navigation to prepare and plan a complex neurosurgery. The method introduced here combines CT and MRI images with DTI tractography, while using various image segmentation protocols to 3D model the skull base, tumor, and five eloquent fiber tracts...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065569/new-directions-in-3d-medical-modeling-3d-printing-anatomy-and-functions-in-neurosurgical-planning
#8
Paolo Gargiulo, Íris Árnadóttir, Magnús Gíslason, Kyle Edmunds, Ingvar Ólafsson
This paper illustrates the feasibility and utility of combining cranial anatomy and brain function on the same 3D-printed model, as evidenced by a neurosurgical planning case study of a 29-year-old female patient with a low-grade frontal-lobe glioma. We herein report the rapid prototyping methodology utilized in conjunction with surgical navigation to prepare and plan a complex neurosurgery. The method introduced here combines CT and MRI images with DTI tractography, while using various image segmentation protocols to 3D model the skull base, tumor, and five eloquent fiber tracts...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053676/laminotomy-for-lumbar-dorsal-root-ganglion-access-and-injection-in-swine
#9
Mark D Unger, Timothy P Maus, Ross C Puffer, Laura K Newman, Bradford L Currier, Andreas S Beutler
Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are anatomically well defined structures that contain all primary sensory neurons below the head. This fact makes DRG attractive targets for injection of novel therapeutics aimed at treating chronic pain. In small animal models, laminectomy has been used to facilitate DRG injection because it involves surgical removal of the vertebral bone surrounding each DRG. We demonstrate a technique for intraganglionic injection of lumbar DRG in a large animal species, namely, swine. Laminotomy is performed to allow direct access to DRG using standard neurosurgical techniques, instruments, and materials...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985669/establishment-of-next-generation-neurosurgery-research-and-training-laboratory-with-integrated-human-performance-monitoring
#10
Antonio Bernardo
Quality of neurosurgical care and patient outcomes are inextricably linked to surgical and technical proficiency and a thorough working knowledge of microsurgical anatomy. Neurosurgical laboratory-based cadaveric training is essential for the development and refinement of technical skills before their use on a living patient. Recent biotechnological advances including 3-dimensional (3D) microscopy and endoscopy, 3D printing, virtual reality, surgical simulation, surgical robotics, and advanced neuroimaging have proved to reduce the learning curve, improve conceptual understanding of complex anatomy, and enhance visuospatial skills in neurosurgical training...
October 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985657/the-orbit-as-seen-through-different-surgical-windows-extensive-anatomosurgical-study
#11
Antonio Bernardo, Alexander I Evins, Pier Paolo Mattogno, Monica Quiroga, Brad E Zacharia
A thorough understanding of the orbit, structures within it, and complex spatial relationships among these structures bears relevance in a variety of neurosurgical cases. We describe the 3-dimensional surgical anatomy of the orbit and fragile and complex network of neurovascular architectures, flanked by a series of muscular and glandular structures, found within the orbital dura.
October 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985656/virtual-reality-and-simulation-in-neurosurgical-training
#12
Antonio Bernardo
Recent biotechnological advances, including three-dimensional microscopy and endoscopy, virtual reality, surgical simulation, surgical robotics, and advanced neuroimaging, have continued to mold the surgeon-computer relationship. For developing neurosurgeons, such tools can reduce the learning curve, improve conceptual understanding of complex anatomy, and enhance visuospatial skills. We explore the current and future roles and application of virtual reality and simulation in neurosurgical training.
October 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984537/neurosurgical-transection-of-the-breast-an-unexpected-extracranial-complication-of-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-insertion
#13
Molly Jakeman, Ranjeet Jeevan, Sasha C Burn, Sian Falder
Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement is among the most common surgical procedures undertaken by neurosurgeons. Complications arising from the thoracic portion of the shunt are relatively rare in comparison with those of the intraventricular and peritoneal portions. Disruption of primary breast development following VP shunt placement has not previously been reported. The authors describe the case of a 15-year-old girl referred to the plastic surgery department with a significant right breast deformity and associated asymmetry following VP shunt placement performed during the neonatal period...
December 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967307/introduction-surgical-management-of-skull-base-meningiomas
#14
Gabriel Zada, Mustafa K Başkaya, Mitesh V Shah
Meningiomas represent the most common primary intracranial neoplasm treated by neurosurgeons. Although multimodal treatment of meningiomas includes surgery, radiation-based treatments, and occasionally medical therapy, surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for most symptomatic meningiomas. Because of the intricate relationship of the dura mater and arachnoid mater with the central nervous system and cranial nerves, meningiomas can arise anywhere along the skull base or convexities, and occasionally even within the ventricular system, thereby mandating a catalog of surgical approaches that neurosurgeons may employ to individualize treatment for patients...
