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Thalamus glutamate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314192/parvalbumin-producing-striatal-interneurons-receive-excitatory-inputs-onto-proximal-dendrites-from-the-motor-thalamus-in-male-mice
#1
Yasutake Nakano, Fuyuki Karube, Yasuharu Hirai, Kenta Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Hioki, Shinichiro Okamoto, Hiroshi Kameda, Fumino Fujiyama
In rodents, the dorsolateral striatum regulates voluntary movement by integrating excitatory inputs from the motor-related cerebral cortex and thalamus to produce contingent inhibitory output to other basal ganglia nuclei. Striatal parvalbumin (PV)-producing interneurons receiving this excitatory input then inhibit medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and modify their outputs. To understand basal ganglia function in motor control, it is important to reveal the precise synaptic organization of motor-related cortical and thalamic inputs to striatal PV interneurons...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286866/omega-3-fatty-acid-deficiency-impairs-frontostriatal-recruitment-following-repeated-amphetamine-treatment-in-rats-a-7-tesla-in-vivo-phmri-study
#2
Robert K McNamara, Jennifer D Schurdak, Ruth H Asch, Diana M Lindquist
Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with deficits in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid implicated in dopamine and glutamate synaptic plasticity, its role in neuroplastic brain changes that occur following repeated amphetamine (AMPH) treatment are not known. This study used pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the impact of repeated AMPH exposure and alterations in brain DHA levels on AMPH-induced brain activation patterns. Male rats were fed a diet with no n-3 fatty acids (Deficient, DEF, n = 20), a diet fortified with preformed DHA (fish oil, FO, n = 20), or a control diet fortified with alpha-linolenic acid (n = 20) from P21 to P90...
December 29, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282124/memory-retrieval-in-addiction-a-role-for-mir-105-mediated-regulation-of-d1-receptors-in-mpfc-neurons-projecting-to-the-basolateral-amygdala
#3
Yanfang Zhao, Junfang Zhang, Hualan Yang, Dongyang Cui, Jiaojiao Song, Qianqian Ma, Wenjie Luan, Bin Lai, Lan Ma, Ming Chen, Ping Zheng
BACKGROUND: Drug addiction is a chronic brain disorder characterized by the compulsive use of drugs. The study of chronic morphine-induced adaptation in the brain and its functional significance is of importance to understand the mechanism of morphine addiction. Previous studies have found a number of chronic morphine-induced adaptive changes at molecular levels in the brain. A study from our lab showed that chronic morphine-induced increases in the expression of D1 receptors at presynaptic terminals coming from other structures to the basolateral amygdala (BLA) played an important role in environmental cue-induced retrieval of morphine withdrawal memory...
December 27, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236991/neurochemical-changes-in-the-medial-wall-of-the-brain-in-chronic-migraine
#4
David M Niddam, Kuan-Lin Lai, Shang-Yueh Tsai, Yi-Ru Lin, Wei-Ta Chen, Jong-Ling Fuh, Shuu-Jiun Wang
Migraine chronification is associated with a dysfunctional thalamocortical pathway. The present study addressed whether abnormal concentrations of neurochemicals exist in key brain regions of this pathway in chronic migraine. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of the bilateral medial walls of the brain was used to measure choline, creatine, glutamate and glutamine, myo-inositol, and N-acetyl-aspartate in chronic migraine patients and in matched groups of episodic migraine patients and healthy controls...
December 11, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203059/increased-glutamate%C3%A2-glutamine-levels-in-the-thalamus-of-patients-with-essential-tremor-a-preliminary-proton-mr-spectroscopic-study
#5
Gaetano Barbagallo, Gennarina Arabia, Fabiana Novellino, Rita Nisticò, Maria Salsone, Maurizio Morelli, Federico Rocca, Andrea Quattrone, Manuela Caracciolo, Umberto Sabatini, Andrea Cherubini, Aldo Quattrone
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the thalamic biochemical profile in patients with essential tremor (ET), using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and to explore the correlations between clinical and biochemical data. METHODS: Sixteen patients with ET and 14 healthy controls participated in this study. After conventional MR imaging, single-voxel 1H-MRS (TR = 2000 ms; TE = 28 ms) was performed by using a PROBE-SV system implemented on a 3-T scanner...
