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Thalamus glutamate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108334/a-study-of-glutamate-levels-nr1-nr2a-nr2b-receptors-and-oxidative-stress-in-rat-model-of-japanese-encephalitis
#1
Prashant Singh Chauhan, Usha Kant Misra, Jayantee Kalita
There is paucity of studies on the role of glutamate excitotoxicity in cell damage in Japanese encephalitis. In this study the glutamate levels, its NMDA receptors, oxidative stress markers in different brain regions have been evaluated and correlated with neurobehavioral changes at different time points. Twelve day old Wistar rats were inoculated with 3×10(6)pfu/ml intracerebrally. The neurobehavioral effects were evaluated by spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA), grip strength and rota rod test on 10, 33 and 48days post inoculation (dpi)...
January 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104554/abnormalities-in-metabolite-concentrations-in-tourette-s-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#2
Siyan Fan, Danielle C Cath, Odile A van den Heuvel, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Caroline Schöls, Dick J Veltman, Petra J W Pouwels
INTRODUCTION: Abnormal glutamatergic transmission in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of Tourette's disorder (TD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the current study aimed to investigate regional concentrations of glutamatergic compounds in TD and OCD patients in comparison to healthy control subjects (HC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-three TD patients, 20 OCD patients and 22 HC were included...
January 4, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097463/neurokinin-1-receptor-immunopositive-neurons-in-the-medullary-dorsal-horn-provide-collateral-axons-to-both-the-thalamus-and-parabrachial-nucleus-in-rats
#3
Xu Li, Shun-Nan Ge, Yang Li, Han-Tao Wang
It has been suggested that the trigemino-thalamic and trigemino-parabrachial projection neurons in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) are highly implicated in the sensory-discriminative and emotional/affective aspects of orofacial pain, respectively. In previous studies, some neurons were reported to send projections to both the thalamus and parabrachial nucleus by way of collaterals in the MDH. However, little is known about the chemoarchitecture of this group of neurons. Thus, in the present study, we determined whether the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor, which is crucial for primary orofacial pain signaling, was expressed in MDH neurons co-innervating the thalamus and parabrachial nucleus...
January 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011073/behavioral-effects-and-neuroanatomical-targets-of-acute-atrazine-exposure-in-the-male-sprague-dawley-rat
#4
V M Rodriguez, M S Mendoza-Trejo, I Hernandez-Plata, M Giordano
Atrazine (ATR) is an herbicide broadly used in the world to control weeds in corn and sorghum fields, and it is potentially toxic for the dopaminergic system. Alterations in dopaminergic markers after ATR administration in rats and C57BL/6 mice have been reported. Behaviorally, it has been observed that ATR exposure causes hypoactivity shortly after its administration. To understand how acute ATR administration induces hypoactivity, we set out to map the brain areas responsive to ATR using c-Fos as a marker of neuronal activity, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) as a marker of dopaminergic neurons...
December 21, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007991/genetic-inactivation-of-glutamate-neurons-in-the-rat-sublaterodorsal-tegmental-nucleus-recapitulates-rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder
#5
Sara Valencia Garcia, Paul-Antoine Libourel, Michael Lazarus, Daniela Grassi, Pierre-Hervé Luppi, Patrice Fort
Idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by the enactment of violent dreams during paradoxical (REM) sleep in the absence of normal muscle atonia. Accumulating clinical and experimental data suggest that REM sleep behaviour disorder might be due to the neurodegeneration of glutamate neurons involved in paradoxical sleep and located within the pontine sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus. The purpose of the present work was thus to functionally determine first, the role of glutamate sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus neurons in paradoxical sleep and second, whether their genetic inactivation is sufficient for recapitulating REM sleep behaviour disorder in rats...
December 21, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998287/the-thalamic-mglur1-plc%C3%AE-4-pathway-is-critical-in-sleep-architecture
#6
Joohyeon Hong, Jungryun Lee, Kiyeong Song, Go Eun Ha, Yong Ryoul Yang, Ji Su Ma, Masahiro Yamamoto, Hee-Sup Shin, Pann-Ghill Suh, Eunji Cheong
The transition from wakefulness to a nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep state at the onset of sleep involves a transition from low-voltage, high-frequency irregular electroencephalography (EEG) waveforms to large-amplitude, low-frequency EEG waveforms accompanying synchronized oscillatory activity in the thalamocortical circuit. The thalamocortical circuit consists of reciprocal connections between the thalamus and cortex. The cortex sends strong excitatory feedback to the thalamus, however the function of which is unclear...
