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Induced hibernation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933172/-development-of-views-on-pathophysiology-of-sepsis
#1
Jiří Beneš
Sepsis was understood as a disease caused by an invasive bacterial infection associated with deluging of organism with bacterial toxins (blood poisoning). Schottmüllers definition emphasized the existence of a focus as the source of invading bacteria. Further research led to the discovery of the cytokine cascade and to the recognition that sepsis is induced by our own endogenous mediators. The dysfunction or failure of various organs in sepsis can be explained both by hemodynamic disorders which originate in the altered microcapillars but also by a complex transformation of metabolism...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835844/polar-bears-experience-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-in-response-to-food-deprivation-and-reduced-activity-in-winter-and-summer
#2
John P Whiteman, Henry J Harlow, George M Durner, Eric V Regehr, Bryan C Rourke, Manuel Robles, Steven C Amstrup, Merav Ben-David
When reducing activity and using stored energy during seasonal food shortages, animals risk degradation of skeletal muscles, although some species avoid or minimize the resulting atrophy while experiencing these conditions during hibernation. Polar bears may be food deprived and relatively inactive during winter (when pregnant females hibernate and hunting success declines for other demographic groups) as well as summer (when sea ice retreats from key foraging habitats). We investigated muscle atrophy in samples of biceps femoris collected from free-ranging polar bears in the Southern Beaufort Sea (SBS) throughout their annual cycle...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780752/regulation-of-smad-mediated-microrna-transcriptional-response-in-ground-squirrels-during-hibernation
#3
Cheng-Wei Wu, Kenneth B Storey
Mammalian hibernation is a state of dormancy that is used by some animals to survive through the unfavorable conditions of winter, and is characterized by coordinated suppression of basal metabolism that is supported by global inhibition of energy/ATP-consuming processes. In this study, we examine the regulation of the anti-proliferatory TGF-β/Smad transcription factor signaling pathway in the liver tissue of the hibernating 13-lined ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus. The TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is known to mediate cell cycle arrest through induction of cell cycle dependent kinase inhibitors, and more recently, has been shown to regulate a wide range of cellular processes via its control of microRNA biosynthesis...
August 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757213/oxidative-stress-parameters-in-two-pelophylax-esculentus-complex-frogs-during-pre-and-post-hibernation-arousal-vs-heavy-metals
#4
Marko D Prokić, Slavica S Borković-Mitić, Imre I Krizmanić, Jelena J Mutić, Jelena P Gavrić, Svetlana G Despotović, Branka R Gavrilović, Tijana B Radovanović, Slađan Z Pavlović, Zorica S Saičić
In spring, frogs from temperate regions are faced with arousal-induced oxidative stress and exposure to various xenobiotics from the environment. The question is whether pollutants can significantly modify the antioxidative defense system (AOS) response of hibernators during recovery from hibernation. If this assumption is true, we would then expect different patterns of seasonal variations in the AOS between individuals exposed to different levels of pollution. To examine this assumption, we determined the relationship between seasonal variations of accumulated metals and AOS parameters in the skin and muscle of two frog species from the Pelophylax esculentus complex (P...
July 27, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747071/a-hibernation-like-state-for-transplantable-organs-is-h-sub-2-sub-s-therapy-the-future-of-organ-preservation
#5
George Dugbartey, Hjalmar Bouma, Manujendra N Saha, Ian Lobb, Robert H Henning, Alp Sener
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, during which renal grafts from deceased donors are routinely cold stored to suppress metabolic demand and thereby limit ischemic injury. However, prolonged cold storage followed by reperfusion induces extensive tissue damage termed cold ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and puts the graft at risk of both early and late rejection. The underlying mechanism of IRI is not completely understood and a reliable/ suitable method to protect the renal graft against cold IRI is lacking...
July 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746349/new-insights-on-the-regulation-of-the-adenine-nucleotide-pool-of-erythrocytes-in-mouse-models
#6
William G O'Brien, Han Shawn Ling, Zhaoyang Zhao, Cheng Chi Lee
The observation that induced torpor in non-hibernating mammals could result from an increased AMP concentration in circulation led our investigation to reveal that the added AMP altered oxygen transport of erythrocytes. To further study the effect of AMP in regulation of erythrocyte function and systemic metabolism, we generated mouse models deficient in key erythrocyte enzymes in AMP metabolism. We have previously reported altered erythrocyte adenine nucleotide levels corresponding to altered oxygen saturation in mice deficient in both CD73 and AMPD3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715992/the-hibernator-microbiome-host-bacterial-interactions-in-an-extreme-nutritional-symbiosis
#7
Hannah V Carey, Fariba M Assadi-Porter
Animals that undergo seasonal cycles of feeding and fasting have adaptations that maintain integrity of organ systems when dietary nutrients are lacking. Food deprivation also challenges the gut microbiota, which relies heavily on host diet for metabolic substrates and the gastrointestinal tract, which is influenced by enteral nutrients and microbial activity. Winter fasting in hibernators shifts the microbiota to favor taxa with the capacity to degrade and utilize host-derived substrates and disfavor taxa that prefer complex plant polysaccharides...
