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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097735/autoimmune-enteropathy-and-hepatitis-in-pediatric-heart-transplant-recipient
#1
Kimberly Lewis, Ryan Butts, J Antonio Quiros, Michelle Hudspeth, Katherine Twombley, Andrew Savage, Sally Self, Ali Burnette, Shaoli Sun
AIE is a rare disorder in children that presents with severe diarrhea and malabsorption, caused by immune-mediated damage to intestinal mucosa. AIE is often associated with various syndromes of immunodeficiency including IPEX syndrome (immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy and enteropathy, X-linked). Dysfunctional T regulatory cells are the source of pathology in both IPEX syndrome and AIE as they are essential in maintaining tolerance to self-antigens and eliminating autoreactive B cells. This case report describes a 10-year-old cardiac transplant and total thymectomy patient on chronic immunosuppression with tacrolimus that presented with AIE and extraintestinal manifestations of cyclical hepatitis...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078847/real-time-shear-wave-elastrography-and-apri-index-for-evaluating-autoimmune-hepatitis-fibrosis
#2
L L Sun, G Dong, B Wang, Q Zheng, S Wang, R F Zhang
The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of real-time supersonic shear imaging (SSI) and serum biochemical index in evaluating the degree of autoimmune hepatitis fibrosis. Retrospective analysis was carried out to study 291 cases of patients with autoimmune hepatitis, and discuss the value of SSI application, APRI index and bilirubin on autoimmune hepatitis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was taken for statistical analysis to determine its diagnostic accuracy...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051792/-u-u-%C3%A2-management-strategies-for-liver-fibrosis
#3
Alejandra Altamirano-Barrera, Beatriz Barranco-Fragoso, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
 Liver fibrosis resulting from chronic liver injury are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Among causes of hepatic fibrosis, viral infection is most common (hepatitis B and C). In addition, obesity rates worldwide have accelerated the risk of liver injury due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Also liver fibrosis is associated with the consumption of alcohol, or autoimmune hepatitis and chronic cholangiophaties. The response of hepatocytes to inflammation plays a decisive role in the physiopathology of hepatic fibrosis, which involves the recruitment of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cells such as monocytes and macrophages...
January 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049044/lymphocytes-contribute-to-biliary-injury-and-fibrosis-in-experimental-xenobiotic-induced-cholestasis
#4
Nikita Joshi, Anna K Kopec, Holly Cline-Fedewa, James P Luyendyk
The etiology of chronic bile duct injury and fibrosis in patients with autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases is complex, and likely involves immune cells such as lymphocytes. However, most models of biliary fibrosis are not autoimmune in nature. Biliary fibrosis can be induced experimentally by prolonged exposure of mice to the bile duct toxicant alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT). We determined whether lymphocytes contributed to ANIT-mediated biliary hyperplasia and fibrosis in mice. Hepatic accumulation of T-lymphocytes and increased serum levels of anti-nuclear-autoantibodies were evident in wild-type mice exposed to ANIT (0...
December 31, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043314/hepatitis-b-leading-to-megaloblastic-anemia-and-catastrophic-peripheral-thrombocytopenia
#5
Muhammad Hafeez, Tariq Sarfraz, Raja Ghayas Khan, Abdul Rafe, Ghulam Rasool, Kamran Nazir Ahmed
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) typically causes chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is associated with a variety of extrahepatic complications. We herein, present a rare extrahepatic complication of HBV infection. A 32-year man presented with melena, bleeding from gums and fever. Peripheral blood examination revealed anemia, macrocytosis and severe thrombocytopenia. His hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was positive but deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV DNA) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was negative...
December 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007679/ten-year-analysis-of-hepatitis-related-papers-in-the-middle-east-a-web-of-science-based-scientometric-study
#6
Mohammad Saeid Rezaee Zavareh, Seyed Moayed Alavian
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In the Middle East (ME), the proper understanding of hepatitis, especially viral hepatitis, is considered to be extremely important. However, no published paper has investigated the status of hepatitis-related research in the ME. A scientometric analysis based on the Web of Science database was conducted on hepatitis-related papers in the ME to determine the current status of research on this topic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A scientometric analysis using the Web of Science database, specifically articles from the Expanded Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index, was conducted on work published between 2005 and 2014 using the keyword "hepatitis" in conjunction with the names of countries in the ME...
December 23, 2016: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004405/expert-clinical-management-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-in-the-real-world
#7
R Liberal, Y S de Boer, R J Andrade, G Bouma, G N Dalekos, A Floreani, D Gleeson, G M Hirschfield, P Invernizzi, M Lenzi, A W Lohse, G Macedo, P Milkiewicz, B Terziroli, B van Hoek, J M Vierling, M A Heneghan
BACKGROUND: High-quality data on the management of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) are scarce. Despite published guidelines, management of AIH is still expert based rather than evidence based. AIM: To survey expert hepatologists, asking each to describe their practices in the management of patients with AIH. METHODS: A survey questionnaire was distributed to members of the International AIH Group. The questionnaire consisted of four clinical scenarios on different presentations of AIH...
