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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223722/to-screen-or-not-to-screen-celiac-antibodies-in-liver-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Janaína Luz Narciso-Schiavon, Leonardo Lucca Schiavon
Celiac disease (CD) is a systemic immune-mediated disorder triggered by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. The typical symptoms are anemia, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and abdominal pain. CD has been reported in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis, aminotransferase elevations, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis. We evaluate recommendations for active screening for CD in patients with liver diseases, and the effect of a gluten-free diet in these different settings...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217252/primary-mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-of-the-liver-a-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Ifeyinwa E Obiorah, Lynt Johnson, Metin Ozdemirli
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the liver is a very rare condition and thus the diagnosis may be challenging. The clinical presentation is usually variable, ranging from minimal clinical symptoms to severe end stage liver disease. In this paper, we describe the clinicopathologic findings in two cases of primary hepatic MALT lymphoma. One case is an 80-year-old female with no underlying chronic liver disease and the second case is a 30-year-old female with autoimmune hepatitis complicated by MALT lymphoma...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215616/incidence-and-determinants-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-autoimmune-hepatitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Aylin Tansel, Lior H Katz, Hashem B El-Serag, Aaron P Thrift, Mayur Parepally, Mohammad H Shakhatreh, Fasiha Kanwal
BACKGROUND: The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the incidence of HCC and associated risk factors among patients with AIH. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and reference lists from relevant articles through June 2016 to identify cohort studies that examined the incidence of HCC in patients with AIH. We used random effects models to estimate pooled incidence rates overall and in subgroup of patients with cirrhosis...
February 12, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197333/a-case-of-primary-biliary-cirrhosis-mimicking-acute-hepatitis-b-in-the-clinic-republic-of-korea
#4
Woo Hyuk Kwon, Hong Min Park, Jeong Jun Park, Sung Hoon Lee, Yong Kyu Lee
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a slowly progressive cholestatic autoimmune liver disease characterized by progressive bile duct injury. The most common symptoms of this disease include fatigue and pruritus. The diagnosis of PBC is based on cholestatic biochemical liver tests, presence of antimitochondrial antibodies, and characteristic histological biopsy findings. We report a case of a patient with PBS, who was initially suspected to be in the window period of hepatitis B by a private doctor in a local clinic based on the detection of isolated immunoglobulin M antibody against hepatitis B core antigen...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184367/novel-immunotherapies-for-autoimmune-hepatitis
#5
REVIEW
Shamir Cassim, Marc Bilodeau, Catherine Vincent, Pascal Lapierre
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by a loss of immunological tolerance against liver autoantigens resulting in the progressive destruction of the hepatic parenchyma. Current treatments are based on non-specific immunosuppressive drugs. Although tremendous progress has been made using specific biological agents in other inflammatory diseases, progress has been slow to come for AIH patients. While current treatments are successful in the majority of patients, treatment discontinuation is difficult to achieve, and relapses are frequent...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154539/temporal-association-of-certain-neuropsychiatric-disorders-following-vaccination-of-children-and-adolescents-a-pilot-case-control-study
#6
Douglas L Leslie, Robert A Kobre, Brian J Richmand, Selin Aktan Guloksuz, James F Leckman
BACKGROUND: Although the association of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine with autism spectrum disorder has been convincingly disproven, the onset of certain brain-related autoimmune and inflammatory disorders has been found to be temporally associated with the antecedent administration of various vaccines. This study examines whether antecedent vaccinations are associated with increased incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anorexia nervosa (AN), anxiety disorder, chronic tic disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder in a national sample of privately insured children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144390/predictors-for-advanced-fibrosis-in-morbidly-obese-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-patients
#7
Shira Zelber-Sagi, Dafna Shoham, Isabel Zvibel, Subhi Abu-Abeid, Oren Shibolet, Sigal Fishman
AIM: To investigate predictors for fibrosis specifically in a high risk population of morbidly obese patients, including detailed evaluation of lifestyle. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among morbidly obese patients attending the bariatric clinic at the Tel-Aviv Medical Center between the years 2013-2014 with body mass index (BMI) above 40 or above 35 with co-morbidity. Patients with serum hepatitis B surface antigen or anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies, genetic liver diseases, autoimmune disease or high alcohol intake (≥ 30 g/d in men or ≥ 20 g/d in women) were excluded from the study...
