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South east asia

Jenna Wraith, Catherine Pickering
Orchids are diverse, occur in a wide range of habitats and dominate threatened species lists, but which orchids are threatened, where and by what? Using the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we assessed the range and diversity of threats to orchids globally including identifying four threat syndromes: (1) terrestrial orchids in forests that are endemic to a country and threatened by illegal collecting; (2) orchids threatened by climate change, pollution, transportation and disturbance/development for tourism, and recreation activities, often in East Asia; (3) epiphytic orchids in Sub-Saharan Africa including Madagascar with diverse threats; and (4) South and Southeast Asia orchids threatened by land clearing for shifting agriculture...
October 17, 2017: Ambio
Masakatsu Fukuda, Hide Sakashita, Hiroyasu Hayashi, Junya Shiono, Genki Miyake, Yusuke Komine, Fuyoko Taira, Hideaki Sakashita
Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a tree found in South-East Asia and the pericarp of its fruit has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of many human illnesses. Mangosteen fruit rinds contain a high concentration of xanthone, which is a type of polyphenol. One type of xanthone, α-mangostin, has been reported to exert chemopreventive effects against chemically-induced colon cancer through the decrease of c-Myc expression, suppressing tumor growth in a mouse model of mammary cancer. A recent study demonstrated the inhibitive effect of α-mangostin on the growth of prostate cancer...
October 12, 2017: Oncology Reports
Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Byung Woo Yoon, Jeyaraj Pandian, Jose C Navarro
Asia, which holds 60% of the world's population, comprises some developing countries which are in economic transition. This paper reviews the epidemiology of stroke in South, East and South-East Asia. Data on the epidemiology of stroke in South, East, and South-East Asia were derived from the Global Burden of Disease study (mortality, disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs] lost because of stroke), World Health Organization (vascular risk factors in the community), and publications in PubMed (incidence, prevalence, subtypes, vascular risk factors among hospitalized stroke patients)...
September 2017: Journal of Stroke
Laura Oakley, Lenka Benova, David Macleod, Caroline A Lynch, Oona M R Campbell
The aim of this study was to describe early breastfeeding practices (initiation within 1 hr of birth, no prelacteal feeding, and a combination of both-"optimal" early breastfeeding) according to childbirth location in low- and middle-income countries. Using data from the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (2000-2013) for 57 countries, we extracted information on the most recent birth for women aged 15-49 with a live birth in the preceding 24 months. Childbirth setting was self-reported by location (home or facility) and subtype (home delivery with or without a skilled birth attendant; public or private facility)...
October 16, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years...
October 10, 2017: Lancet
Robert J Fryatt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
L Y Ho, C K Chan, P Sk Chu
INTRODUCTION: Lower urinary tract symptoms collectively represent a common condition among ageing men. There are, however, limited data on the frequency of individual symptoms in patients who seek specialist care. We conducted a multinational survey in South-East Asia to evaluate patients' self-reported prevalence, bother, treatment, and treatment satisfaction of four lower urinary tract symptoms namely, urgency, nocturia, slow stream, and post-micturition dribble. This report presents the analysis of the Hong Kong subpopulation...
October 13, 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Uttara Partap, Elizabeth H Young, Pascale Allotey, Ireneous N Soyiri, Nowrozy Jahan, Kridaraan Komahan, Nirmala Devarajan, Manjinder S Sandhu, Daniel D Reidpath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
Frank M You, Gaofeng Jia, Jin Xiao, Scott D Duguid, Khalid Y Rashid, Helen M Booker, Sylvie Cloutier
Assessment of genetic variability of plant core germplasm is needed for efficient germplasm utilization in breeding improvement. A total of 391 accessions of a flax core collection, which preserves the variation present in the world collection of 3,378 accessions maintained by Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) and represents a broad range of geographical origins, different improvement statuses and two morphotypes, was evaluated in field trials in up to 8 year-location environments for 10 agronomic, eight seed quality, six fiber and three disease resistance traits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yun-Yun Lv, Kai He, Sebastian Klaus, Rafe M Brown, Jia-Tang Li
Currently, the genus Kurixalus comprises 14 species distributed in Southern, Southeast and East Asia. Because of their relatively low dispersal capability and intolerance of seawater, this group may be an ideal one for the study of terrestrial range evolution, especially that portion of its distributional range that extends into the island archipelagos of southern Asia. We assembled a large dataset of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and estimated phylogeny by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, and we explored the history of each species via divergence-time estimation based on fossil-calibrations...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Sayantani Chakraborty, Nilendu Sarma
Scrub typhus is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (formerly Rickettsia) and is transmitted to humans by an arthropod vector of the Trombiculidae family (Leptotrombidium deliense and L. akamushi). It is the most common re-emerging Rickettsial infection in India and many other South East Asian countries. In fact, scrub typhus is confined geographically to the Asia Pacific region, a billion people are at risk and nearly a million cases are reported every year. Scrub typhus appears particularly to be distributed in the tsutsugamushi triangle which is distributed over a very wide area of 13 million km(2) bound by Japan in the east, through China, the Philippines, tropical Australia in the south, and west through India, Pakistan, possibly to Tibet to Afghanistan, and southern parts of the USSR in the north...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Nilendu Sarma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Vikarn Vishwajeet, Manu Jamwal, Prashant Sharma, Reena Das, Jasmina Ahluwalia, Rupinder Kaur Dogra, Manoj Kumar Rohit
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of myocardial infarction (MI) involves environmental and genetic risk factors, with the latter putatively playing significant roles in younger patients. Genetic variability in coagulation factors comprises one such group. The coagulation factor 13 subunit A (F13A1) Val34Leu polymorphism (rs5985) has yielded variable findings in literature, with no prior South Asian data. METHODS: We studied the frequency of this polymorphism using the amplification-created restriction-enzyme site (ACRES) polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 101 MI patients aged below 40 years and 103 controls along with plasma fibrinogen and serum homocysteine levels...