December 21, 2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939427/a-developmental-study-of-glutamatergic-neuron-populations-in-the-ventrobasal-and-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-comparing-genetic-absence-rats-from-strasbourg-gaers-and-normal-control-wistar-rats
#7
Özlem Kirazlı, Safiye Çavdar, Sercan Yıldızel, Filiz Onat, Erkan Kaptanoğlu
An imbalance of GABAergic inhibition and glutamatergic excitation is suspected to be the cause of absence epileptic seizures. Absence seizures are known to be generated in thalamocortical circuitry. In the present study we used light microscopy immunohistochemistry to quantify the density of glutamate+ve neurons at two developmental stages (P10 and P60) in two thalamic nuclei, the ventrobasal (VB) and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in Wistar rats and compared the results with similar data obtained from genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS)...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920977/neurochemical-changes-in-patients-with-chronic-low-back-pain-detected-by-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Xianjing Zhao, Maosheng Xu, Kristen Jorgenson, Jian Kong
BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a highly prevalent health problem around the world, affecting 50% to 85% of people at some point in life. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the previous proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies on brain chemical changes in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). METHODS: We identified relevant studies from a literature search of PubMed and EMBASE from 1980 to March 2016. Data extraction was performed on the subjects' characteristics, MRS methods, spectral analyses, cerebral metabolites and perceptual measurements...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893013/proton-chemical-shift-imaging-of-the-brain-in-pediatric-and-adult-developmental-stuttering
#9
Joseph O'Neill, Zhengchao Dong, Ravi Bansal, Iliyan Ivanov, Xuejun Hao, Jay Desai, Elena Pozzi, Bradley S Peterson
Importance: Developmental stuttering is a neuropsychiatric condition of incompletely understood brain origin. Our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study indicates a possible partial basis of stuttering in circuits enacting self-regulation of motor activity, attention, and emotion. Objective: To further characterize the neurophysiology of stuttering through in vivo assay of neurometabolites in suspect brain regions. Design, Setting, and Participants: Proton chemical shift imaging of the brain was performed in a case-control study of children and adults with and without stuttering...
January 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772535/1h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-evidence-for-occipital-involvement-in-treatment-naive-paediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
Maria Ljungberg, Marie K L Nilsson, Karin Melin, Lars Jönsson, Arvid Carlsson, Åsa Carlsson, Eva Forssell-Aronsson, Tord Ivarsson, Maria Carlsson, Göran Starck
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder leading to considerable distress and disability. Therapies are effective in a majority of paediatric patients, however, many only get partial response. It is therefore important to study the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. METHODS: 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to study the concentration of brain metabolites in four different locations (cingulate gyrus and sulcus, occipital cortex, thalamus and right caudate nucleus)...
October 24, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743932/brain-mglur5-in-mice-with-amyloid-beta-pathology-studied-with-in%C3%A2-vivo-11-c-abp688-pet-imaging-and-ex%C3%A2-vivo-immunoblotting
#11
Xiaotian T Fang, Jonas Eriksson, Gunnar Antoni, Ulrika Yngve, Linda Cato, Lars Lannfelt, Dag Sehlin, Stina Syvänen
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) into insoluble plaques. Intermediates, Aβ oligomers (Aβo), appear to be the mechanistic cause of disease. The de facto PET AD ligand, [(11)C]PIB, binds and visualizes Aβ plaque load, which does not correlate well with disease severity. Therefore, finding a dynamic target that changes with pathology progression in AD is of great interest. Aβo alter synaptic plasticity, inhibit long-term potentiation, and facilitate long-term depression; key mechanisms involved in memory and learning...
February 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725171/psychotomimetic-effects-of-different-doses-of-mk-801-and-the-underlying-mechanisms-in-a-selective-memory-impairment-model
#12
Weiqing Liu, Dong Wang, Wenjuan Hong, Yi Yu, Jinsong Tang, Jicai Wang, Fang Liu, Xiufeng Xu, Liwen Tan, Xiaogang Chen
Although N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists-induced hypoglutamate rodent models are the most well-established models for preclinical studies of schizophrenia-related deficits, they also evoke a wide spectrum of psychotomimetic side effects. It is significant to increase the specificity of hypoglutamate rodent models. In this study, the recognition memory was evaluated in rats by object recognition test (ORT), sensorimotor gating was evaluated by prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI), and locomotor activity was measured using open field test...
October 8, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717093/spatial-variability-and-reproducibility-of-gaba-edited-mega-laser-3d-mrsi-in-the-brain-at-3%C3%A2-t
#13
Petra Hnilicová, Michal Považan, Bernhard Strasser, Ovidiu C Andronesi, Martin Gajdošík, Ulrike Dydak, Jozef Ukropec, Dušan Dobrota, Siegfried Trattnig, Wolfgang Bogner
The reproducibility of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) quantification results, obtained with MRSI, was determined on a 3 T MR scanner in healthy adults. In this study, a spiral-encoded, GABA-edited, MEGA-LASER MRSI sequence with real-time motion-scanner-instability corrections was applied for robust 3D mapping of neurotransmitters in the brain. In particular, the GABA(+) (i.e. GABA plus macromolecule contamination) and Glx (i.e. glutamate plus glutamine contamination) signal was measured. This sequence enables 3D-MRSI with about 3 cm(3) nominal resolution in about 20 min...