January 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115651/trichloroethylene-exposure-reduces-liver-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#8
Jessica L Ray, Anna K Kopec, Nikita Joshi, Holly Cline-Fedewa, Lawrence H Lash, Kurt J Williams, Patrick S Leung, M Eric Gershwin, James P Luyendyk
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a persistent environmental contaminant proposed to contribute to autoimmune disease. Experimental studies in lupus-prone MRL(+/+) mice have suggested that TCE exposure can trigger autoimmune hepatitis. The vast majority of studies examining the connection between TCE and autoimmunity utilize this model, and the impact of TCE exposure in other established models of autoimmune liver disease is not known. We tested the hypothesis that TCE exposure exacerbates experimental hepatic autoimmunity in dominant negative transforming growth factor beta receptor type II (dnTGFBRII) mice, which develop serological and histological features resembling human primary biliary cholangitis...
January 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097735/autoimmune-enteropathy-and-hepatitis-in-pediatric-heart-transplant-recipient
#9
Kimberly Lewis, Ryan Butts, J Antonio Quiros, Michelle Hudspeth, Katherine Twombley, Andrew Savage, Sally Self, Ali Burnette, Shaoli Sun
AIE is a rare disorder in children that presents with severe diarrhea and malabsorption, caused by immune-mediated damage to intestinal mucosa. AIE is often associated with various syndromes of immunodeficiency including IPEX syndrome (immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy and enteropathy, X-linked). Dysfunctional T regulatory cells are the source of pathology in both IPEX syndrome and AIE as they are essential in maintaining tolerance to self-antigens and eliminating autoreactive B cells. This case report describes a 10-year-old cardiac transplant and total thymectomy patient on chronic immunosuppression with tacrolimus that presented with AIE and extraintestinal manifestations of cyclical hepatitis...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078847/real-time-shear-wave-elastrography-and-apri-index-for-evaluating-autoimmune-hepatitis-fibrosis
#10
L L Sun, G Dong, B Wang, Q Zheng, S Wang, R F Zhang
The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of real-time supersonic shear imaging (SSI) and serum biochemical index in evaluating the degree of autoimmune hepatitis fibrosis. Retrospective analysis was carried out to study 291 cases of patients with autoimmune hepatitis, and discuss the value of SSI application, APRI index and bilirubin on autoimmune hepatitis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was taken for statistical analysis to determine its diagnostic accuracy...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051792/management-strategies-for-liver-fibrosis
#11
Alejandra Altamirano-Barrera, Beatriz Barranco-Fragoso, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
Liver fibrosis resulting from chronic liver injury are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Among causes of hepatic fibrosis, viral infection is most common (hepatitis B and C). In addition, obesity rates worldwide have accelerated the risk of liver injury due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Also liver fibrosis is associated with the consumption of alcohol, or autoimmune hepatitis and chronic cholangiophaties. The response of hepatocytes to inflammation plays a decisive role in the physiopathology of hepatic fibrosis, which involves the recruitment of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cells such as monocytes and macrophages...
January 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049044/lymphocytes-contribute-to-biliary-injury-and-fibrosis-in-experimental-xenobiotic-induced-cholestasis
#12
Nikita Joshi, Anna K Kopec, Holly Cline-Fedewa, James P Luyendyk
The etiology of chronic bile duct injury and fibrosis in patients with autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases is complex, and likely involves immune cells such as lymphocytes. However, most models of biliary fibrosis are not autoimmune in nature. Biliary fibrosis can be induced experimentally by prolonged exposure of mice to the bile duct toxicant alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT). We determined whether lymphocytes contributed to ANIT-mediated biliary hyperplasia and fibrosis in mice. Hepatic accumulation of T-lymphocytes and increased serum levels of anti-nuclear-autoantibodies were evident in wild-type mice exposed to ANIT (0...
December 31, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043314/hepatitis-b-leading-to-megaloblastic-anemia-and-catastrophic-peripheral-thrombocytopenia
#13
Muhammad Hafeez, Tariq Sarfraz, Raja Ghayas Khan, Abdul Rafe, Ghulam Rasool, Kamran Nazir Ahmed
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) typically causes chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is associated with a variety of extrahepatic complications. We herein, present a rare extrahepatic complication of HBV infection. A 32-year man presented with melena, bleeding from gums and fever. Peripheral blood examination revealed anemia, macrocytosis and severe thrombocytopenia. His hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was positive but deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV DNA) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was negative...
December 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007679/ten-year-analysis-of-hepatitis-related-papers-in-the-middle-east-a-web-of-science-based-scientometric-study
#14
Mohammad Saeid Rezaee Zavareh, Seyed Moayed Alavian
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In the Middle East (ME), the proper understanding of hepatitis, especially viral hepatitis, is considered to be extremely important. However, no published paper has investigated the status of hepatitis-related research in the ME. A scientometric analysis based on the Web of Science database was conducted on hepatitis-related papers in the ME to determine the current status of research on this topic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A scientometric analysis using the Web of Science database, specifically articles from the Expanded Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index, was conducted on work published between 2005 and 2014 using the keyword "hepatitis" in conjunction with the names of countries in the ME...
