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autoimmune hepatitis mitochondrial

Ming Xiang, Tingting Liu, Wanyue Tan, Hongyu Ren, Hua Li, Junjun Liu, Hui Cao, Qi Cheng, Xiulan Liu, Hucheng Zhu, Yali Tuo, Jianping Wang, Yonghui Zhang
: The central purpose of this study was to investigate therapeutic effects of the botanical derivative kinsenoside (KD) in experimental autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Treatment with KD substantially reduced hepatic histopathological damage, induced by lymphocyte infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokines, in ConA-induced T cell-mediated hepatitis, and in dendritic cells loaded with hepatocellular carcinoma cells (DC/Hepa1-6) induced murine AIH. Interactions between immune cells after KD treatment in AIH were detected by anti-CD8 antibody blocking, CD8(+) T cells sorting, and vaccinated mice with KD-pretreated DCs in a DC/Hepa1-6 model...
September 17, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Gui-Wei He, Claudia Günther, Andreas E Kremer, Veronika Thonn, Kerstin Amann, Christopher Poremba, Markus F Neurath, Stefan Wirtz, Christoph Becker
OBJECTIVES: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a severe necroinflammatory liver disease associated with significant mortality. Although loss of hepatocytes is generally recognised as a key trigger of liver inflammation and liver failure, the regulation of hepatic cell death causing AIH remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify molecular mechanisms that drive hepatocyte cell death in the pathogenesis of acute liver injury. DESIGN: Acute liver injury was modelled in mice by intravenous administration of concanavalin A (ConA)...
August 26, 2016: Gut
Albert J Czaja
Oxidative and nitrosative stresses can damage cellular membranes, disrupt mitochondrial function, alter gene expression, promote the apoptosis and necrosis of hepatocytes, and increase fibrosis in diverse acute and chronic liver diseases, including autoimmune hepatitis. The objectives of this review are to describe the mechanisms of oxidative and nitrosative stresses in inflammatory liver disease, indicate the pathogenic implications of these stresses in autoimmune hepatitis, and suggest investigational opportunities to develop interventions that counter them...
October 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Najihan Abdul Samat Muttaqillah, Asrul Abdul Wahab, Chuan Hun Ding, Marlyn Mohammad, Suvra Biswas, Md Mostafizur Rahman
Primary biliary cirrhosis in combination with autoimmune hepatitis has been termed "overlap syndrome", but its diagnosis is challenging. We report a case of a 43-year-old lady who presented with a six-month history of jaundice and pruritus. She subsequently developed gum bleeds. Laboratory investigations revealed hypochromic microcytic anemia, abnormal coagulation profiles, elevated serum alanine transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels, and raised serum IgG and IgM levels. Her serum was also positive for anti-nuclear and anti-mitochondrial antibodies...
2015: EXCLI journal
Minoru Tomizawa, Fuminobu Shinozaki, Kazunori Fugo, Yasufumi Motoyoshi, Takao Sugiyama, Shigenori Yamamoto, Takashi Kishimoto, Naoki Ishige
Anti-mitochondrial M2 antibody (AMA-M2) is specific to primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), but can also be found in certain patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Effective methods of differentiating between PBC and AIH are required, as their clinical course and management are different. Titers of AMA-M2 were analyzed before and after follow-up in patients with PBC or AIH. Patients who underwent liver biopsy and were diagnosed with either AIH (10 patients) or PBC (3 patients) were enrolled in the study. The AMA-M2 antibody titers of these patients were analyzed upon hospital admission...
October 2015: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Keiichi Fujiwara, Katsushi Seza, Yoshihiro Fukuda, Masayuki Nakano, Osamu Yokosuka
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is generally regarded as a clinically and histologically "chronic" hepatitis. It often shows acute presentation like acute hepatitis without typical clinicopathological features of AIH, especially in a case of overlap with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). A 52-year-old man showed mild liver dysfunction for the first time at an annual medical check. Two months later, he showed jaundice, and laboratory tests revealed elevation of liver enzymes, hyperbilirubinemia and prolonged prothrombin time activity like acute liver failure...
