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Induced hibernation

Ajit R Bhagwat, Sachin M Mukhedkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Miroslav Flieger, Hana Bandouchova, Jan Cerny, Milada Chudíčková, Miroslav Kolarik, Veronika Kovacova, Natália Martínková, Petr Novák, Ondřej Šebesta, Eva Stodůlková, Jiri Pikula
Pathogenic and non-pathogenic related microorganisms differ in secondary metabolite production. Here we show that riboflavin overproduction by a fungal pathogen and its hyperaccumulation in affected host tissue exacerbates a skin infection to necrosis. In white-nose syndrome (WNS) skin lesions caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, maximum riboflavin concentrations reached up to 815 μg ml(-1), indicating bioaccumulation and lack of excretion. We found that high riboflavin concentrations are cytotoxic under conditions specific for hibernation, affect bats' primary fibroblasts and induce cell detachment, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, polymerization of cortical actin, and cell necrosis...
2016: Scientific Reports
Samantha M Logan, Kenneth B Storey
Mammalian hibernation is characterized by a general suppression of energy expensive processes and a switch to lipid oxidation as the primary fuel source. Glucose-responsive carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) has yet to be studied in hibernating organisms, which prepare for the cold winter months by feeding until they exhibit an obesity-like state that is accompanied by naturally-induced and completely reversible insulin resistance. Studying ChREBP expression and activity in the hibernating 13-lined ground squirrel is important to better understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate energy metabolism under cellular stress...
October 2016: Cryobiology
Yichi Zhang, Shannon N Tessier, Kenneth B Storey
Foxo4 and MyoG proteins regulate the transcription of numerous genes, including the E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFbx and MuRF1, which are activated in skeletal muscle under atrophy-inducing conditions. In the thirteen-lined ground squirrel, there is little muscle wasting that occurs during hibernation, a process characterized by bouts of torpor and arousal, despite virtual inactivity. Consequently, we were interested in studying the regulatory role of Foxo4 and MyoG on ubiquitin ligases throughout torpor-arousal cycles...
October 2016: Cryobiology
Luna Samanta, Biswaranjan Paital
Natural population of Bufo melanostictus in response to environmental cues shows several physiologic changes such as reproductive activity, hibernation, aestivation and metabolic depression in different seasons. We investigated the effects of seasonal fluctuations on oxidative stress (OS) physiology biomarkers, such as endogenous (ELPx) and induced (ILPx) lipid peroxidation, front-line redox regulatory enzymes (superoxide dismutase: SOD and catalase) and two non-enzyme antioxidant metabolites (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione) in liver, gonad and cerebral hemisphere of toads collected from the Bhubaneswar area of India, where temperature fluctuates considerably rising to the highest in summer (∼46 °C) and being lowest in winter (<10 °C)...
August 27, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jeffrey M Lorch, Jonathan M Palmer, Daniel L Lindner, Anne E Ballmann, Kyle G George, Kathryn Griffin, Susan Knowles, John R Huckabee, Katherine H Haman, Christopher D Anderson, Penny A Becker, Joseph B Buchanan, Jeffrey T Foster, David S Blehert
White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging fungal disease of bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Since it was first detected near Albany, NY, in 2006, the fungus has spread across eastern North America, killing unprecedented numbers of hibernating bats. The devastating impacts of WNS on Nearctic bat species are attributed to the likely introduction of P. destructans from Eurasia to naive host populations in eastern North America. Since 2006, the disease has spread in a gradual wavelike pattern consistent with introduction of the pathogen at a single location...
July 2016: MSphere
Kang Liang, Joseph J Richardson, Jiwei Cui, Frank Caruso, Christian J Doonan, Paolo Falcaro
The biomimetic mineralization of metal-organic framework (MOF) material on living cells is reported. ZIF-8 can be crystallized on a living cell surface as an exoskeleton that offers physical protection while allowing transport of essential nutrients, thus maintaining cell viability. The MOF shell prevents cell division, leading to an artificially induced pseudo-hibernation state. Cellular functions can be fully restored upon MOF removal.
