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Thalamus glutamate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803850/association-of-exposure-to-manganese-and-iron-with-striatal-and-thalamic-gaba-and-other-neurometabolites-neuroimaging-results-from-the-weldox-ii-study
#1
Swaantje Casjens, Urike Dydak, Shalmali Dharmadhikari, Anne Lotz, Martin Lehnert, Clara Quetscher, Christoph Stewig, Benjamin Glaubitz, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, David Edmondson, Chien-Lin Yeh, Tobias Weiss, Christoph van Thriel, Lennard Herrmann, Siegfried Muhlack, Dirk Woitalla, Michael Aschner, Thomas Brüning, Beate Pesch
OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive method to quantify neurometabolite concentrations in the brain. Within the framework of the WELDOX II study, we investigated the association of exposure to manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and other neurometabolites in the striatum and thalamus of 154 men. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GABA-edited and short echo-time MRS at 3T was used to assess brain levels of GABA, glutamate, total creatine (tCr) and other neurometabolites...
August 10, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796815/effect-of-teriflunomide-on-cortex-basal-ganglia-thalamus-cxbgth-circuit-glutamatergic-dysregulation-in-the-theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis-virus-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Claire M Modica, Ferdinand Schweser, Michelle L Sudyn, Nicola Bertolino, Marilena Preda, Paul Polak, Danielle M Siebert, Jacqueline C Krawiecki, Michele Sveinsson, Jesper Hagemeier, Michael G Dwyer, Suyog Pol, Robert Zivadinov
BACKGROUND: Pathology of gray matter is associated with development of physical and cognitive disability in patients with multiple sclerosis. In particular, glutamatergic dysregulation in the cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus (CxBGTh) circuit could be associated with decline in these behaviors. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of an immunomodulatory therapy (teriflunomide, Aubagio®) on changes of the CxBGTh loop in the Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus, (TMEV) mouse model of MS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794459/multiple-excitatory-actions-of-orexins-upon-thalamo-cortical-neurons-in-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-implications-for-vision-modulation-by-arousal
#3
Lukasz Chrobok, Katarzyna Palus-Chramiec, Anna Chrzanowska, Mariusz Kepczynski, Marian Henryk Lewandowski
The orexinergic system of the lateral hypothalamus plays a crucial role in maintaining wakefulness and mediating arousal in a circadian time-dependent manner. Due to the extensive connections of orexinergic neurons, both orexins (OXA and OXB) exert mainly excitatory effects upon remote brain areas, including the thalamus. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (DLG) is a relay thalamic centre for the visual system. Its thalamo-cortical (TC) neurons convey photic information from the retina to the primary visual cortex...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772144/epileptic-rat-brain-tissue-analyzed-by-2d-correlation-raman-spectroscopy
#4
Julia Sacharz, Aleksandra Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Janina Zięba-Palus, Marian H Lewandowski, Rafał Kowalski, Katarzyna Palus, Łukasz Chrobok, Paulina Moskal, Malwina Birczyńska, Agnieszka Sozańska
Absence epilepsy is the neurological disorder characterized by the pathological spike-and wave discharges present in the electroencephalogram, accompanying a sudden loss of consciousness. Experiments were performed on brain slices obtained from young male WAG/Rij rats (2-3weeks old), so that they were sampled before the appearance of brain-damaging seizures symptoms. Two differing brain areas of the rats' brain tissue were studied: the somatosensory cortex (Sc) and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (DLG)...
July 25, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726540/mechanisms-of-the-analgesic-effect-of-calcitonin-on-chronic-pain-by-alteration-of-receptor-or-channel-expression
#5
Akitoshi Ito, Megumu Yoshimura
The polypeptide hormone calcitonin is well known clinically for its ability to relieve osteoporotic back pain and neuropathic pain such as spinal canal stenosis, diabetic neuropathy, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, and complex regional pain syndrome. Because the analgesic effects of calcitonin have a broad range, the underlying mechanisms of pain relief by calcitonin are largely unknown. However, recent studies using several types of chronic pain models combined with various methods have been gradually clarifying the mechanism...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711710/comparison-of-the-role-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-1-in-developmental-refinement-of-neuronal-connectivity-between-the-cerebellum-and-the-sensory-thalamus
#6
REVIEW
Madoka Narushima
Developmental refinement of neuronal connectivity is crucial for proper brain function. In the early phase of development, input fibers arrive at their target areas guided by specific molecular cues and form abundant immature synapses. Then, functionally important synapses are preserved and strengthened by neural activity while unnecessary synapses are eliminated. Afferent synapses in the sensory thalamus, such as from retina to lateral geniculate nucleus, and climbing fiber (CF)-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses in the cerebellum are valuable models for studying this developmental refinement of synaptic connectivity because only a limited number of input fibers innervate a given postsynaptic thalamocortical (TC) neuron or PC...
