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Induced hibernation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769432/deacetylation-of-metabolic-enzymes-by-sirt2-modulates-pyruvate-homeostasis-to-extend-insect-lifespan
#1
Tao Wang, Shao-Lei Geng, Yu-Min Guan, Wei-Hua Xu
Diapause in insects is akin to dauer in Caenorhabditis elegans and hibernation in vertebrates. Diapause causes a profound extension of lifespan by low metabolic activity. However, the detailed regulatory mechanisms for low metabolic activity remain unknown. Here, we showed that low pyruvate levels are present in the brains of diapause-destined pupae of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera , and three enzymes pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) are closely correlated with pyruvate homeostasis...
May 16, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761850/unexpected-regulation-pattern-of-the-ikk%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-murf1-pathway-with-remarkable-muscle-plasticity-in-the-daurian-ground-squirrel-spermophilus-dauricus
#2
Yanhong Wei, Lingchen Gong, Weiwei Fu, Shenhui Xu, Zhe Wang, Jie Zhang, Er Ning, Hui Chang, Huiping Wang, Yunfang Gao
As a typical hibernator, the Daurian ground squirrel (Spermophilus dauricus) spends considerable time in a state of reduced activity with prolonged fasting. Despite this, they experience little muscle atrophy and have thus become an interesting anti-disuse muscle atrophy model. The IKKβ/NF-κB signaling pathway is significant to muscle atrophy due to the protein degradation resulting from the upregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase MuRF1. The current study showed that the IKKβ/NF-κB signaling pathway and MuRF1 maintained relatively steady mRNA and protein expression levels, with little muscle atrophy observed in the soleus (slow-twitch, SOL) or extensor digitorum longus (fast-twitch, EDL) during hibernation (HIB); however, mRNA expression significantly increased in the SOL and EDL muscle during interbout arousal (IBA), as did the MuRF1 mRNA level in the SOL and MuRF1 protein level in the EDL...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694958/current-mechanistic-concepts-in-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury
#3
Meng-Yu Wu, Giou-Teng Yiang, Wan-Ting Liao, Andy Po-Yi Tsai, Yeung-Leung Cheng, Pei-Wen Cheng, Chia-Ying Li, Chia-Jung Li
Ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with serious clinical manifestations, including myocardial hibernation, acute heart failure, cerebral dysfunction, gastrointestinal dysfunction, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a critical medical condition that poses an important therapeutic challenge for physicians. In this review article, we present recent advances focusing on the basic pathophysiology of ischemia-reperfusion injury, especially the involvement of reactive oxygen species and cell death pathways...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663031/urea-and-plasma-ice-nucleating-proteins-promoted-the-modest-freeze-tolerance-in-pleske-s-high-altitude-frog-nanorana-pleskei
#4
Yonggang Niu, Jianjun Wang, Shengkang Men, Yaofeng Zhao, Songsong Lu, Xiaolong Tang, Qiang Chen
The frog Nanorana pleskei (Dicroglossidae) is indigenous to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. To identify its strategies in coping with the cold climate, we measured the hibernacula microhabitat temperature during winter. We also examined the freezing-induced and seasonal variation of several putative cryoprotectants in the heart, liver, brain, kidney and muscle, as well as ice-nucleating protein in plasma. Our results showed that N. pleskei survived exposure to temperatures as low as - 2.5 ± 0.40 °C during hibernation, which was lower than the body fluid freezing point (- 0...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658941/surgical-swine-model-of-chronic-cardiac-ischemia-treated-by-off-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery
#5
Laura Hocum Stone, Christin Wright, Erin Chappuis, Mia Messer, Herbert B Ward, Edward O McFalls, Rosemary F Kelly
Chronic cardiac ischemia that impairs cardiac function, but does not result in infarct, is termed hibernating myocardium (HM). A large clinical subset of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients have HM, which in addition to causing impaired function, puts them at higher risk for arrhythmia and future cardiac events. The standard treatment for this condition is revascularization, but this has been shown to be an imperfect therapy. The majority of pre-clinical cardiac research focuses on infarct models of cardiac ischemia, leaving this subset of chronic ischemia patients largely underserved...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615761/proteolysis-inhibition-by-hibernating-bear-serum-leads-to-increased-protein-content-in-human-muscle-cells