November 28, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097780/in-vivo-monitoring-for-regional-changes-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-1-mglur1-in-pilocarpine-induced-epileptic-rat-brain-by-small-animal-pet
#6
Tomoteru Yamasaki, Masayuki Fujinaga, Wakana Mori, Yiding Zhang, Hidekatsu Wakizaka, Nobuki Nengaki, Lin Xie, Akiko Hatori, Ming-Rong Zhang
Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1) is a crucial pharmacological target for several central nervous system disorders. In this study, we aimed to monitor in vivo regional changes of mGluR1 related to neuroinflammation in the brains of rats after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PISE) using longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET). PISE was induced in rats by administering lithium chloride, followed by repeated pilocarpine hydrochloride treatments. PET assessments were conducted using N-[4-[6-(isopropylamino)-pyrimidin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-N-methyl-4-[(11)C]methylbenzamide ([(11)C]ITDM), a selective radioligand for mGluR1, and N-benzyl-N-[(11)C]methyl-2-(7-methyl-8-oxo-2-phenyl-7,8-dihydro-9H-purin-9-yl)acetamide ([(11)C]DAC), a selective translocator protein PET ligand for neuroinflammation monitoring...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052613/dynorphin-counteracts-orexin-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-cellular-and-behavioral-evidence
#7
Alessandra Matzeu, Marsida Kallupi, Olivier George, Paul Schweitzer, Rémi Martin-Fardon
The orexin (Orx) system plays a critical role in drug addiction and reward-related behaviors. The dynorphin (Dyn) system promotes depressive-like behavior and plays a key role in the aversive effects of stress. Orx and Dyn are co-released and have opposing functions in reward and motivation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Previous studies suggested that OrxA transmission in the posterior paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (pPVT) participates in cocaine-seeking behavior. This study determined whether Orx and Dyn interact in the pPVT...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049903/glutamate-homeostasis-in-the-adult-rat-prefrontal-cortex-is-altered-by-cortical-docosahexaenoic-acid-accrual-during-adolescence-an-in-vivo-1-h-mrs-study
#8
Robert K McNamara, Ruth H Asch, Jennifer D Schurdak, Diana M Lindquist
Major psychiatric disorders are associated with dysregulated glutamate homeostasis and deficits in the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This study determined the effects of dietary-induced alterations in brain DHA accrual on cortical glutamate homeostasis in the adult rat brain. Adolescent rats were fed a control diet (n = 20), a n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet (DEF, n = 20), or a fish oil-fortified diet containing preformed DHA (FO, n = 20). In adulthood (1)H MRS scans were performed with voxels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and thalamus...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016806/differential-patterns-of-subcortical-activity-evoked-by-glial-glt-1-blockade-in-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-cortex-relationship-to-antidepressant-like-effects-in-rats
#9
Júlia Gasull-Camós, Maria Luisa Soto-Montenegro, Marta Casquero-Veiga, Manuel Desco, Francesc Artigas, Anna Castañé
Background: Glutamatergic neurotransmission has emerged as a novel target in antidepressant drug development, with a critical role of the ventral anterior cingulate cortex. We recently reported that blockade of the astrocytic glutamate transporter GLT-1 with dihydrokainic acid in infralimbic cortex (rodent equivalent of ventral anterior cingulate cortex), but not in the adjacent prelimbic cortex, evoked robust antidepressant-like effects through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor activation and increased serotonin release...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948610/the-%C3%AE-2a-adrenoceptor-suppresses-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-to-both-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neurons-in-layer-4-barrel-cortex
#10
Minoru Ohshima, Chiaki Itami, Fumitaka Kimura
KEY POINTS: The effects of noradrenaline on excitatory synaptic transmission to regular spiking (excitatory) cells as well as regular spiking non-pyramidal and fast spiking (both inhibitory) cells in cortical layer 4 were studied in thalamocortical slice preparations, focusing on vertical input from thalamus and layer 2/3 in the mouse barrel cortex. Excitatory synaptic responses were suppressed by noradrenaline. However, currents induced by iontophoretically applied glutamate were not suppressed...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941767/a-proton-mr-spectroscopy-study-of-the-thalamus-in-twins-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
John P Hegarty, Meng Gu, Daniel M Spielman, Sue C Cleveland, Joachim F Hallmayer, Laura C Lazzeroni, Mira M Raman, Thomas W Frazier, Jennifer M Phillips, Allan L Reiss, Antonio Y Hardan
Multiple lines of research have reported thalamic abnormalities in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that are associated with social communication impairments (SCI), restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB), or sensory processing abnormalities (SPA). Thus, the thalamus may represent a common neurobiological structure that is shared across symptom domains in ASD. Same-sex monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs with and without ASD underwent cognitive/behavioral evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging to assess the thalamus...
