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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445250/enteric-fever-in-children-in-western-sydney-australia-2003-2015
#1
Ameneh Khatami, Fouzia Khan, Kristine K Macartney
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever is a vaccine-preventable disease with cases in Australia predominantly acquired overseas. The aim of this study was to define the burden of enteric fever in children presenting to a pediatric hospital in Western Sydney between 2003 and 2015. METHODS: Cases between January 2003 and December 2013 were ascertained through medical records using ICD-coded discharge diagnoses, cross-referenced with microbiology laboratory data for all isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S...
April 25, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444560/y-chromosomal-sequences-of-diverse-indian-populations-and-the-ancestry-of-the-andamanese
#2
Mayukh Mondal, Anders Bergström, Yali Xue, Francesc Calafell, Hafid Laayouni, Ferran Casals, Partha P Majumder, Chris Tyler-Smith, Jaume Bertranpetit
We present 42 new Y-chromosomal sequences from diverse Indian tribal and non-tribal populations, including the Jarawa and Onge from the Andaman Islands, which are analysed within a calibrated Y-chromosomal phylogeny incorporating South Asian (in total 305 individuals) and worldwide (in total 1286 individuals) data from the 1000 Genomes Project. In contrast to the more ancient ancestry in the South than in the North that has been claimed, we detected very similar coalescence times within Northern and Southern non-tribal Indian populations...
April 25, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443503/kratom-and-future-treatment-for-the-opiods-addiction-and-chroic-pain-periculo-beneficium
#3
Ismaliza Ismail, Suzaily Wahab, Hatta Sidi, Srijit Das, Loo Jiann Lin, Rosdinom Razali
Kratom (Mitragynaspeciosa), a natural existing plant found in South-East Asia, is tradi-tionally used as an herb to help to elevate a person's energy and also to treat numerous medical ailments. Other than the analgesic property, kratom has been used as an agent to overcome opioid withdrawal as it contains natural alkaloids, i.e. mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and MGM-9, which has agonist affinity on the opioid receptors, including mu (μ) and kappa (κ). The role of neural reward pathway linked to μ-opioid receptors and both dopaminergic and GABA-ergic interneurons that express μ-opioid receptors were deliberated...
April 25, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443083/intracellular-localization-interactions-and-functions-of-capsicum-chlorosis-virus-proteins
#4
Shirani M K Widana Gamage, Ralf G Dietzgen
Tospoviruses are among the most devastating viruses of horticultural and field crops. Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) has emerged as an important pathogen of capsicum and tomato in Australia and South-east Asia. Present knowledge about CaCV protein functions in host cells is lacking. We determined intracellular localization and interactions of CaCV proteins by live plant cell imaging to gain insight into the associations of viral proteins during infection. Proteins were transiently expressed as fusions to autofluorescent proteins in leaf epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana and capsicum...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440952/thyroid-cancer-incidence-among-asian-immigrants-to-ontario-canada-a-population-based-cohort-study
#5
Baiju R Shah, Rebecca Griffiths, Stephen F Hall
BACKGROUND: The highest rates of thyroid cancer are observed in Pacific Island nations as well as Australia and Asian countries bordering the Pacific. The objective of this study was to determine the risk for thyroid cancer among immigrants to Canada from Southeast and East Asia compared with immigrants from other regions and nonimmigrants. METHODS: This was a population-based, longitudinal cohort study using health care administrative data to examine all residents of Ontario without pre-existing thyroid cancer...