January 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004405/expert-clinical-management-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-in-the-real-world
#15
R Liberal, Y S de Boer, R J Andrade, G Bouma, G N Dalekos, A Floreani, D Gleeson, G M Hirschfield, P Invernizzi, M Lenzi, A W Lohse, G Macedo, P Milkiewicz, B Terziroli, B van Hoek, J M Vierling, M A Heneghan
BACKGROUND: High-quality data on the management of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) are scarce. Despite published guidelines, management of AIH is still expert based rather than evidence based. AIM: To survey expert hepatologists, asking each to describe their practices in the management of patients with AIH. METHODS: A survey questionnaire was distributed to members of the International AIH Group. The questionnaire consisted of four clinical scenarios on different presentations of AIH...
December 22, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996360/liver-transplantation-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-young-adults-a-united-network-for-organ-sharing-study
#16
Stefanie M Thomas, Diana Moke, Rocio Lopez, Rabi Hanna, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Naim Alkhouri
PURPOSE: Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is curative for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is typically a disease of older adults (OAs); therefore, characteristics and outcomes of OLT for young adults (YAs) (ages 18-40) are not described. The objective of this study was to assess the characteristics and outcomes of YAs with HCC receiving OLT and compare these to OAs (ages >40 years). METHODS: YAs with HCC who had OLT from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database were included in this study...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995906/acg-clinical-guideline-evaluation-of-abnormal-liver-chemistries
#17
Paul Y Kwo, Stanley M Cohen, Joseph K Lim
Clinicians are required to assess abnormal liver chemistries on a daily basis. The most common liver chemistries ordered are serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. These tests should be termed liver chemistries or liver tests. Hepatocellular injury is defined as disproportionate elevation of AST and ALT levels compared with alkaline phosphatase levels. Cholestatic injury is defined as disproportionate elevation of alkaline phosphatase level as compared with AST and ALT levels...
January 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990496/lupus-like-immune-complex-mediated-glomerulonephritis-in-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-treated-with-oral-interferon-free-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy
#18
Meghan E Sise, Jessica Wisocky, Ivy A Rosales, Donald Chute, Jacinta A Holmes, Kristin M Corapi, Jodie L Babitt, Jessica S Tangren, Nikroo Hashemi, Andrew L Lundquist, Winfred W Williams, David B Mount, Karin L Andersson, Helmut G Rennke, R Neal Smith, Robert Colvin, Ravi I Thadhani, Raymond T Chung
Novel, all-oral interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents have revolutionized the management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by producing exceptional cure rates with minimal adverse events. While provocation or exacerbation of autoimmunity has been reported in HCV-infected patients receiving interferon, this phenomenon has not been reported in patients receiving interferon-free HCV therapy. We report the occurrence of three cases of lupus-like immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis occurring shortly after exposure to sofosbuvir-based direct-acting antiviral therapies...
September 2016: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957759/systematic-review-recurrent-autoimmune-liver-diseases-after-liver-transplantation
#19
REVIEW
A J Montano-Loza, R A Bhanji, S Wasilenko, A L Mason
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune liver diseases (AILD) constitute the third most common indication for liver transplantation (LT) worldwide. Outcomes post LT are generally good but recurrent disease is frequently observed. AIMS: To describe the frequency and risk factors associated with recurrent AILD post-LT and provide recommendations to reduce the incidence of recurrence based on levels of evidence. METHODS: A systematic review was performed for full-text papers published in English-language journals, using the keywords 'autoimmune hepatitis (AIH)', 'primary biliary cholangitis and/or cirrhosis (PBC)', 'primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)', 'liver transplantation' and 'recurrent disease'...
December 12, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931107/a-diffusely-enlarged-pancreas-the-un-usual-suspect
#20
Pedro Magalhães-Costa, Maria José Brito, Pedro Pinto-Marques
An 81-years-old female presented with obstructive jaundice and a non-specific clinical picture of nausea and appetite loss. Labs demonstrated a conjugated hyperbilirrubinemia (7.7 mg/dL), increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (10xULN and 8xULN, respectively), increased lactate dehydrogenase (10xULN) and serum lipase (3xULN). CA 19.9 was 342 U/mL (Ref value < 37 U/mL). There was no evidence of peripheral lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. Imaging (Figure 1A and 1B) revealed a marked homogeneous enlargement of the pancreas (without any well-defined mass), dilation of the extra and intra-hepatic bile ducts and ascites...
December 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
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