September 21, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934366/early-metabolite-changes-after-melatonin-treatment-in-neonatal-rats-with-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-studied-by-in-vivo1h-mr-spectroscopy
#12
Hester Rijkje Berger, Axel K G Nyman, Tora Sund Morken, Riyas Vettukattil, Ann-Mari Brubakk, Marius Widerøe
Melatonin is a promising neuroprotective agent after perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. We used in-vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate effects of melatonin treatment on brain metabolism after HI. Postnatal day 7 Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral HI brain injury were treated with either melatonin 10 mg/kg dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or vehicle (5% DMSO and/or PBS) directly and at 6 hours after HI. 1H MR spectra from the thalamus in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere were acquired 1 day after HI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927446/neurochemical-and-behavioral-characterization-of-neuronal-glutamate-transporter-eaat3-heterozygous-mice
#13
Luis F González, Francisca Henríquez-Belmar, Claudia Delgado-Acevedo, Marisol Cisternas-Olmedo, Gloria Arriagada, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate, Dennis L Murphy, Pablo R Moya
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe neuropsychiatric condition affecting 1-3% of the worldwide population. OCD has a strong genetic component, and the SLC1A1 gene that encodes neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3 is a strong candidate for this disorder. To evaluate the impact of reduced EAAT3 expression in vivo, we studied male EAAT3 heterozygous and wild-type littermate mice using a battery of behavioral paradigms relevant to anxiety (open field test, elevated plus maze) and compulsivity (marble burying), as well as locomotor activity induced by amphetamine...
September 19, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920084/effects-of-methamphetamine-on-locomotor-activity-and-thalamic-gene-expression-in-leptin-deficient-obese-mice
#14
Betina González, Candela González, Verónica Bisagno, Francisco J Urbano
Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that regulates energy balance. Leptin receptors are expressed in extrahypothalamic sites and several reports showed that leptin can influence feeding and locomotor behavior via direct actions on dopaminergic neurons. The leptin deficient mouse (ob/ob) has been used as an animal model of blunted leptin action, and presents with obesity and mild type 2 diabetes. We used ob/ob mice to study the effect of repeated 7-day methamphetamine (METH) administration analyzing locomotion, behavioral sensitization, and somatosensory thalamic mRNA expression of voltage-gated calcium channels and glutamatergic receptors using RT-PCR...
July 2017: Translational Brain Rhythmicity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913875/alterations-in-the-%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-ligand-thrombospondin-1-in-a-rat-model-of-spontaneous-absence-epilepsy-and-in-patients-with-idiopathic-genetic-generalized-epilepsies
#15
Ines Santolini, Roberta Celli, Milena Cannella, Tiziana Imbriglio, Michela Guiducci, Pasquale Parisi, Julian Schubert, Michele Iacomino, Federico Zara, Holger Lerche, Slavianka Moyanova, Richard Teke Ngomba, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Giuseppe Battaglia, Valeria Bruno, Pasquale Striano, Ferdinando Nicoletti
OBJECTIVES: Thrombospondins, which are known to interact with the α2 δ subunit of voltage-sensitive calcium channels to stimulate the formation of excitatory synapses, have recently been implicated in the process of epileptogenesis. No studies have been so far performed on thrombospondins in models of absence epilepsy. We examined whether expression of the gene encoding for thrombospondin-1 was altered in the brain of WAG/Rij rats, which model absence epilepsy in humans. In addition, we examined the frequency of genetic variants of THBS1 in a large cohort of children affected by idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsies (IGE/GGEs)...