April 25, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439264/benthic-diatom-based-indices-for-water-quality-assessment-in-two-subtropical-streams
#6
Xiang Tan, Quanfa Zhang, Michele A Burford, Fran Sheldon, Stuart E Bunn
Benthic diatoms have been universally used as indicators to assess water quality in lotic ecosystems. However, most diatom-based indices developed in Europe have not been widely used or tested in other continents such as Asia or Oceania. This study compared the performance of 14 widely-applied diatom indices in assessing ecological conditions in subtropical streams in South East Queensland (SEQ) in Australia and in the upper Han River in China. Most water quality variables in the upper Han River including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) had strong relationships with at least one diatom index, with the exception of IDAP (Index Diatom Artois-Picardie), and TDI (Trophic Diatom Index)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438936/demonstrating-the-protective-efficacy-of-the-novel-fluoroquinolone-finafloxacin-against-an-inhalational-exposure-to-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#7
Kay B Barnes, Karleigh A Hamblin, Mark I Richards, Thomas R Laws, Andreas Vente, Helen S Atkins, Sarah V Harding
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious disease endemic in South East Asia and Northern Australia. Antibiotic treatment is lengthy and relapse often occurs. Finafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with increased antibacterial activity in acidic conditions in contrast to other fluoroquinolones which demonstrate reduced activity at lower pH. Therefore finafloxacin may have improved efficacy against B. pseudomallei, which can survive within host cells where the local pH is acidic...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435679/targeting-the-pro-inflammatory-factor-ccl2-mcp-1-with-bindarit-for-influenza-a-h7n9-treatment
#8
Stefan Wolf, Scott Johnson, Olivia Perwitasari, Suresh Mahalingam, Ralph A Tripp
Influenza A viruses are important human and animal pathogens. Seasonal influenza viruses cause infections every year, and occasionally zoonotic viruses emerge to cause pandemics with significantly higher morbidity and mortality rates. Three cases of laboratory confirmed human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus were reported in 2013, and there have been several cases reported across South East Asia, and recently in North America. Most patients experience severe respiratory illness, with mortality rates approaching 40%...
March 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433763/biomass-burning-sources-and-their-contributions-to-the-local-air-quality-in-hong-kong
#9
K L Chan
In this paper, we present a quantitative estimation of the impacts of biomass burning emissions from different source regions to the local air quality in Hong Kong in 2014 using global chemistry transport model simulations, sun photometer measurements, satellite observations and local monitoring network data. This study focuses on two major biomass burning pollutants, black carbon aerosols and carbon monoxide (CO). The model simulations of atmospheric black carbon and CO show excellent agreement with sun photometer aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, satellite CO columns observations and local monitoring stations data...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430830/assessment-of-global-kidney-health-care-status
#10
Aminu K Bello, Adeera Levin, Marcello Tonelli, Ikechi G Okpechi, John Feehally, David Harris, Kailash Jindal, Babatunde L Salako, Ahmed Rateb, Mohamed A Osman, Bilal Qarni, Syed Saad, Meaghan Lunney, Natasha Wiebe, Feng Ye, David W Johnson
Importance: Kidney disease is a substantial worldwide clinical and public health problem, but information about available care is limited. Objective: To collect information on the current state of readiness, capacity, and competence for the delivery of kidney care across countries and regions of the world. Design, Setting, and Participants: Questionnaire survey administered from May to September 2016 by the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) to 130 ISN-affiliated countries with sampling of key stakeholders (national nephrology society leadership, policy makers, and patient organization representatives) identified by the country and regional nephrology leadership through the ISN...
April 21, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426782/peste-des-petits-ruminants-ppr-a-neglected-tropical-disease-in-maghreb-region-of-north-africa-and-its-threat-to-europe
#11
Ratiba Baazizi, Mana Mahapatra, Brian Donald Clarke, Khatima Ait-Oudhia, Djamel Khelef, Satya Parida
BACKGROUND: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious disease listed by the World Organisation for Animal health (OIE) as being a specific hazard. It affects sheep, goats, and wild ungulates, and is prevalent throughout the developing world particularly Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. PPR has been targeted for eradication by 2030 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the OIE, after the successful eradication of the related disease, rinderpest in cattle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424048/phylogeny-divergence-time-and-historical-biogeography-of-laetiporus-basidiomycota-polyporales
#12
Jie Song, Bao-Kai Cui
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular relationship, origin and historical biogeography of the species in important brown rot fungal genus Laetiporus from East Asia, Europe, Pan-America, Hawaii and South Africa. We used six genetic markers to estimate a genus-level phylogeny including (1) the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), (2) nuclear large subunit rDNA (nrLSU), (3) nuclear small subunit rDNA (nrSSU), (4) translation elongation factor 1-α (EF-1α), (5) DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit 2 (RPB2), and (6) mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU)...