#6
Stéphanie Chanon, Blandine Chazarin, Benoit Toubhans, Christine Durand, Isabelle Chery, Maud Robert, Aurélie Vieille-Marchiset, Jon E Swenson, Andreas Zedrosser, Alina L Evans, Sven Brunberg, Jon M Arnemo, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Kenneth B Storey, Chantal Simon, Stéphane Blanc, Fabrice Bertile, Etienne Lefai
Muscle atrophy is one of the main characteristics of human ageing and physical inactivity, with resulting adverse health outcomes. To date, there are still no efficient therapeutic strategies for its prevention and/or treatment. However, during hibernation, bears exhibit a unique ability for preserving muscle in conditions where muscle atrophy would be expected in humans. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether there are components of bear serum which can control protein balance in human muscles. In this study, we exposed cultured human differentiated muscle cells to bear serum collected during winter and summer periods, and measured the impact on cell protein content and turnover...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568150/limited-social-plasticity-in-the-socially-polymorphic-sweat-bee-lasioglossum-calceatum
#7
P J Davison, J Field
Abstract: Eusociality is characterised by a reproductive division of labour, where some individuals forgo direct reproduction to instead help raise kin. Socially polymorphic sweat bees are ideal models for addressing the mechanisms underlying the transition from solitary living to eusociality, because different individuals in the same species can express either eusocial or solitary behaviour. A key question is whether alternative social phenotypes represent environmentally induced plasticity or predominantly genetic differentiation between populations...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501789/a-lesson-from-the-oxidative-metabolism-of-hibernator-heart-possible-strategy-for-cardioprotection
#8
Ana Stancic, Aleksandra Jankovic, Aleksandra Korac, Dusko Cirovic, Vesna Otasevic, Kenneth B Storey, Bato Korac
In the present study we hypothesized that myocardial adaptive phenotype in mammalian hibernation involves rearrangement of mitochondria bioenergetic pathways providing protective pattern in states of reduced metabolism and low temperature. European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) were exposed to low temperature (4 ± 1 °C) and then divided into two groups: (1) animals that fell into torpor (hibernating group) and (2) animals that stayed active and euthermic for 1, 3, 7, 12, or 21 days (cold-exposed group)...
May 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497053/exogenous-hydrogen-sulfide-gas-does-not-induce-hypothermia-in-normoxic-mice
#9
Sebastiaan D Hemelrijk, Marcel C Dirkes, Marit H N van Velzen, Rick Bezemer, Thomas M van Gulik, Michal Heger
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S, 80 ppm) gas in an atmosphere of 17.5% oxygen reportedly induces suspended animation in mice; a state analogous to hibernation that entails hypothermia and hypometabolism. However, exogenous H2 S in combination with 17.5% oxygen is able to induce hypoxia, which in itself is a trigger of hypometabolism/hypothermia. Using non-invasive thermographic imaging, we demonstrated that mice exposed to hypoxia (5% oxygen) reduce their body temperature to ambient temperature. In contrast, animals exposed to 80 ppm H2 S under normoxic conditions did not exhibit a reduction in body temperature compared to normoxic controls...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490168/antioxidant-defense-and-protection-against-cardiac-arrhythmias-lessons-from-a-mammalian-hibernator-the-woodchuck
#10
Zhenghang Zhao, Raymond K Kudej, Hairuo Wen, Nadezhda Fefelova, Lin Yan, Dorothy E Vatner, Stephen F Vatner, Lai-Hua Xie
Hibernating animals show resistance to hypothermia-induced cardiac arrhythmias. However, it is not clear whether and how mammalian hibernators are resistant to ischemia-induced arrhythmias. The goal of this investigation was to determine the susceptibility of woodchucks ( Marmota monax) to arrhythmias and their mechanisms after coronary artery occlusion at the same room temperature in both winter, the time for hibernation, and summer, when they do not hibernate. By monitoring telemetric electrocardiograms, we found significantly higher arrhythmia scores, calculated as the severity of arrhythmias, with incidence of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and thus sudden cardiac death (SCD) in woodchucks in summer than they had in winter...