November 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899919/astrocyte-mediated-neuronal-synchronization-properties-revealed-by-false-gliotransmitter-release
#16
Tiina M Pirttimaki, Robert E Sims, Gregory Saunders, Serena A Antonio, Neela Krushna Codadu, H Rheinallt Parri
Astrocytes spontaneously release glutamate (Glut) as a gliotransmitter (GT), resulting in the generation of extrasynaptic NMDAR-mediated slow inward currents (SICs) in neighboring neurons, which can increase local neuronal excitability. However, there is a deficit in our knowledge of the factors that control spontaneous astrocyte GT release and the extent of its influence. We found that, in rat brain slices, increasing the supply of the physiological transmitter Glut increased the frequency and signaling charge of SICs over an extended period...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884874/cerebral-dopaminergic-and-glutamatergic-transmission-relate-to-different-subjective-responses-of-acute-alcohol-intake-an-in-vivo-multimodal-imaging-study
#17
Gil Leurquin-Sterk, Jenny Ceccarini, Cleo Lina Crunelle, Akila Weerasekera, Bart de Laat, Uwe Himmelreich, Guy Bormans, Koen Van Laere
Converging preclinical evidence links extrastriatal dopamine release and glutamatergic transmission via the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) to the rewarding properties of alcohol. To date, human evidence is lacking on how and where in the brain these processes occur. Mesocorticolimbic dopamine release upon intravenous alcohol administration and mGluR5 availability were measured in 11 moderate social drinkers by single-session [(18) F]fallypride and [(18) F]FPEB positron emission tomography, respectively...
September 8, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831734/interactions-of-hallucinogens-with-the-glutamatergic-system-permissive-network-effects-mediated-through-cortical-layer-v-pyramidal-neurons
#18
Gerard J Marek
Recordings made from layer V (L5) pyramidal cells of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and neocortex in rodent slice preparations have shown that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and serotonergic hallucinogens induce an increase in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the apical dendritic field by activating 5-HT2A receptors. Serotonergic hallucinogens induce late EPSCs and increase recurrent network activity when subcortical or mid-cortical regions are stimulated at low frequencies (e...
August 23, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827326/cell-type-specific-inhibition-of-the-dendritic-plateau-potential-in-striatal-spiny-projection-neurons
#19
Kai Du, Yu-Wei Wu, Robert Lindroos, Yu Liu, Balázs Rózsa, Gergely Katona, Jun B Ding, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski
Striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) receive convergent excitatory synaptic inputs from the cortex and thalamus. Activation of spatially clustered and temporally synchronized excitatory inputs at the distal dendrites could trigger plateau potentials in SPNs. Such supralinear synaptic integration is crucial for dendritic computation. However, how plateau potentials interact with subsequent excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs remains unknown. By combining computational simulation, two-photon imaging, optogenetics, and dual-color uncaging of glutamate and GABA, we demonstrate that plateau potentials can broaden the spatiotemporal window for integrating excitatory inputs and promote spiking...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803850/association-of-exposure-to-manganese-and-iron-with-striatal-and-thalamic-gaba-and-other-neurometabolites-neuroimaging-results-from-the-weldox-ii-study
#20
Swaantje Casjens, Urike Dydak, Shalmali Dharmadhikari, Anne Lotz, Martin Lehnert, Clara Quetscher, Christoph Stewig, Benjamin Glaubitz, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, David Edmondson, Chien-Lin Yeh, Tobias Weiss, Christoph van Thriel, Lennard Herrmann, Siegfried Muhlack, Dirk Woitalla, Michael Aschner, Thomas Brüning, Beate Pesch
OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive method to quantify neurometabolite concentrations in the brain. Within the framework of the WELDOX II study, we investigated the association of exposure to manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and other neurometabolites in the striatum and thalamus of 154 men. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GABA-edited and short echo-time MRS at 3T was used to assess brain levels of GABA, glutamate, total creatine (tCr) and other neurometabolites...
August 11, 2017: Neurotoxicology
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