April 20, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408910/new-hypervariable-ssr-markers-for-diversity-analysis-hybrid-purity-testing-and-trait-mapping-in-pigeonpea-cajanus-cajan-l-millspaugh
#13
Abhishek Bohra, Rintu Jha, Gaurav Pandey, Prakash G Patil, Rachit K Saxena, Indra P Singh, D Singh, R K Mishra, Ankita Mishra, F Singh, Rajeev K Varshney, N P Singh
Draft genome sequence in pigeonpea offers unprecedented opportunities for genomics assisted crop improvement via enabling access to genome-wide genetic markers. In the present study, 421 hypervariable simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from the pigeonpea genome were screened on a panel of eight pigeonpea genotypes yielding marker validation and polymorphism percentages of 95.24 and 54.11%, respectively. The SSR marker assay uncovered a total of 570 alleles with three as an average number of alleles per marker...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408086/estimates-and-25-year-trends-of-the-global-burden-of-disease-attributable-to-ambient-air-pollution-an-analysis-of-data-from-the-global-burden-of-diseases-study-2015
#14
Aaron J Cohen, Michael Brauer, Richard Burnett, H Ross Anderson, Joseph Frostad, Kara Estep, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Bert Brunekreef, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Valery Feigin, Greg Freedman, Bryan Hubbell, Amelia Jobling, Haidong Kan, Luke Knibbs, Yang Liu, Randall Martin, Lidia Morawska, C Arden Pope, Hwashin Shin, Kurt Straif, Gavin Shaddick, Matthew Thomas, Rita van Dingenen, Aaron van Donkelaar, Theo Vos, Christopher J L Murray, Mohammad H Forouzanfar
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution increases morbidity and mortality, and is a leading contributor to global disease burden. We explored spatial and temporal trends in mortality and burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution from 1990 to 2015 at global, regional, and country levels. METHODS: We estimated global population-weighted mean concentrations of particle mass with aerodynamic diameter less than 2·5 μm (PM2·5) and ozone at an approximate 11 km × 11 km resolution with satellite-based estimates, chemical transport models, and ground-level measurements...
April 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405364/east-african-origins-for-madagascan-chickens-as-indicated-by-mitochondrial-dna
#15
Michael B Herrera, Vicki A Thomson, Jessica J Wadley, Philip J Piper, Sri Sulandari, Anik Budhi Dharmayanthi, Spiridoula Kraitsek, Jaime Gongora, Jeremy J Austin
The colonization of Madagascar by Austronesian-speaking people during AD 50-500 represents the most westerly point of the greatest diaspora in prehistory. A range of economically important plants and animals may have accompanied the Austronesians. Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus) are found in Madagascar, but it is unclear how they arrived there. Did they accompany the initial Austronesian-speaking populations that reached Madagascar via the Indian Ocean or were they late arrivals with Arabian and African sea-farers? To address this question, we investigated the mitochondrial DNA control region diversity of modern chickens sampled from around the Indian Ocean rim (Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa and Madagascar)...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404015/management-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-the-asia-pacific-region-an-update
#16
REVIEW
Seng Gee Lim, Alessio Aghemo, Pei-Jer Chen, Yock Young Dan, Edward Gane, Rino Gani, Robert G Gish, Richard Guan, Ji Dong Jia, Kieron Lim, Teerha Piratvisuth, Samir Shah, Mitchell L Shiffman, Frank Tacke, Soek Siam Tan, Tawesak Tanwandee, Khin Maung Win, Cihan Yurdaydin
The Asia-Pacific region has disparate hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology, with prevalence ranging from 0·1% to 4·7%, and a unique genotype distribution. Genotype 1b dominates in east Asia, whereas in south Asia and southeast Asia genotype 3 dominates, and in Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos), genotype 6 is most common. Often, availability of all-oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) is delayed because of differing regulatory requirements. Ideally, for genotype 1 infections, sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir, sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir, or ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir plus dasabuvir are suitable...