February 28, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480748/precise-control-of-target-temperature-using-n-6-cyclohexyladenosine-and-real-time-control-of-surface-temperature
#11
Bernard W Laughlin, Isaac R Bailey, Sarah A Rice, Zeinab Barati, Lori K Bogren, Kelly L Drew
Targeted temperature management is standard of care for cardiac arrest and is in clinical trials for stroke. N6 -cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), an A1 adenosine receptor agonist, inhibits thermogenesis and induces onset of hibernation in hibernating species. Despite promising thermolytic efficacy of CHA, prior work has failed to achieve and maintain a prescribed target core body temperature (Tb ) between 32°C and 34°C for 24 hours. We instrumented Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 19) with indwelling arterial and venous cannulae and a transmitter for monitoring Tb and ECG, then administered CHA via continuous IV infusion or intraperitoneal (IP) injection...
February 26, 2018: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454142/the-levels-of-oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-hibernating-nanorana-parkeri
#12
Yonggang Niu, Wangjie Cao, Yaofeng Zhao, Haotian Zhai, Yao Zhao, Xiaolong Tang, Qiang Chen
The effect of hibernation on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense was assessed in the frog Nanorana parkeri which inhabits the southern Tibetan Plateau. We compared the indices of oxidative stress (GSSG/GSH), the degree of oxidative damage (content of carbonyl proteins and lipid peroxide products) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx, GST and GR) in liver, brain, heart and muscle of N. parkeri sampled during summer and winter. Obtained results showed that hibernation induced a significant decrease in the level of GSH in heart, liver, and muscle, while the ratio of GSSG/GSH markedly increased in all tissues except for muscle...
May 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431591/the-role-of-cranial-temperature-in-neuroprotection-by-sodium-hydrogen-sulfide-after-cardiac-arrest-in-mice
#13
Shin Nakayama, Noriko Taguchi, Makoto Tanaka
The hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) is recognized as a neuroprotective agent, which induces a hibernation-like metabolic state and hypothermia. However, it remains unclear whether it is the sulfide itself or the hypothermia induced by the sulfide that mediates treatment outcomes following cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We therefore tested whether NaHS improved outcomes following CA/CPR in mice maintained at 35.0°C by active warming during recovery. Adult male mice were subjected to 8 minutes CA/CPR and randomly treated intraperitoneally with either implantation of miniosmotic pump with NaHS (50 μmol/kg/day) for 3 days or vehicle 30 minutes after CPR...
February 12, 2018: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429060/electrophysiological-differences-in-cholinergic-signaling-between-the-hearts-of-summer-and-winter-frogs-rana-temporaria
#14
Denis Abramochkin, Vladislav Kuzmin
The striking seasonal difference in sensitivity of frog cardiac muscle to acetylcholine or stimulation of parasympathetic nervous fibers has been noted almost a century ago, although its electrophysiological basis has never been revealed. The present study compares the effects of the muscarinic agonist carbamylcholine chloride (CCh 10-8 -10-5  M) on electrical activity in isolated atrial and ventricular preparations from dormant frogs (Rana temporaria) caught in January (winter-acclimatized, WA) and from active frogs caught in July (summer-acclimatized, SA)...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404822/effects-of-temperature-and-melatonin-on-day-night-expression-patterns-of-arginine-vasotocin-and-isotocin-mrna-in-the-diencephalon-of-a-temperate-wrasse-halichoeres-tenuispinis
#15
Selma Bouchekioua, Sung-Pyo Hur, Yuki Takeuchi, Young-Don Lee, Akihiro Takemura
Most wrasses are protogynous species that swim to feed, reproduce during the daytime, and bury themselves under the sandy bottom at night. In temperate and subtropical wrasses, low temperature influences emergence from the sandy bottom in the morning, and induces a hibernation-like state in winter. We cloned and characterized the prohormone complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) in a temperate wrasse (Halichoeres tenuispinis) and examined the effects of day/night and temperature on their expression in the diencephalon, because these neurohypophysial peptides are related to the sex behavior of wrasses...