July 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689926/ablation-of-ib4-non-peptidergic-afferents-in-the-rat-facet-joint-prevents-injury-induced-pain-and-thalamic-hyperexcitability-via-supraspinal-glutamate-transporters
#7
Christine L Weisshaar, Jeffrey V Kras, Parul S Pall, Sonia Kartha, Beth A Winkelstein
The facet joint is a common source of neck pain, particularly after excessive stretch of its capsular ligament. Peptidergic afferents have been shown to have an important role in the development and maintenance of mechanical hyperalgesia, dysregulated nociceptive signaling, and spinal hyperexcitability that develop after mechanical injury to the facet joint. However, the role of non-peptidergic isolectin-B4 (IB4) cells in mediating joint pain is unknown. Isolectin-B4 saporin (IB4-SAP) was injected into the facet joint to ablate non-peptidergic cells, and the facet joint later underwent a ligament stretch known to induce pain...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686214/current-study-of-the-mechanism-of-action-of-the-potential-anti-epileptic-agent-q808
#8
Xiang Li, Hong-Jian Zhang, Qing Wang, Dian-Wen Zhang, Di Wu, Wei Li, Zhe-Shan Quan
Our previous study showed that the anticonvulsant Q808 might be effective against seizures induced by maximal electroshock, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), isoniazid (ISO), thiosemicarbazide (THIO), and 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MP). In the present study, we explored the possible mechanism of action of Q808. Results obtained with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) suggest that Q808 may affect neurotransmitter content in the brain, by specifically increasing GABA content in the rat hippocampus at doses of 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg, and by reducing the content of glutamate and glutamine in the rat thalamus at a dose of 80 mg/kg...
July 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651369/reduced-thalamus-volume-may-reflect-nicotine-severity-in-young-male-smokers
#9
Dahua Yu, Kai Yuan, Jiadong Cheng, Yanyan Guan, Yangding Li, Yanzhi Bi, Jinquan Zhai, Lin Luo, Bo Liu, Ting Xue, Xiaoqi Lu
Introduction: Nicotine acts as an agonist at presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and to facilitate synaptic release of several neurotransmitters including dopamine and glutamate. The thalamus has the highest density of nAChRs in the brain, which may make this area be more vulnerable to the addictive effects of nicotine. However, the volume of thalamus abnormalities and the association with smoking behaviors in young smokers remains unknown. Methods: Thirty-six young male smokers and 36 age-, gender- and education-matched nonsmokers participated in current study...
June 23, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546212/rapid-binge-like-eating-and-body-weight-gain-driven-by-zona-incerta-gaba-neuron-activation
#10
Xiaobing Zhang, Anthony N van den Pol
The neuronal substrate for binge eating, which can at times lead to obesity, is not clear. We find that optogenetic stimulation of mouse zona incerta (ZI) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons or their axonal projections to paraventricular thalamus (PVT) excitatory neurons immediately (in 2 to 3 seconds) evoked binge-like eating. Minimal intermittent stimulation led to body weight gain; ZI GABA neuron ablation reduced weight. ZI stimulation generated 35% of normal 24-hour food intake in just 10 minutes. The ZI cells were excited by food deprivation and the gut hunger signal ghrelin...