August 21, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673590/parkinson-s-disease-the-hibernating-spore-hypothesis
#8
Ketil Berstad, Johanna E R Berstad
The authors support the hypothesis that a causative agent in Parkinson's disease (PD) might be either fungus or bacteria with fungus-like properties - Actinobacteria, and that their spores may serve as 'infectious agents'. Updated research and the epidemiology of PD suggest that the disease might be induced by environmental factor(s), possibly with genetic susceptibility, and that α-synuclein probably should be regarded as part of the body's own defense mechanism. To explain the dual-hit theory with stage 1 involvement of the olfactory structures and the 'gut-brain'-axis, the environmental factor is probably airborne and quite 'robust' entering the body via the nose/mouth, then to be swallowed reaching the enteric nervous system with retained pathogenicity...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652388/optimization-of-thermolytic-response-to-a1-adenosine-receptor-agonists-in-rats
#9
Isaac R Bailey, Bernard Laughlin, Lucille A Moore, Lori K Bogren, Zeinab Barati, Kelly L Drew
Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death in the United States, and, currently, therapeutic hypothermia, now called targeted temperature management (TTM), is the only recent treatment modality proven to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity for this condition. Shivering and subsequent metabolic stress, however, limit application and benefit of TTM. Stimulating central nervous system A1 adenosine receptors (A1AR) inhibits shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis in rats and induces a hibernation-like response in hibernating species...
September 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645916/structures-and-dynamics-of-hibernating-ribosomes-from-staphylococcus-aureus-mediated-by-intermolecular-interactions-of-hpf
#10
Iskander Khusainov, Quentin Vicens, Rustam Ayupov, Konstantin Usachev, Alexander Myasnikov, Angelita Simonetti, Shamil Validov, Bruno Kieffer, Gulnara Yusupova, Marat Yusupov, Yaser Hashem
In bacteria, ribosomal hibernation shuts down translation as a response to stress, through reversible binding of stress-induced proteins to ribosomes. This process typically involves the formation of 100S ribosome dimers. Here, we present the structures of hibernating ribosomes from human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus containing a long variant of the hibernation-promoting factor (SaHPF) that we solved using cryo-electron microscopy. Our reconstructions reveal that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of SaHPF binds to the 30S subunit as observed for shorter variants of HPF in other species...
July 14, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525507/subcellular-energetics-and-metabolism-a-cross-species-framework
#11
REVIEW
Robert H Thiele
Although it is generally believed that oxidative phosphorylation and adequate oxygenation are essential for life, human development occurs in a profoundly hypoxic environment and "normal" levels of oxygen during embryogenesis are even harmful. The ability of embryos not only to survive but also to thrive in such an environment is made possible by adaptations related to metabolic pathways. Similarly, cancerous cells are able not only to survive but also to grow and spread in environments that would typically be fatal for healthy adult cells...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516343/therapeutic-dormancy-to-delay-postsurgical-glioma-recurrence-the-past-present-and-promise-of-focal-hypothermia
#12
REVIEW
Didier Wion
Surgery precedes both radiotherapy and chemotherapy as the first-line therapy for glioma. However, despite multimodal treatment, most glioma patients die from local recurrence in the resection margin. Glioma surgery is inherently lesional, and the response of brain tissue to surgery includes hemostasis, angiogenesis, reactive gliosis and inflammation. Unfortunately, these processes are also associated with tumorigenic side-effects. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that the response to a surgery-related brain injury is hijacked by residual glioma cells and participates in the local regeneration of tumor tissues at the resection margin...