February 5, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391604/free-living-greylag-geese-adjust-their-heart-rates-and-body-core-temperatures-to-season-and-reproductive-context
#16
Claudia A F Wascher, Kurt Kotrschal, Walter Arnold
Animals adaptively regulate their metabolic rate and hence energy expenditure over the annual cycle to cope with energetic challenges. We studied energy management in greylag geese. In all geese, profound seasonal changes of heart rate (fH ) and body temperature (Tb ) showed peaks in summer and troughs during winter, and also daily modulation of fH and Tb . Daily mean fH was on average 22% lower at the winter trough than at the summer peak, whereas daily mean Tb at the winter trough was only about 1 °C below the summer peak...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297363/critical-illness-and-flat-batteries
#17
REVIEW
Mervyn Singer
An exaggerated, dysregulated host response to insults such as infection (i.e. sepsis), trauma and ischaemia-reperfusion injury can result in multiple organ dysfunction and death. While the focus of research in this area has largely centred on inflammation and immunity, a crucial missing link is the precise identification of mechanisms at the organ level that cause this physiological-biochemical failure. Any hypothesis must reconcile this functional organ failure with minimal signs of cell death, availability of oxygen, and (often) minimal early local inflammatory cell infiltrate...
December 28, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295979/extreme-sensitivity-to-ultraviolet-light-in-the-fungal-pathogen-causing-white-nose-syndrome-of-bats
#18
Jonathan M Palmer, Kevin P Drees, Jeffrey T Foster, Daniel L Lindner
Bat white-nose syndrome (WNS), caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has decimated North American hibernating bats since its emergence in 2006. Here, we utilize comparative genomics to examine the evolutionary history of this pathogen in comparison to six closely related nonpathogenic species. P. destructans displays a large reduction in carbohydrate-utilizing enzymes (CAZymes) and in the predicted secretome (~50%), and an increase in lineage-specific genes. The pathogen has lost a key enzyme, UVE1, in the alternate excision repair (AER) pathway, which is known to contribute to repair of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet (UV) light...
January 2, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283978/review-hibernation-based-approaches-in-the-treatment-of-hemorrhagic-shock
#19
Andrea Wolf, Elizabeth R Lusczek, Gregory J Beilman
Hemorrhagic shock is the leading cause of preventable death after trauma. Hibernation-based treatment approaches have been of increasing interest for various biomedical applications. Due to apparent similarities in tissue perfusion and metabolic activity between severe blood loss and the hibernating state, hibernation-based approaches have also emerged for the treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Research has shown that hibernators are protected from shock-induced injury and inflammation. Utilizing the adaptive mechanisms that prevent injury in these animals may help alleviate the detrimental effects of hemorrhagic shock in non-hibernating species...
December 27, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277604/tolerance-to-hypometabolism-and-arousal-induced-by-hibernation-in-the-apple-snail-pomacea-canaliculata-caenogastropoda-ampullariidae
#20
Maximiliano Giraud-Billoud, Alfredo Castro-Vazquez, Alejandra D Campoy-Diaz, Pablo M Giuffrida, Israel A Vega
Pomacea canaliculata may serve as a model organism for comparative studies of oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in active, hibernating and arousing snails. Oxidative damage (as TBARS), free radical scavenging capacity (as ABTS+ oxidation), uric acid (UA) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the protein expression levels of heat shock proteins (Hsp70, Hsc70, Hsp90) were studied in digestive gland, kidney and foot. Tissue TBARS of hibernating snails (45days) was higher than active snails...
December 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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