May 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538174/schizophrenia-related-microdeletion-impairs-emotional-memory-through-microrna-dependent-disruption-of-thalamic-inputs-to-the-amygdala
#11
Tae-Yeon Eom, Ildar T Bayazitov, Kara Anderson, Jing Yu, Stanislav S Zakharenko
Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at high risk of developing psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Individuals with 22q11DS and schizophrenia are impaired in emotional memory, anticipating, recalling, and assigning a correct context to emotions. The neuronal circuits responsible for these emotional memory deficits are unknown. Here, we show that 22q11DS mouse models have disrupted synaptic transmission at thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala (thalamo-LA projections). This synaptic deficit is caused by haploinsufficiency of the 22q11DS gene Dgcr8, which is involved in microRNA processing, and is mediated by the increased dopamine receptor Drd2 levels in the thalamus and by reduced probability of glutamate release from thalamic inputs...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485844/neuropeptides-and-neurotransmitters-that-modulate-thalamo-cortical-pathways-relevant-to-migraine-headache
#12
REVIEW
Rodrigo Noseda, David Borsook, Rami Burstein
Dynamic thalamic regulation of sensory signals allows the cortex to adjust better to rapidly changing behavioral, physiological, and environmental demands. To fulfill this role, thalamic neurons must themselves be subjected to constantly changing modulatory inputs that originate in multiple neurochemical pathways involved in autonomic, affective, and cognitive functions. This review defines a chemical framework for thinking about the complexity of factors that modulate the response properties of relay trigeminovascular thalamic neurons...
May 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414797/big1-is-required-for-the-survival-of-deep-layer-neurons-neuronal-polarity-and-the-formation-of-axonal-tracts-between-the-thalamus-and-neocortex-in-developing-brain
#13
Jia-Jie Teoh, Tomohiko Iwano, Masataka Kunii, Nur Atik, Erda Avriyanti, Shin-Ichiro Yoshimura, Kenta Moriwaki, Akihiro Harada
BIG1, an activator protein of the small GTPase, Arf, and encoded by the Arfgef1 gene, is one of candidate genes for epileptic encephalopathy. To know the involvement of BIG1 in epileptic encephalopathy, we analyzed BIG1-deficient mice and found that BIG1 regulates neurite outgrowth and brain development in vitro and in vivo. The loss of BIG1 decreased the size of the neocortex and hippocampus. In BIG1-deficient mice, the neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) and the interneurons were unaffected. However, Tbr1+ and Ctip2+ deep layer (DL) neurons showed spatial-temporal dependent apoptosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405611/long-term-follow-up-of-a-randomized-aav2-gad-gene-therapy-trial-for-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Martin Niethammer, Chris C Tang, Peter A LeWitt, Ali R Rezai, Maureen A Leehey, Steven G Ojemann, Alice W Flaherty, Emad N Eskandar, Sandra K Kostyk, Atom Sarkar, Mustafa S Siddiqui, Stephen B Tatter, Jason M Schwalb, Kathleen L Poston, Jaimie M Henderson, Roger M Kurlan, Irene H Richard, Christine V Sapan, David Eidelberg, Matthew J During, Michael G Kaplitt, Andrew Feigin
BACKGROUND. We report the 12-month clinical and imaging data on the effects of bilateral delivery of the glutamic acid decarboxylase gene into the subthalamic nuclei (STN) of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. METHODS. 45 PD patients were enrolled in a 6-month double-blind randomized trial of bilateral AAV2-GAD delivery into the STN compared with sham surgery and were followed for 12 months in open-label fashion. Subjects were assessed with clinical outcome measures and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395733/optical-control-of-pain-in-vivo-with-a-photoactive-mglu5-receptor-negative-allosteric-modulator
#15
Joan Font, Marc López-Cano, Serena Notartomaso, Pamela Scarselli, Paola Di Pietro, Roger Bresolí-Obach, Giuseppe Battaglia, Fanny Malhaire, Xavier Rovira, Juanlo Catena, Jesús Giraldo, Jean-Philippe Pin, Víctor Fernández-Dueñas, Cyril Goudet, Santi Nonell, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Amadeu Llebaria, Francisco Ciruela
Light-operated drugs constitute a major target in drug discovery, since they may provide spatiotemporal resolution for the treatment of complex diseases (i.e. chronic pain). JF-NP-26 is an inactive photocaged derivative of the metabotropic glutamate type 5 (mGlu5) receptor negative allosteric modulator raseglurant. Violet light illumination of JF-NP-26 induces a photochemical reaction prompting the active-drug's release, which effectively controls mGlu5 receptor activity both in ectopic expressing systems and in striatal primary neurons...