July 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508339/induction-of-hibernation-like-hypothermia-by-central-activation-of-the-a1-adenosine-receptor-in-a-non-hibernator-the-rat
#13
Hiroki Shimaoka, Takayuki Kawaguchi, Kahori Morikawa, Yuuki Sano, Kiyotada Naitou, Hiroyuki Nakamori, Takahiko Shiina, Yasutake Shimizu
Central adenosine A1-receptor (A1AR)-mediated signals play a role in the induction of hibernation. We determined whether activation of the central A1AR enables rats to maintain normal sinus rhythm even after their body temperature has decreased to less than 20 °C. Intracerebroventricular injection of an adenosine A1 agonist, N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), followed by cooling decreased the body temperature of rats to less than 20 °C. Normal sinus rhythm was fundamentally maintained during the extreme hypothermia...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507191/lowering-metabolic-rate-mitigates-muscle-atrophy-in-western-fence-lizards
#14
J Balaban, E Azizi
Extended periods of skeletal muscle disuse can cause a significant loss of contractile proteins, which compromises the ability to generate force, mechanical work or power, thus compromising locomotor performance. Several hibernating organisms can resist muscle atrophy despite months of inactivity. This resistance has been attributed to a reduction in body temperature and metabolic rate and activation of physiological pathways that counteract pathways of protein degradation. However, in these systems such strategies are not mutually exclusive and the effects of these mechanisms can be difficult to separate...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424669/inferring-microbial-interactions-in-the-gut-of-the-hong-kong-whipping-frog-polypedates-megacephalus-and-a-validation-using-probiotics
#15
Francis Cheng-Hsuan Weng, Grace Tzun-Wen Shaw, Chieh-Yin Weng, Yi-Ju Yang, Daryi Wang
The concerted activity of intestinal microbes is crucial to the health and development of their host organisms. Investigation of microbial interactions in the gut should deepen our understanding of how these micro-ecosystems function. Due to advances in Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, various bioinformatic strategies have been proposed to investigate these microbial interactions. However, due to the complexity of the intestinal microbial community and difficulties in monitoring their interactions, at present there is a gap between the theory and biological application...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324158/the-influence-of-sex-and-diet-on-the-characteristics-of-hibernation-in-syrian-hamsters
#16
Marie Trefna, Maaike Goris, Cynthia M C Thissen, Vera A Reitsema, Jojanneke J Bruintjes, Edwin L de Vrij, Hjalmar R Bouma, Ate S Boerema, Robert H Henning
Research on deep hibernators almost exclusively uses species captured from the wild or from local breeding. An exception is Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), the only standard laboratory animal showing deep hibernation. In deep hibernators, several factors influence hibernation quality, including body mass, sex and diet. We examined hibernation quality in commercially obtained Syrian hamsters in relation to body mass, sex and a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Animals (M/F:30/30, 12 weeks of age) were obtained from Harlan (IN, USA) and individually housed at 21 °C and L:D 14:10 until 20 weeks of age, followed by L:D 8:16 until 27 weeks...
July 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322600/renal-mitochondrial-response-to-low-temperature-in-non-hibernating-and-hibernating-species
#17
George J Dugbartey, Maarten C Hardenberg, Wendelinde F Kok, Ate S Boerema, Hannah V Carey, James F Staples, Robert H Henning, Hjalmar R Bouma
SIGNIFICANCE: Therapeutic hypothermia is commonly applied to limit ischemic injury in organ transplantation, during cardiac and brain surgery and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In these procedures, the kidneys are particularly at risk for ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), likely due to their high rate of metabolism. Although hypothermia mitigates ischemic kidney injury, it is not a panacea. Residual mitochondrial failure is believed to be a key event triggering loss of cellular homeostasis, and potentially cell death...
April 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277320/subcellular-energetics-and-metabolism-potential-therapeutic-applications
#18
REVIEW
Robert H Thiele
Part I of this review discussed the similarities between embryogenesis, mammalian adaptions to hypoxia (primarily driven by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 [HIF-1]), ischemia-reperfusion injury (and its relationship with reactive oxygen species), hibernation, diving animals, cancer, and sepsis, and it focused on the common characteristics that allow cells and organisms to survive in these states. Part II of this review describes techniques by which researchers gain insight into subcellular energetics and identify potential future tools for clinicians...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270617/mechanisms-regulating-angiogenesis-underlie-seasonal-control-of-pituitary-function
#19
Jennifer Castle-Miller, David O Bates, Domingo J Tortonese
Seasonal changes in mammalian physiology, such as those affecting reproduction, hibernation, and metabolism, are controlled by pituitary hormones released in response to annual environmental changes. In temperate zones, the primary environmental cue driving seasonal reproductive cycles is the change in day length (i.e., photoperiod), encoded by the pattern of melatonin secretion from the pineal gland. However, although reproduction relies on hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone output, and most cells producing reproductive hormones are in the pars distalis (PD) of the pituitary, melatonin receptors are localized in the pars tuberalis (PT), a physically and functionally separate part of the gland...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270601/resuscitation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-from-dormancy-requires-hibernation-promoting-factor-pa4463-for-ribosome-preservation
#20
Tatsuya Akiyama, Kerry S Williamson, Robert Schaefer, Shawna Pratt, Connie B Chang, Michael J Franklin
Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections are difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy in part because the biofilms contain subpopulations of dormant antibiotic-tolerant cells. The dormant cells can repopulate the biofilms following alleviation of antibiotic treatments. While dormant, the bacteria must maintain cellular integrity, including ribosome abundance, to reinitiate the de novo protein synthesis required for resuscitation. Here, we demonstrate that the P. aeruginosa gene PA4463 [hibernation promoting factor (HPF)], but not the ribosome modulation factor (PA3049), is required for ribosomal RNA preservation during prolonged nutrient starvation conditions...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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