December 2013: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Treta Purohit, Mitchell S Cappell
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune, slowly progressive, cholestatic, liver disease characterized by a triad of chronic cholestasis, circulating anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA), and characteristic liver biopsy findings of nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis and interlobular bile duct destruction. About 10% of PBC patients, however, lack AMA. A variant, called PBC-autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) overlap, is characterized by the above findings of PBC together with findings of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase, elevated serum immunoglobulin G, and circulating anti-smooth muscle antibodies, with liver biopsy demonstrating periportal or periseptal, lymphocytic, piecemeal necrosis...
May 8, 2015: World Journal of Hepatology
Chao-Hsuan Chang, Ying-Chun Chen, Weici Zhang, Patrick S C Leung, M Eric Gershwin, Ya-Hui Chuang
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells play complex roles in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by engaging with glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d. Our earlier work suggested that iNKT cells were involved in the initiation of the original loss of tolerance in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). To address this issue in more detail and, in particular, to focus on whether iNKT cells activated by a Th2-biasing agonist (2s,3s,4r)-1-O-(α-D-galactopyranosyl)-N-tetracosanoyl-2-amino-1,3,4-nonanetriol (OCH), can influence the development of PBC in a xenobiotic-induced PBC murine model...
2015: PloS One
Yong-Zhen Kang, Xiao-Ye Sun, Yi-He Liu, Zhong-Yang Shen
Although the development of de novo autoimmune liver disease after liver transplantation (LT) has been described in both children and adults, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH)-primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) overlap syndrome has rarely been seen in liver transplant recipients. Here, we report a 50-year-old man who underwent LT for decompensated liver disease secondary to alcoholic steatohepatitis. His liver function tests became markedly abnormal 8 years after LT. Standard autoimmune serological tests were positive for anti-nuclear and anti-mitochondrial antibodies, and a marked biochemical response was observed to a regimen consisting of prednisone and ursodeoxycholic acid added to maintain immunosuppressant tacrolimus...
February 21, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Jong Hyun Jhee, Hyun Ju Kim, Wonseok Kang, Sewha Kim, Do Young Kim
A 25-year-old woman presented with jaundice, palpitation, and weight loss of 5 kg during a period of 2 weeks. Laboratory tests showed elevated levels of liver enzymes (AST 1,282 IU/L, ALT 1,119 IU/L) and total bilirubin (6.4 mg/dL); negative for hepatitis virus infection; elevated serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3, 3.60 ng/dL), free thyroxine (fT4, 3.82 ng/dL), and lowered serum level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, <0.025 μIU/mL); and positive for thyroid stimulating antibody and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA)...
January 2015: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
Bo-An Li, Jia Liu, Jun Hou, Jie Tang, Jian Zhang, Jun Xu, Yong-Ji Song, Ai-Xia Liu, Jing Zhao, Jing-Xia Guo, Lin Chen, Han Wang, Li-Hua Yang, Jie Lu, Yuan-Li Mao
AIM: To investigate the prevalence of autoantibodies and their associations with clinical features in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: A total of 325 Chinese patients with CHB were enrolled in this retrospective, hospital-based study. Patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), or primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) were included, with healthy donors acting as controls. A panel of autoantibodies that serologically define AIH and PBC was tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay and line immunoassay...
January 7, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Albert J Czaja
Apoptosis is the predominant mechanism of liver cell death in autoimmune hepatitis, and interventions that can modulate this activity are emerging. The aim of this review was to describe the apoptotic mechanisms, possible aberrations, and opportunities for intervention in autoimmune hepatitis. Studies cited in PubMed from 1972 to 2014 for autoimmune hepatitis, apoptosis in liver disease, apoptosis mechanisms, and apoptosis treatment were examined. Apoptosis is overactive in autoimmune hepatitis, and the principal pathway of cell death is receptor mediated...
December 2014: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Laura Griffiths, David E Jones
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterised by a breakdown of immune tolerance to mitochondrial and nuclear antigens, causing injury to the biliary epithelial cells (BEC) lining the small intrahepatic bile ducts. This leads to bile duct injury and the retention of hydrophobic bile acids which cause further BEC injury leading to a self-sustaining cycle of bile duct injury. Initially the BEC respond to injury via a homeostatic response including through proliferation...
2014: Digestive Diseases
K Morii, M Nishisaka, S Nakamura, T Oda, Y Aoyama, T Yamamoto, H Kishida, H Okushin, K Uesaka
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of acute liver failure in developed countries. Hepatotoxicity is a well-recognized adverse effect associated with synthetic oestrogens, which can cause cholestasis. The current report describes ethinyloestradiol (EE2)-associated highly unusual adverse effects of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and microvesicular steatosis (MS). DILI that fulfils the criteria for AIH is referred to as drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis (DIAIH)...