April 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384468/genetically-distinct-parallel-pathways-in-the-entopeduncular-nucleus-for-limbic-and-sensorimotor-output-of-the-basal-ganglia
#16
Michael L Wallace, Arpiar Saunders, Kee Wui Huang, Adrienne C Philson, Melissa Goldman, Evan Z Macosko, Steven A McCarroll, Bernardo L Sabatini
The basal ganglia (BG) integrate inputs from diverse sensorimotor, limbic, and associative regions to guide action-selection and goal-directed behaviors. The entopeduncular nucleus (EP) is a major BG output nucleus and has been suggested to channel signals from distinct BG nuclei to target regions involved in diverse functions. Here we use single-cell transcriptional and molecular analyses to demonstrate that the EP contains at least three classes of projection neurons-glutamate/GABA co-releasing somatostatin neurons, glutamatergic parvalbumin neurons, and GABAergic parvalbumin neurons...
April 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350371/a-neurophysiological-perspective-on-a-preventive-treatment-against-schizophrenia-using-transcranial-electric-stimulation-of-the-corticothalamic-pathway
#17
REVIEW
Didier Pinault
Schizophrenia patients are waiting for a treatment free of detrimental effects. Psychotic disorders are devastating mental illnesses associated with dysfunctional brain networks. Ongoing brain network gamma frequency (30-80 Hz) oscillations, naturally implicated in integrative function, are excessively amplified during hallucinations, in at-risk mental states for psychosis and first-episode psychosis. So, gamma oscillations represent a bioelectrical marker for cerebral network disorders with prognostic and therapeutic potential...
March 28, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324056/gabaergic-neurons-and-their-modulatory-effects-on-gnrh3-in-zebrafish
#18
Yanlong Song, Binbin Tao, Ji Chen, Shaoting Jia, Zuoyan Zhu, Vance L Trudeau, Wei Hu
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major amino acid neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. To provide detailed information on the distribution of the GABA in zebrafish (Danio rerio), neurons were labeled with mCherry driven by the glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (gad67) promoter. In the transgenic line Tg(gad67:mCherry), mCherry-positive gad67 cell bodies were predominantly localized to the olfactory bulb, pallial zones, subpallium zones, parvocellular preoptic nucleus, periventricular gray zone of optic tectum, torus semicircularis, posterior tuberculum, medial longitudinal fascicle, caudal zone of periventricular hypothalamus, and oculomotor nucleus...
April 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320235/methanol-extract-of-nigella-sativa-seed-induces-changes-in-the-levels-of-neurotransmitter-amino-acids-in-male-rat-brain-regions
#19
Tarek El-Naggar, María Emilia Carretero, Carmen Arce, María Pilar Gómez-Serranillos
CONTEXT: Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) (NS) has been used for medicinal and culinary purposes. Different parts of the plant are used to treat many disorders. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effects of NS methanol extract on brain neurotransmitter amino acid levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured the changes in aspartate, glutamate, glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid in five brain regions of male Wistar rats after methanol extract treatment...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275829/endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-rat-brain-is-downregulated-by-sub-chronic-antidepressant-treatment
#20
Yuta Yoshino, Shinichiro Ochi, Kiyohiro Yamazaki, Shunsuke Nakata, Jun-Ichi Iga, Shu-Ichi Ueno
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is a neurotransmitter that may be related to major depressive disorder (MDD) because the selective neuronal NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole, induces a dose-dependent antidepressant-like effect. NO modulates major neurotransmitters involved in the neurobiology of MDD, such as norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate. In this study, we investigated the effects of antidepressants as NO modulators in acute and sub-chronic treatments. METHODS: Rats were injected with the SSRI paroxetine (PAR, 10 mg/kg), the SNRI milnacipran (MIL, 30 mg/kg), or the NaSSA mirtazapine (MIR, 10 mg/kg) for acute (1 h) or sub-chronic (3 weeks) treatment prior to analysis of nine brain regions (frontal cortex, temporal cortex, striatum, thalamus, hippocampus, midbrain, pons, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb)...
March 8, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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