October 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961936/the-surgical-white-matter-chassis-a-practical-3-dimensional-atlas-for-planning-subcortical-surgical-trajectories
#15
Jonathan E Jennings, Amin B Kassam, Melanie B Fukui, Alejandro Monroy-Sosa, Srikant Chakravarthi, Nathan Kojis, Richard A Rovin
BACKGROUND: The imperative role of white matter preservation in improving surgical functional outcomes is now recognized. Understanding the fundamental white matter framework is essential for translating the anatomic and functional literature into practical strategies for surgical planning and neuronavigation. OBJECTIVE: To present a 3-dimensional (3-D) atlas of the structural and functional scaffolding of human white matter-ie, a "Surgical White Matter Chassis (SWMC)"-that can be used as an organizational tool in designing precise and individualized trajectory-based neurosurgical corridors...
August 5, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958929/effectiveness-of-the-3d-monitor-system-for-medical-education-during-neurosurgical-operation
#16
Masahiko Wanibuchi, Katsuya Komatsu, Yukinori Akiyama, Takeshi Mikami, Nobuhiro Mikuni
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) graphics are used in the medical field, especially during surgery. Although 3D monitoring is useful for medical education, its effectiveness needs to be objectively evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 3D monitoring in the surgical education of medical students. METHODS: A questionnaire on high-definition 3D monitoring was given to fifth-year medical students in a six-year program. Sixty-four students wore polarized glasses and observed a microsurgical operation through a 3D monitor...
September 25, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945289/anomalies-and-normal-variants-of-the-cerebral-arterial-supply-a-comprehensive-pictorial-review-with-a-proposed-workflow-for-classification-and-significance
#17
REVIEW
Arsany Hakim, Jan Gralla, Christoph Rozeik, Pasquale Mordasini, Lars Leidolt, Eike Piechowiak, Christoph Ozdoba, Marwan El-Koussy
Cerebral arteries may exhibit a wide range of variation from normal anatomy, which can be incidentally discovered during imaging. Knowledge of such variants is crucial to differentiate them from pathologies, to understand the etiology of certain pathologies directly related to a vascular variant, and to depict the changes in collateral circulation in patients with certain variants. Detection of particular variants may lead to the discovery of other nonvascular or vascular anomalies, especially aneurysms, and may also affect planning of endovascular or neurosurgical interventions...
January 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931258/simulation-based-education-for-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-a-comparison-between-virtual-and-physical-training-models
#18
Gerben E Breimer, Faizal A Haji, Vivek Bodani, Melissa S Cunningham, Adriana-Lucia Lopez-Rios, Allan Okrainec, James M Drake
BACKGROUND: The relative educational benefits of virtual reality (VR) and physical simulation models for endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) have not been evaluated "head to head." OBJECTIVE: To compare and identify the relative utility of a physical and VR ETV simulation model for use in neurosurgical training. METHODS: Twenty-three neurosurgical residents and 3 fellows performed an ETV on both a physical and VR simulation model. Trainees rated the models using 5-point Likert scales evaluating the domains of anatomy, instrument handling, procedural content, and the overall fidelity of the simulation...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927207/surgical-approaches-to-the-temporal-horn-an-anatomic-analysis-of-white-matter-tract-interruption
#19
Paulo A S Kadri, Jean G de Oliveira, Niklaus Krayenbühl, Ugur Türe, Evandro P L de Oliveira, Ossama Al-Mefty, Guilherme C Ribas
BACKGROUND: Surgical access to the temporal horn is necessary to treat tumors and vascular lesions, but is used mainly in patients with mediobasal temporal epilepsy. The surgical approaches to this cavity fall into 3 primary categories: lateral, inferior, and transsylvian. The current neurosurgical literature has underestimated the interruption of involved fiber bundles and the correlated clinical manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To delineate the interruption of fiber bundles during the different approaches to the temporal horn...
April 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891898/vascular-anomalies-of-posterior-fossa-and-their-implications
#20
Rajani Singh, Raj Kumar, Arushi Kumar
Posterior fossa houses very vital and sensitive structures namely midbrain, pons, medulla, and cerebellum. These structures are irrigated by vertebral, posterior inferior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, and superior cerebellar arteries. Parts of brain located in posterior fossa control important parts of body so any variation pertaining to stenosis, atresia, hypoplasia, fenestration, agenesis, and duplication in the arteries supplying these parts alter the irrigation pattern culminating into various morbid and mortal neurologic disorders...
November 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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