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Induced hibernation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297363/critical-illness-and-flat-batteries
#1
REVIEW
Mervyn Singer
An exaggerated, dysregulated host response to insults such as infection (i.e. sepsis), trauma and ischaemia-reperfusion injury can result in multiple organ dysfunction and death. While the focus of research in this area has largely centred on inflammation and immunity, a crucial missing link is the precise identification of mechanisms at the organ level that cause this physiological-biochemical failure. Any hypothesis must reconcile this functional organ failure with minimal signs of cell death, availability of oxygen, and (often) minimal early local inflammatory cell infiltrate...
December 28, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295979/extreme-sensitivity-to-ultraviolet-light-in-the-fungal-pathogen-causing-white-nose-syndrome-of-bats
#2
Jonathan M Palmer, Kevin P Drees, Jeffrey T Foster, Daniel L Lindner
Bat white-nose syndrome (WNS), caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has decimated North American hibernating bats since its emergence in 2006. Here, we utilize comparative genomics to examine the evolutionary history of this pathogen in comparison to six closely related nonpathogenic species. P. destructans displays a large reduction in carbohydrate-utilizing enzymes (CAZymes) and in the predicted secretome (~50%), and an increase in lineage-specific genes. The pathogen has lost a key enzyme, UVE1, in the alternate excision repair (AER) pathway, which is known to contribute to repair of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet (UV) light...
January 2, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283978/review-hibernation-based-approaches-in-the-treatment-of-hemorrhagic-shock
#3
Andrea Wolf, Elizabeth R Lusczek, Gregory J Beilman
Hemorrhagic shock is the leading cause of preventable death after trauma. Hibernation-based treatment approaches have been of increasing interest for various biomedical applications. Due to apparent similarities in tissue perfusion and metabolic activity between severe blood loss and the hibernating state, hibernation-based approaches have also emerged for the treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Research has shown that hibernators are protected from shock-induced injury and inflammation. Utilizing the adaptive mechanisms that prevent injury in these animals may help alleviate the detrimental effects of hemorrhagic shock in non-hibernating species...
December 27, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277604/tolerance-to-hypometabolism-and-arousal-induced-by-hibernation-in-the-apple-snail-pomacea-canaliculata-caenogastropoda-ampullariidae
#4
Maximiliano Giraud-Billoud, Alfredo Castro-Vazquez, Alejandra D Campoy-Diaz, Pablo M Giuffrida, Israel A Vega
Pomacea canaliculata may serve as a model organism for comparative studies of oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in active, hibernating and arousing snails. Oxidative damage (as TBARS), free radical scavenging capacity (as ABTS+ oxidation), uric acid (UA) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the protein expression levels of heat shock proteins (Hsp70, Hsc70, Hsp90) were studied in digestive gland, kidney and foot. Tissue TBARS of hibernating snails (45days) was higher than active snails...
December 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248591/strategies-of-biochemical-adaptation-for-hibernation-in-a-south-american-marsupial-dromiciops-gliroides-3-activation-of-pro-survival-response-pathways
#5
Bryan E Luu, Sanoji Wijenayake, Jing Zhang, Shannon N Tessier, Julian F Quintero-Galvis, Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Roberto F Nespolo, Kenneth B Storey
The South American marsupial, monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides) uses both daily torpor and multi-day hibernation to survive in its southern Chile native environment. The present study leverages multiplex technology to assess the contributions of key stress-inducible cell cycle regulators and heat shock proteins to hibernation in liver, heart, and brain of monito del monte in a comparison of control versus 4day hibernating conditions. The data indicate that MDM2, a stress-responsive ubiquitin ligase, plays a crucial role in marsupial hibernation since all three tissues showed statistically significant increases in MDM2 levels during torpor (1...
December 14, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235206/sperm-storage-influences-the-potential-for-spontaneous-acrosome-reaction-of-the-sperm-in-the-newt-cynops-pyrrhogaster
#6
Shinnosuke Kon, Tae Sato, Daisuke Endo, Tomoe Takahashi, Akio Takaku, Yuni Nakauchi, Fubito Toyama, Victor B Meyer-Rochow, Eriko Takayama-Watanabe, Akihiko Watanabe
Sperm storage is supposed to influence sperm quality, although the details remain unclear. In the present study, we found that sperm stored in a sperm storage site, the vas deferens of Cynops pyrrhogaster, spontaneously undergo acrosome reaction following incubation in Steinberg's salt solution (ST). Percentages of acrosome-reacted sperm increased time-dependently to about 60% in 24 hr. The concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was elevated after incubating sperm in ST, while dibutylyl cAMP induced an acrosome reaction...