October 5, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
Monique T Binet, Merrin S Adams, Francesca Gissi, Lisa A Golding, Chris Schlekat, Emily Garman, Graham Merrington, Jennifer L Stauber
Over two-thirds of the world's nickel lateritic deposits are in tropical regions, and just less than half are within South-East Asia and Melanesia (SEAM). With increasing nickel mining and processing in SEAM, environmental risk assessment tools are required to ensure sustainable development. Currently, there are no tropical-specific water or sediment quality guideline values (GVs) for nickel, and the appropriateness of applying GVs derived for temperate systems (e.g. Europe) to tropical ecosystems is unknown...
October 3, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Robert J Powell, Duc H Vo, Thach N Pham, Abhay K Singh
This article contains the datasets related to the research article "The long and short of commodity tails and their relationship to Asian equity markets"(Powell et al., 2017) [1]. The datasets contain the daily prices (and price movements) of 24 different commodities decomposed from the S&P GSCI index and the daily prices (and price movements) of three share market indices including World, Asia, and South East Asia for the period 2004-2015. Then, the dataset is divided into annual periods, showing the worst 5% of price movements for each year...
December 2017: Data in Brief
David Young, Manoharan K Pillai, Mohamed Majid
The plant Alpinia officinarum of the ginger family originated in China and is used throughout South and South-East Asian countries to flavour food and as a traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases. This review summarizes the biological, pharmacological and phytochemical properties of extracts and subsequently isolated compounds from A. officinarum. In vitro and in vivo studies of both extracts and pure compounds indicate a wide variety of potent bioactivities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiobesity, anticancer, enzyme inhibitory and remarkable antiviral properties...
October 2, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Yusheng Shi, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Yasushi Yamaguchi, Zhengqiang Li, Xingfa Gu, Xuehong Chen
Fine particulate matter, or PM2.5, is a serious air pollutant and has significant effects on human health, including premature death. Based on a long-term series of satellite-retrieved PM2.5 concentrations, this study analyzed the spatial and temporal characteristics of PM2.5 in South and Southeast Asia (SSEA) from 1999 to 2014 using standard deviation ellipse and trend analyses. A health risk assessment of human exposure to PM2.5 between 1999 and 2014 was then undertaken. The results show that PM2.5 concentrations increased in most areas of SSEA from 1999 to 2014 and exceeded the World Health Organization average annual limit of primary PM2...
September 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
M Z Shamim, A Pandey
Blackgram is an important pulse crop of the tropic and sub-tropic area and has been identified as a potential crop in many countries. In the south-East Asia arsenic toxicity in soil and water is one of the most environmental problems. Crop productivity is highly affected by cultivation in arsenic polluted soil or irrigation through arsenic polluted water. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of arsenic (As) on fresh shoot length, fresh shoot weight, fresh root length, fresh shoot weight and total fresh biomass, The results indicate that root length is more affected than shoot length due to arsenic toxicity...
July 31, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Falk Schwendicke, Christof E Dörfer, Toni Meier
AIM: We aimed to quantify the smoking-attributable burden of periodontal disease (PD). METHODS: The association between smoking and PD was evaluated. Population-, smoking- and PD-data from the Global Burden of Disease Study were used and the burden in different sex- and age-groups in 186 countries in 2015 calculated, adjusted for PD-prevalence and numbers of cigarettes smoked. No adjustment was performed in a sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: The global smoking-attributable burden was 251,160 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs; 95% uncertainty interval: 190,721-324,241; sensitivity analysis: 344,041 DALYs), or 38...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Tingcai Cheng, Jiaqi Wu, Yuqian Wu, Rajendra V Chilukuri, Lihua Huang, Kohji Yamamoto, Li Feng, Wanshun Li, Zhiwei Chen, Huizhen Guo, Jianqiu Liu, Shenglong Li, Xiaoxiao Wang, Li Peng, Duolian Liu, Youbing Guo, Bohua Fu, Zhiqing Li, Chun Liu, Yuhui Chen, Archana Tomar, Frederique Hilliou, Nicolas Montagné, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle d'Alençon, Rakesh K Seth, Raj K Bhatnagar, Akiya Jouraku, Takahiro Shiotsuki, Keiko Kadono-Okuda, Amornrat Promboon, Guy Smagghe, Kallare P Arunkumar, Hirohisa Kishino, Marian R Goldsmith, Qili Feng, Qingyou Xia, Kazuei Mita
The tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura, is among the most widespread and destructive agricultural pests, feeding on over 100 crops throughout tropical and subtropical Asia. By genome sequencing, physical mapping and transcriptome analysis, we found that the gene families encoding receptors for bitter or toxic substances and detoxification enzymes, such as cytochrome P450, carboxylesterase and glutathione-S-transferase, were massively expanded in this polyphagous species, enabling its extraordinary ability to detect and detoxify many plant secondary compounds...
September 25, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
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