December 22, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996360/liver-transplantation-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-young-adults-a-united-network-for-organ-sharing-study
#8
Stefanie M Thomas, Diana Moke, Rocio Lopez, Rabi Hanna, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Naim Alkhouri
PURPOSE: Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is curative for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is typically a disease of older adults (OAs); therefore, characteristics and outcomes of OLT for young adults (YAs) (ages 18-40) are not described. The objective of this study was to assess the characteristics and outcomes of YAs with HCC receiving OLT and compare these to OAs (ages >40 years). METHODS: YAs with HCC who had OLT from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database were included in this study...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995906/acg-clinical-guideline-evaluation-of-abnormal-liver-chemistries
#9
Paul Y Kwo, Stanley M Cohen, Joseph K Lim
Clinicians are required to assess abnormal liver chemistries on a daily basis. The most common liver chemistries ordered are serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. These tests should be termed liver chemistries or liver tests. Hepatocellular injury is defined as disproportionate elevation of AST and ALT levels compared with alkaline phosphatase levels. Cholestatic injury is defined as disproportionate elevation of alkaline phosphatase level as compared with AST and ALT levels...
January 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990496/lupus-like-immune-complex-mediated-glomerulonephritis-in-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-treated-with-oral-interferon-free-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy
#10
Meghan E Sise, Jessica Wisocky, Ivy A Rosales, Donald Chute, Jacinta A Holmes, Kristin M Corapi, Jodie L Babitt, Jessica S Tangren, Nikroo Hashemi, Andrew L Lundquist, Winfred W Williams, David B Mount, Karin L Andersson, Helmut G Rennke, R Neal Smith, Robert Colvin, Ravi I Thadhani, Raymond T Chung
Novel, all-oral interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents have revolutionized the management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by producing exceptional cure rates with minimal adverse events. While provocation or exacerbation of autoimmunity has been reported in HCV-infected patients receiving interferon, this phenomenon has not been reported in patients receiving interferon-free HCV therapy. We report the occurrence of three cases of lupus-like immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis occurring shortly after exposure to sofosbuvir-based direct-acting antiviral therapies...
September 2016: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957759/systematic-review-recurrent-autoimmune-liver-diseases-after-liver-transplantation
#11
REVIEW
A J Montano-Loza, R A Bhanji, S Wasilenko, A L Mason
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune liver diseases (AILD) constitute the third most common indication for liver transplantation (LT) worldwide. Outcomes post LT are generally good but recurrent disease is frequently observed. AIMS: To describe the frequency and risk factors associated with recurrent AILD post-LT and provide recommendations to reduce the incidence of recurrence based on levels of evidence. METHODS: A systematic review was performed for full-text papers published in English-language journals, using the keywords 'autoimmune hepatitis (AIH)', 'primary biliary cholangitis and/or cirrhosis (PBC)', 'primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)', 'liver transplantation' and 'recurrent disease'...
December 12, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931107/a-diffusely-enlarged-pancreas-the-un-usual-suspect
#12
Pedro Magalhães-Costa, Maria José Brito, Pedro Pinto-Marques
An 81-years-old female presented with obstructive jaundice and a non-specific clinical picture of nausea and appetite loss. Labs demonstrated a conjugated hyperbilirrubinemia (7.7 mg/dL), increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (10xULN and 8xULN, respectively), increased lactate dehydrogenase (10xULN) and serum lipase (3xULN). CA 19.9 was 342 U/mL (Ref value < 37 U/mL). There was no evidence of peripheral lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. Imaging (Figure 1A and 1B) revealed a marked homogeneous enlargement of the pancreas (without any well-defined mass), dilation of the extra and intra-hepatic bile ducts and ascites...