November 20, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218224/coping-with-differences-in-snow-cover-the-impact-on-the-condition-physiology-and-fitness-of-an-arctic-hibernator
#7
Michael J Sheriff, Rudy Boonstra, Rupert Palme, C Loren Buck, Brian M Barnes
The Earth's climate is changing at an unprecedented rate and, as ecologists, we are challenged with the difficult task of predicting how individuals and populations will respond to climate-induced changes to local and global ecosystems. Although we are beginning to understand some of the responses to changing seasonality, the physiological mechanisms that may drive these responses remain unknown. Using long-term data comparing two nearby populations (<20 km apart) of free-living arctic ground squirrels in northern Alaska, we have previously shown that the timing of spring snowmelt greatly influences their phenology of hibernation and reproduction in a population and site-specific manner...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138454/differences-in-mitochondrial-function-and-morphology-during-cooling-and-rewarming-between-hibernator-and-non-hibernator-derived-kidney-epithelial-cells
#8
Koen D W Hendriks, Eleonora Lupi, Maarten C Hardenberg, Femke Hoogstra-Berends, Leo E Deelman, Robert H Henning
Hibernators show superior resistance to ischemia and hypothermia, also outside the hibernation season. Therefore, hibernation is a promising strategy to decrease cellular damage in a variety of fields, such as organ transplantation. Here, we explored the role of mitochondria herein, by comparing epithelial cell lines from a hibernator (hamster kidney cells, HaK) and a non-hibernator (human embryonic kidney cells, HEK293) during cold preservation at 4 °C and rewarming. Cell survival (Neutral Red), ATP and MDA levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial morphology (using fluorescent probes) and metabolism (seahorse XF) were assessed...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125496/consciousness-in-hibernation-and-synthetic-torpor
#9
Matteo Cerri
While human hibernation would provide many advantages for medical applications and space exploration, the intrinsic risks of the procedure itself, as well as those involved if the procedure were to be misused, need to be assessed. Moreover, the distinctive brain state that is present during a hibernation-like state raises questions regarding the state of consciousness of the subject. Since, in animal studies, the cortical activity of this state differs from that of sleep, coma, or even general anesthesia, and resembles a sort of "slowed wakefulness", it is uncertain whether residual consciousness may still be present...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017960/upper-respiratory-tract-nociceptor-stimulation-and-stress-response-following-acute-and-repeated-cyfluthrin-inhalation-in-normal-and-pregnant-rats-physiological-rat-specific-adaptions-can-easily-be-misunderstood-as-adversities
#10
Juergen Pauluhn
This paper reviews the results from past regulatory and mechanistic inhalation studies in rats with the type II pyrethroid Cyfluthrin. Apart from many chemical irritants, Cyfluthrin was shown to be a neuroexcitatory agent without any inherent tissue-destructive or irritant property. Thus, any Cyfluthrin-induced neuroexcitatory afferent sensory stimulus from peripheral nociceptors in the upper respiratory tract is likely to be perceived as a transient stimulus triggering annoyance and/or avoidance by both rats and humans...
October 7, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974933/gaseous-mediators-and-mitochondrial-function-the-future-of-pharmacologically-induced-suspended-animation
#11
REVIEW
Clair Hartmann, Benedikt Nussbaum, Enrico Calzia, Peter Radermacher, Martin Wepler
The role of nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as poisonous gases is well-established. However, they are not only endogenously produced but also, at low concentrations, exert beneficial effects, such as anti-inflammation, and cytoprotection. This knowledge initiated the ongoing debate, as to whether these molecules, also referred to as "gaseous mediators" or "gasotransmitters," could serve as novel therapeutic agents. In this context, it is noteworthy, that all gasotransmitters specifically target the mitochondria, and that this interaction may modulate mitochondrial bioenergetics, thereby subsequently affecting metabolic function...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933172/-development-of-views-on-pathophysiology-of-sepsis
#12
Jiří Beneš
Sepsis was understood as a disease caused by an invasive bacterial infection associated with deluging of organism with bacterial toxins (blood poisoning). Schottmüllers definition emphasized the existence of a focus as the source of invading bacteria. Further research led to the discovery of the cytokine cascade and to the recognition that sepsis is induced by our own endogenous mediators. The dysfunction or failure of various organs in sepsis can be explained both by hemodynamic disorders which originate in the altered microcapillars but also by a complex transformation of metabolism...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835844/polar-bears-experience-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-in-response-to-food-deprivation-and-reduced-activity-in-winter-and-summer
#13
John P Whiteman, Henry J Harlow, George M Durner, Eric V Regehr, Bryan C Rourke, Manuel Robles, Steven C Amstrup, Merav Ben-David
When reducing activity and using stored energy during seasonal food shortages, animals risk degradation of skeletal muscles, although some species avoid or minimize the resulting atrophy while experiencing these conditions during hibernation. Polar bears may be food deprived and relatively inactive during winter (when pregnant females hibernate and hunting success declines for other demographic groups) as well as summer (when sea ice retreats from key foraging habitats). We investigated muscle atrophy in samples of biceps femoris collected from free-ranging polar bears in the Southern Beaufort Sea (SBS) throughout their annual cycle...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780752/regulation-of-smad-mediated-microrna-transcriptional-response-in-ground-squirrels-during-hibernation
#14
Cheng-Wei Wu, Kenneth B Storey
Mammalian hibernation is a state of dormancy that is used by some animals to survive through the unfavorable conditions of winter, and is characterized by coordinated suppression of basal metabolism that is supported by global inhibition of energy/ATP-consuming processes. In this study, we examine the regulation of the anti-proliferatory TGF-β/Smad transcription factor signaling pathway in the liver tissue of the hibernating 13-lined ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus. The TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is known to mediate cell cycle arrest through induction of cell cycle dependent kinase inhibitors, and more recently, has been shown to regulate a wide range of cellular processes via its control of microRNA biosynthesis...