October 7, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649042/combined-glutamate-and-glutamine-levels-in-pain-processing-brain-regions-are-associated-with-individual-pain-sensitivity
#14
Matthias Zunhammer, Lauren M Schweizer, Vanessa Witte, Richard E Harris, Ulrike Bingel, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke
The relationship between glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the living human brain and pain sensitivity is unknown. Combined glutamine/glutamate (Glx), as well as GABA levels can be measured in vivo with single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed at determining whether Glx and/or GABA levels in pain-related brain regions are associated with individual differences in pain sensitivity. Experimental heat, cold, and mechanical pain thresholds were obtained from 39 healthy, drug-free individuals (25 men) according to the quantitative sensory testing protocol and summarized into 1 composite measure of pain sensitivity...
October 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639291/labile-glutamate-signaling-onto-ca1-pyramidal-cells-in-the-developing-hippocampus-depends-mechanistically-on-input-pathway
#15
Rong Ma, Minyi Xiao, Bengt Gustafsson
The apical dendrite of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells receives information from the entorhinal cortex via the dentate gyrus and CA3 (Schaffer-collateral (SC) input) proximally within the stratum radiatum (SR) and directly from the entorhinal cortex/thalamus distally within the stratum lacunosum-moleculare (SLM). During the early postnatal development, very low/low frequency (0.033-1Hz) activation of previously non-stimulated (naïve) SC synapses (SR-CA1 synapses) results in a stimulus-, but not frequency-, dependent depression which is explained by postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) silencing...
September 14, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595552/dopamine-fronto-striato-thalamic-circuits-and-risk-for-psychosis
#16
Orwa Dandash, Christos Pantelis, Alex Fornito
A series of parallel, integrated circuits link distinct regions of prefrontal cortex with specific nuclei of the striatum and thalamus. Dysfunction of these fronto-striato-thalamic systems is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of psychosis. In this review, we examine evidence from human and animal investigations that dysfunction of a specific dorsal fronto-striato-thalamic circuit, linking the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal (associative) striatum, and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus, is apparent across different stages of psychosis, including prior to the onset of a first episode, suggesting that it represents a candidate risk biomarker...
August 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578016/neurochemistry-of-the-anterior-thalamic-nuclei
#17
Witold Żakowski
This paper reviews the distribution of several bioactive substances and their possible physiological roles in the anterior thalamic nuclei of various species, with a special emphasis on the rat. The anterior thalamus is a part of extended hippocampal system and its significance for learning and memory processes is well known. Although our knowledge about a specific role of this brain structure has increased in recent years considerably, this is the first attempt to summarize neurochemical diversity of the anterior thalamus...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576166/whole-brain-patterns-of-1-h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-imaging-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#18
L Su, A M Blamire, R Watson, J He, L Hayes, J T O'Brien
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has demonstrated metabolite changes in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB); however, their pattern and relationship to clinical symptoms is unclear. To determine whether the spatial patterns of brain-metabolite changes in AD and DLB are regional or diffused, and to examine whether the key metabolite levels are associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms, we acquired whole-brain spatially resolved 3T magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) data from subjects with AD (N=36), DLB (N=35) and similarly aged controls (N=35)...
August 30, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547969/creatine-glutamine-plus-glutamate-and-macromolecules-are-decreased-in-the-central-white-matter-of-premature-neonates-around-term
#19
Meriam Koob, Angèle Viola, Yann Le Fur, Patrick Viout, Hélène Ratiney, Sylviane Confort-Gouny, Patrick J Cozzone, Nadine Girard
Preterm birth represents a high risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities when associated with white-matter damage. Recent studies have reported cognitive deficits in children born preterm without brain injury on MRI at term-equivalent age. Understanding the microstructural and metabolic underpinnings of these deficits is essential for their early detection. Here, we used diffusion-weighted imaging and single-voxel 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to compare brain maturation at term-equivalent age in premature neonates with no evidence of white matter injury on conventional MRI except diffuse excessive high-signal intensity, and normal term neonates...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545713/the-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-1-mediates-experience-dependent-maintenance-of-mature-synaptic-connectivity-in-the-visual-thalamus
#20
Madoka Narushima, Motokazu Uchigashima, Yuki Yagasaki, Takeshi Harada, Yasuyuki Nagumo, Naofumi Uesaka, Kouichi Hashimoto, Atsu Aiba, Masahiko Watanabe, Mariko Miyata, Masanobu Kano
Neural circuits formed during postnatal development have to be maintained stably thereafter, but their mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we report that the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1) is essential for the maintenance of mature synaptic connectivity in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). In mGluR1 knockout (mGluR1-KO) mice, strengthening and elimination at retinogeniculate synapses occurred normally until around postnatal day 20 (P20). However, during the subsequent visual-experience-dependent maintenance phase, weak retinogeniculate synapses were newly recruited...
September 7, 2016: Neuron
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