December 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930871/hepatitis-b-virus-infection-status-is-more-prevalent-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
Jun Lu, Xuhong Hou, Hong Tu, Zhenghao Tang, Yongbing Xiang, Yuqian Bao, Jianren Gu, Weiping Jia
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: It has not been reported whether chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB) is associated with a specific type of diabetes. We sought to investigate the prevalence of CHB status in different diabetes subtypes among Chinese population MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. 381 cases with adult-onset autoimmune diabetes,1365 patients with type 2 diabetes, and 1365 non-diabetic controls were recruited from Jun 2005 to Feb 2014.The exclusion criteria included: (1) HCV-antibody positive, (2) hepatic cirrhosis, (3) malignant neoplasm and severe renal dysfunction (serum creatinine > 450 umol/L)...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930572/acute-onset-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy-in-hantavirus-and-hepatitis-b-virus-coinfection-a-case-report
#14
Jong Youb Lim, Young-Ho Lim, Eun-Hi Choi
INTRODUCTION: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired autoimmune disorder with progressive weakness. Acute-onset CIDP resembles Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), a rapidly progressive disorder, and follows a chronic course. To our knowledge, no case of acute-onset CIDP in hantavirus and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection has been reported previously. CLINICAL FINDINGS: We report a case of acute-onset CIDP that was initially diagnosed as GBS...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893674/relapsing-remitting-lesions-in-a-woman-with-progressive-hemifacial-atrophy-and-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-a-case-report
#15
Ying Zhang, Mingqin Zhu, Xiaozhen Li, Jing Miao, Chenchen Duan, Li Cui, Xuefan Yu
INTRODUCTION: Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA) is a rare disorder characterized by unilateral facial atrophy affecting the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and fat, muscle, and osteocartilagenous structures creating a sunken hemiface appearance.Etiopathogenesis of PHA is poorly understood; no definitive treatment is currently available. CLINICAL FINDINGS: We report a 41-year-old woman with PHA who showed an uncharacteristic "relapsing-remitting" evolution of brain lesions and was seropositive for hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890169/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-rheumatic-diseases-the-impact-of-direct-acting-antiviral-agents
#16
REVIEW
Patrice Cacoub, Cloé Commarmond, David Sadoun, Anne Claire Desbois
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with liver and extrahepatic complications, including B-cell lymphoma, cardiovascular and kidney diseases, glucose metabolism impairment and rheumatic conditions ie, arthralgia, myalgia, cryoglobulinemia vasculitis, sicca syndrome and the production of autoantibodies. The treatment has long been based on interferon alpha (IFN) that was found poorly effective, and contraindicated in many autoimmune/inflammatory disorders because of possible exacerbation of rheumatic disorders...
February 2017: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777888/ursodeoxycholic-acid-in-treatment-of-non-cholestatic-liver-diseases-a-systematic-review
#17
Jillian Reardon, Trana Hussaini, Majid Alsahafi, Vladimir Marquez Azalgara, Siegfried R Erb, Nilufar Partovi, Eric M Yoshida
Aims: To systematically evaluate the literature for evidence to support the use of bile acids in non-cholestatic liver conditions. Methods: Searches were conducted on the databases of Medline (1948-March 31, 2015), Embase (1980-March 31, 2015) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and on Google and Google Scholar to identify articles describing ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its derivatives for non-cholestatic hepatic indications. Combinations of the following search terms were used: ursodeoxycholic acid, ursodiol, bile acids and/or salts, non alcoholic fatty liver, non alcoholic steatohepatitis, fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcohol, liver disease, autoimmune, autoimmune hepatitis, liver transplant, liver graft, transplant rejection, graft rejection, ischemic reperfusion injury, reperfusion injury, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, viral hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, transaminases, alanine transaminase, liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759901/human-leucocyte-antigens-b-08-drb1-03-and-drb1-13-are-significantly-associated-with-autoimmune-liver-and-biliary-diseases-in-finnish-children
#18
E Ylinen, L Salmela, J Peräsaari, T Jaatinen, A Tenca, O Vapalahti, M Färkkilä, H Jalanko, K-L Kolho
AIM: The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) allele and haplotype frequencies of the Finnish population are unique because of the restricted and homogenous gene population. There are no published data on HLA genotype associations in paediatric autoimmune liver diseases in Scandinavia. This study characterised the HLA genotypes of children with autoimmune liver or biliary disease in Finland. METHODS: The study cohort comprised 19 paediatric patients (13 female) aged three years to 15 years treated for autoimmune liver or biliary disease at the Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital, between 2000 and 2011, and followed up for four years and three months to 14...
October 19, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749626/acute-liver-failure-outcome-and-value-of-pediatric-end-stage-liver-disease-score-in-pediatric-cases
#19
Raquel Núñez-Ramos, Soledad Montoro, Marcello Bellusci, María Rosa Del Fresno-Valencia, Marta Germán-Díaz, Pedro Urruzuno, Enrique Medina, Javier Manzanares
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to analyze the characteristics of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) in our center and evaluate the prognostic value of the Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease (PELD) score calculated at admission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with ALF younger than 15 years between 2005 and 2013 was performed. Information collected included age, sex, etiology of ALF, laboratory tests, PELD score, stage of encephalopathy, and need for liver support devices such as MARS and/or liver transplant (LT) and survival...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746620/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-what-is-in-a-definition
#20
REVIEW
Anil C Anand, Radha K Dhiman
Acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a recently recognized syndrome and its definition has been evolving over last two decades. Currently, there is no universal consensus about the definition as kind of cases being seen in the Western world appear to be somewhat different from those that are seen in Asia Pacific region. But every one agrees that definition of ACLF should include following components. (a) The status of pre-existing liver disease, (b) defining the acute insult that leads to rapid deterioration of liver status, (c) time frame during which the acute insult can lead to rapid deterioration, (d) the quantification and definition of liver failure status after deterioration, which will determine the severity of ACLF, and (e) prediction of prognosis after analyzing first four components in the short and long terms...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
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