August 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757213/oxidative-stress-parameters-in-two-pelophylax-esculentus-complex-frogs-during-pre-and-post-hibernation-arousal-vs-heavy-metals
#15
Marko D Prokić, Slavica S Borković-Mitić, Imre I Krizmanić, Jelena J Mutić, Jelena P Gavrić, Svetlana G Despotović, Branka R Gavrilović, Tijana B Radovanović, Slađan Z Pavlović, Zorica S Saičić
In spring, frogs from temperate regions are faced with arousal-induced oxidative stress and exposure to various xenobiotics from the environment. The question is whether pollutants can significantly modify the antioxidative defense system (AOS) response of hibernators during recovery from hibernation. If this assumption is true, we would then expect different patterns of seasonal variations in the AOS between individuals exposed to different levels of pollution. To examine this assumption, we determined the relationship between seasonal variations of accumulated metals and AOS parameters in the skin and muscle of two frog species from the Pelophylax esculentus complex (P...
November 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747071/a-hibernation-like-state-for-transplantable-organs-is-h-sub-2-sub-s-therapy-the-future-of-organ-preservation
#16
George Dugbartey, Hjalmar Bouma, Manujendra N Saha, Ian Lobb, Robert H Henning, Alp Sener
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, during which renal grafts from deceased donors are routinely cold stored to suppress metabolic demand and thereby limit ischemic injury. However, prolonged cold storage followed by reperfusion induces extensive tissue damage termed cold ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and puts the graft at risk of both early and late rejection. The underlying mechanism of IRI is not completely understood and a reliable/ suitable method to protect the renal graft against cold IRI is lacking...
July 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746349/new-insights-on-the-regulation-of-the-adenine-nucleotide-pool-of-erythrocytes-in-mouse-models
#17
William G O'Brien, Han Shawn Ling, Zhaoyang Zhao, Cheng Chi Lee
The observation that induced torpor in non-hibernating mammals could result from an increased AMP concentration in circulation led our investigation to reveal that the added AMP altered oxygen transport of erythrocytes. To further study the effect of AMP in regulation of erythrocyte function and systemic metabolism, we generated mouse models deficient in key erythrocyte enzymes in AMP metabolism. We have previously reported altered erythrocyte adenine nucleotide levels corresponding to altered oxygen saturation in mice deficient in both CD73 and AMPD3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715992/the-hibernator-microbiome-host-bacterial-interactions-in-an-extreme-nutritional-symbiosis
#18
REVIEW
Hannah V Carey, Fariba M Assadi-Porter
Animals that undergo seasonal cycles of feeding and fasting have adaptations that maintain integrity of organ systems when dietary nutrients are lacking. Food deprivation also challenges the gut microbiota, which relies heavily on host diet for metabolic substrates and the gastrointestinal tract, which is influenced by enteral nutrients and microbial activity. Winter fasting in hibernators shifts the microbiota to favor taxa with the capacity to degrade and utilize host-derived substrates and disfavor taxa that prefer complex plant polysaccharides...
August 21, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673590/parkinson-s-disease-the-hibernating-spore-hypothesis
#19
Ketil Berstad, Johanna E R Berstad
The authors support the hypothesis that a causative agent in Parkinson's disease (PD) might be either fungus or bacteria with fungus-like properties - Actinobacteria, and that their spores may serve as 'infectious agents'. Updated research and the epidemiology of PD suggest that the disease might be induced by environmental factor(s), possibly with genetic susceptibility, and that α-synuclein probably should be regarded as part of the body's own defense mechanism. To explain the dual-hit theory with stage 1 involvement of the olfactory structures and the 'gut-brain'-axis, the environmental factor is probably airborne and quite 'robust' entering the body via the nose/mouth, then to be swallowed reaching the enteric nervous system with retained pathogenicity...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652388/optimization-of-thermolytic-response-to-a1-adenosine-receptor-agonists-in-rats
#20
Isaac R Bailey, Bernard Laughlin, Lucille A Moore, Lori K Bogren, Zeinab Barati, Kelly L Drew
Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death in the United States, and, currently, therapeutic hypothermia, now called targeted temperature management (TTM), is the only recent treatment modality proven to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity for this condition. Shivering and subsequent metabolic stress, however, limit application and benefit of TTM. Stimulating central nervous system A1 adenosine receptors (A1AR) inhibits shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis in rats and induces a hibernation-like response in hibernating species...
September 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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