January 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400002/salmonella-weltevreden-in-integrated-and-non-integrated-tilapia-aquaculture-systems-in-guangdong-china
#17
Kang Li, Gitte Petersen, Lisa Barco, Kristian Hvidtfeldt, Liping Liu, Anders Dalsgaard
Integrated tilapia-pig farming, which uses manure from pigs as fertilizers in fish pond, is a traditional and common production system practised by small-scale farmers in South-east Asia. Although such systems may be environmentally sustainable, they also pose potential food safety hazards including transmission of faecal zoonotic pathogens and accumulation of antimicrobial and other chemical residues. This study aimed to determine differences in occurrence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. isolated from tilapia-pig and non-integrated aquaculture systems in Guangdong province, China...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399168/global-trends-in-dietary-micronutrient-supplies-and-estimated-prevalence-of-inadequate-intakes
#18
Ty Beal, Eric Massiot, Joanne E Arsenault, Matthew R Smith, Robert J Hijmans
Understanding dietary patterns is vital to reducing the number of people experiencing hunger (about 795 million), micronutrient deficiencies (2 billion), and overweight or obesity (2.1 billion). We characterize global trends in dietary quality by estimating micronutrient density of the food supply, prevalence of inadequate intake of 14 micronutrients, and average prevalence of inadequate intake of these micronutrients for all countries between 1961 and 2011. Over this 50-year period, the estimated prevalence of inadequate intakes of micronutrients has declined in all regions due to increased total production of food and/or micronutrient density...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398164/genetic-differentiation-of-the-wheat-leaf-rust-fungus-puccinia-triticina-in-pakistan-and-genetic-relationship-to-other-worldwide-populations
#19
J A Kolmer, J I Mirza, M Imtiaz, S J A Shah
Collections of Puccinia triticina, the wheat leaf rust pathogen, were obtained from Pakistan in 2008, 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2014. Collections were also obtained from Bhutan in 2013. Single uredinial isolates were derived and tested for virulence phenotype to 20 lines of Thatcher wheat that differ for single leaf rust resistance genes, and for molecular genotype with 23 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Twenty-four virulence phenotypes were described among the 89 isolates tested for virulence. None of the isolates had virulence to Thatcher lines with Lr9, Lr24, or Lr18...
April 10, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387361/origin-and-spread-of-human-mitochondrial-dna-haplogroup-u7
#20
Hovhannes Sahakyan, Baharak Hooshiar Kashani, Rakesh Tamang, Alena Kushniarevich, Amirtharaj Francis, Marta D Costa, Ajai Kumar Pathak, Zaruhi Khachatryan, Indu Sharma, Mannis van Oven, Jüri Parik, Hrant Hovhannisyan, Ene Metspalu, Erwan Pennarun, Monika Karmin, Erika Tamm, Kristiina Tambets, Ardeshir Bahmanimehr, Tuuli Reisberg, Maere Reidla, Alessandro Achilli, Anna Olivieri, Francesca Gandini, Ugo A Perego, Nadia Al-Zahery, Massoud Houshmand, Mohammad Hossein Sanati, Pedro Soares, Ekta Rai, Jelena Šarac, Tena Šarić, Varun Sharma, Luisa Pereira, Veronica Fernandes, Viktor Černý, Shirin Farjadian, Deepankar Pratap Singh, Hülya Azakli, Duran Üstek, Natalia Ekomasova Trofimova, Ildus Kutuev, Sergei Litvinov, Marina Bermisheva, Elza K Khusnutdinova, Niraj Rai, Manvendra Singh, Vijay Kumar Singh, Alla G Reddy, Helle-Viivi Tolk, Svjetlana Cvjetan, Lovorka Barac Lauc, Pavao Rudan, Emmanuel N Michalodimitrakis, Nicholas P Anagnou, Kalliopi I Pappa, Maria V Golubenko, Vladimir Orekhov, Svetlana A Borinskaya, Katrin Kaldma, Monica A Schauer, Maya Simionescu, Vladislava Gusar, Elena Grechanina, Periyasamy Govindaraj, Mikhail Voevoda, Larissa Damba, Swarkar Sharma, Lalji Singh, Ornella Semino, Doron M Behar, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Martin B Richards, Mait Metspalu, Toomas Kivisild, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Phillip Endicott, Gyaneshwer Chaubey, Antonio Torroni, Richard Villems
Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U is among the initial maternal founders in Southwest Asia and Europe and one that best indicates matrilineal genetic continuity between late Pleistocene hunter-gatherer groups and present-day populations of Europe. While most haplogroup U subclades are older than 30 thousand years, the comparatively recent coalescence time of the extant variation of haplogroup U7 (~16-19 thousand years ago) suggests that its current distribution is the consequence of more recent dispersal events, despite its wide geographical range across Europe, the Near East and South Asia...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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