September 2016: Advanced Materials
Yichi Zhang, Kenneth B Storey
Calcineurin is a calmodulin-stimulated phosphatase that regulates the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) c1-4 through dephosphorylation. We believe that this mechanism plays various roles in the remodeling and maintenance of Ictidomys tridecemlineatus skeletal muscle. During hibernation, bouts of torpor and arousal take place, and squirrels do not lose muscle mass despite being inactive. Protein expression of Ca(2+) signaling proteins were studied using immunoblotting. A DNA-protein interaction ELISA technique was created to test the binding of NFATs in the nucleus to DNA probes containing the NFAT response element under environmental conditions reflective of those during hibernation...
September 2016: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Domenico Tupone, Justin S Cetas, Shaun F Morrison
The positive outcome that hypothermia contributes to brain and cardiac protection following ischemia has stimulated research in the development of pharmacological approaches to induce a hypothermic/hypometabolic state. Pharmacological manipulation of central autonomic thermoregulatory circuits could represent a potential target for the induction of a hypothermic state. Here we present a brief description of the CNS thermoregulatory centers and how the manipulation of these circuits can be useful in the treatment of pathological conditions such as stroke or brain hemorrhage...
April 2016: Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi, Japanese Journal of Psychopharmacology
Srihari C Sampath, Srinath C Sampath, Miriam A Bredella, Aaron M Cypess, Martin Torriani
The rates of diabetes, obesity, and metabolic disease have reached epidemic proportions worldwide. In recent years there has been renewed interest in combating these diseases not only by modifying energy intake and lifestyle factors, but also by inducing endogenous energy expenditure. This approach has largely been stimulated by the recent recognition that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-long known to promote heat production and energy expenditure in infants and hibernating mammals-also exists in adult humans. This landmark finding relied on the use of clinical fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography, and imaging techniques continue to play a crucial and increasingly central role in understanding BAT physiology and function...
July 2016: Radiology
Weiwei Fu, Huanxin Hu, Kai Dang, Hui Chang, Bei Du, Xue Wu, Yunfang Gao
The underlying mechanisms that hibernators deviated from muscle atrophy during prolonged hibernating inactivity remain elusive. This study tested the hypothesis that the maintenance of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and inhibition of apoptosis would be responsible for preventing muscle atrophy in hibernating Daurian ground squirrels. The results showed that intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis was maintained in soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) in hibernation and post-hibernation, while cytosolic Ca(2+) was overloaded in gastrocnemius (GAS) in hibernation with a recovery in post-hibernation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Quintin J Quinones, Zhiquan Zhang, Qing Ma, Michael P Smith, Erik Soderblom, M Arthur Moseley, James Bain, Christopher B Newgard, Michael J Muehlbauer, Matthew Hirschey, Kelly L Drew, Brian M Barnes, Mihai V Podgoreanu
BACKGROUND: Hibernation is an adaptation to extreme environments known to provide organ protection against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. An unbiased systems approach was utilized to investigate hibernation-induced changes that are characteristic of the hibernator cardioprotective phenotype, by comparing the myocardial proteome of winter hibernating arctic ground squirrels (AGS), summer active AGS, and rats subjected to I/R, and further correlating with targeted metabolic changes...
June 2016: Anesthesiology
Niels Jessen, Thomas S Nielsen, Mikkel H Vendelbo, Rikke Viggers, Ole-Gunnar Støen, Alina Evans, Ole Frøbert
Prior to hibernation, the brown bear (Ursus arctos) exhibits unparalleled weight gain. Unlike humans, weight gain in bears is associated with lower levels of circulating free fatty acids (FFA) and increased insulin sensitivity. Understanding how free-ranging brown bears suppress lipolysis when gaining weight may therefore provide novel insight toward the development of human therapies. Blood and subcutaneous adipose tissue were collected from immobilized free-ranging brown bears (fitted with GPS-collars) during hibernation in winter and from the same bears during the active period in summer in Dalarna, Sweden...