October 2014: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Noriko Matsushita, Etsuko Hashimoto, Katsutoshi Tokushige, Kazuhisa Kodama, Maki Tobari, Tomomi Kogiso, Nobuyuki Torii, Makiko Taniai, Keiko Shiratori, Hiroshi Murayama
OBJECTIVE: Ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT) is a liver-specific mitochondrial matrix enzyme and potential biomarker of liver fibrosis. This study investigated the OCT levels in patients with chronic liver disease with or without cirrhosis in order to assess the usefulness of OCT as a biomarker of cirrhosis. METHODS: The subjects included 440 Japanese patients with chronic liver disease and 80 control subjects. The patients were divided into two groups, those with and without cirrhosis, both of which were further stratified into high-OCT and low-OCT subgroups...
2014: Internal Medicine
Ignazio Grattagliano, Giuseppe Calamita, Tiziana Cocco, David Q-H Wang, Piero Portincasa
Primary biliary cirrhosis is a multifactor autoimmune disease characterized by hepatic and systemic manifestations, with immune system dysregulation and abnormalities in the hepatic metabolism of bile salts, lipids, and nutrients, as well as destruction of membrane lipids and mitochondrial dysfunction. Both oxidative and nitrosative stress are associated with ongoing manifestations of the disease. In particular, abnormalities in nitric oxide metabolism and thiol oxidation already occur at early stages, thus leading to the hypothesis that these biochemical events play a pathogenic role in primary biliary cirrhosis...
May 21, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Joanna M Lotowska, Maria E Sobaniec-Lotowska, Sylwia B Bockowska, Dariusz M Lebensztejn
AIM: To investigate the ultrastructure of abnormal hepatocyte mitochondria, including their cellular and hepatic zonal distribution, in bioptates in pediatric non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: Ultrastructural investigations were conducted on biopsy liver specimens obtained from 10 children (6 boys and 4 girls) aged 2-14 years with previously clinicopathologically diagnosed NASH. The disease was diagnosed if liver biopsy revealed steatosis, inflammation, ballooned hepatocytes, Mallory hyaline, or focal necrosis, varying degrees of fibrosis in the absence of clinical, serological, or histological findings of infectious liver diseases, autoimmune hepatitis, metabolic liver diseases, or celiac disease...
April 21, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Imir G Metushi, Ping Cai, Libia Vega, Denis M Grant, Jack Uetrecht
Isoniazid (INH) treatment can cause serious liver injury and autoimmunity. There are now several lines of evidence that INH-induced liver injury is immune mediated, but this type of liver injury has not been reproduced in animals, possibly because immune tolerance is the dominant response of the liver. In this study, we immunized mice with isonicotinic acid (INA)-modified proteins and Freund's adjuvant, which led to mild experimental autoimmune hepatitis (EAH) with an increase in cells staining positive for F4/80, CD11b, CD8, CD4, CD45R, and KI67...
June 2014: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Christopher L Bowlus, M Eric Gershwin
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic liver disease characterized by the immune mediated destruction of small intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells leading to cholestasis and cirrhosis. The autoimmune basis of PBC is supported by the highly specific anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) and autoreactive T cells, the former being the basis for diagnosis in the vast majority of cases. Although a rare disease, the incidence rates of PBC have been increasing, possibly due to increased testing and diagnosis as opposed to a true increase in disease incidence...
April 2014: Autoimmunity Reviews
Rodrigo Liberal, Charlotte R Grant, Maria Serena Longhi, Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Diego Vergani
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic immune-mediated liver disorder characterised by female preponderance, elevated transaminase and immunoglobulin G levels, seropositivity for autoantibodies and interface hepatitis. Presentation is highly variable, therefore AIH should be considered during the diagnostic workup of any increase in liver enzyme levels. A set of inclusion and exclusion criteria for the diagnosis of AIH have been established by the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group (IAIHG). There are two main types of AIH: type 1, positive for anti-nuclear (ANA) and/or anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMAs) and type 2, defined by the presence of anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM-1) and/or anti-liver cytosol type 1 (LC-1) autoantibodies...
April 2014: Autoimmunity Reviews
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