April 2016: Physiological Reports
Taeko Nishiwaki-Ohkawa, Takashi Yoshimura
Animals that inhabit mid- to high-latitude regions exhibit various adaptive behaviors, such as migration, reproduction, molting and hibernation in response to seasonal cues. These adaptive behaviors are tightly regulated by seasonal changes in photoperiod, the relative day length vs night length. Recently, the regulatory pathway of seasonal reproduction has been elucidated using quail. In birds, deep brain photoreceptors receive and transmit light information to the pars tuberalis in the pituitary gland, which induces the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone...
June 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Stephen M Secor, Hannah V Carey
Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Massimo Slavich, Francesco Maranta, Andrea Fumero, Cosmo Godino, Francesco Giannini, Michele Oppizzi, Antonio Colombo, Gabriele Fragasso, Alberto Margonato
Refractory angina pectoris (RAP) represents a clinical condition characterized by frequent episodes of chest pain despite therapy optimization. According to myocardial stunning and myocardial hibernation definitions, RAP should represent the ideal condition for systolic dysfunction development. We aim to investigate the evolution of left ventricular (LV) function in patients with RAP. A retrospective study which encompasses 144 patients with RAP referred to our institution from 1999 to December 2014 was performed...
May 15, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Samantha M Logan, Bryan E Luu, Kenneth B Storey
During hibernation, the metabolic rate of thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) can drop to <5 % of normal resting rate at 37 °C, core body temperature can decrease to as low as 1-5 °C, and heart rate can fall from 350-400 to 5-10 bpm. Energy saved by hibernating allows squirrels to survive the winter when food is scarce, and living off lipid reserves in white adipose tissue (WAT) is crucial. While hibernating, some energy must be used to cope with conditions that would normally be damaging for mammals (e...
May 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Ornella Cuomo, Giuseppe Pignataro, Rossana Sirabella, Pasquale Molinaro, Serenella Anzilotti, Antonella Scorziello, Maria Josè Sisalli, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO), a ubiquitin-like protein involved in posttranslational protein modifications, is activated by several conditions, such as heat stress, hypoxia, and hibernation and confers neuroprotection. Sumoylation enzymes and substrates are expressed also at the plasma membrane level. Among the numerous plasma membrane proteins controlling ionic homeostasis during cerebral ischemia, 1 of the 3 brain sodium/calcium exchangers (NCX3), exerts a protective role during ischemic preconditioning...
April 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Brian Forreider, David Pozivilko, Qingwen Kawaji, Xiaokun Geng, Yuchuan Ding
Many mammalian species naturally undergo hibernation, a process that is associated with drastic changes in metabolism and systemic physiology. Their ability to retain an undamaged central nervous system during severely reduced cerebral blood flow has been studied for possible therapeutic application in human ischemic stroke. By inducing a less extreme 'hibernation-like' state, it has been hypothesized that similar neuroprotective effects reduce ischemia-mediated tissue damage in stroke patients. This manuscript includes reviews and evaluations of: (1) true hibernation, (2) hibernation-like state and its neuroprotective characteristics, (3) the preclinical and clinical methods for induction of artificial hibernation (i...
March 7, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
Vidula T Vachharajani, Tiefu Liu, Xianfeng Wang, Jason J Hoth, Barbara K Yoza, Charles E McCall
Sirtuins (SIRT), first discovered in yeast as NAD+ dependent epigenetic and metabolic regulators, have comparable activities in human physiology and disease. Mounting evidence supports that the seven-member mammalian sirtuin family (SIRT1-7) guard homeostasis by sensing bioenergy needs and responding by making alterations in the cell nutrients. Sirtuins play a critical role in restoring homeostasis during stress responses. Inflammation is designed to "defend and mend" against the invading organisms. Emerging evidence supports that metabolism and bioenergy reprogramming direct the sequential course of inflammation; failure of homeostasis retrieval results in many chronic and acute inflammatory diseases...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
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