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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763576/g-i-protein-functions-in-thalamic-neurons-to-decrease-orofacial-nociceptive-response
#1
Jennifer Strand, Crystal Stinson, Larry L Bellinger, Yuan Peng, Phillip R Kramer
Orofacial pain includes neuronal pathways that project from the trigeminal nucleus to and through the thalamus. What role the ventroposterior thalamic complex (VP) has on orofacial pain transmission is not understood. To begin to address this question an inhibitory G protein (Gi) designer receptor exclusively activated by a designer drug (DREADD) was transfected in cells of the VP using adeno-associated virus isotype 8. Virus infected cells were identified by a fluorescent tag and immunostaining. Cells were silenced after injecting the designer drug clozapine-n-oxide, which binds the designer receptor activating Gi ...
May 12, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721851/deconstructing-schizophrenia-advances-in-preclinical-models-for-biomarker-identification
#2
Judith A Pratt, Brian Morris, Neil Dawson
Schizophrenia is considered to develop as a consequence of genetic and environmental factors impacting on brain neural systems and circuits during vulnerable neurodevelopmental periods, thereby resulting in symptoms in early adulthood. Understanding of the impact of schizophrenia risk factors on brain biology and behaviour can help in identifying biologically relevant pathways that are attractive for informing clinical studies and biomarker development. In this chapter, we emphasize the importance of adopting a reciprocal forward and reverse translation approach that is iteratively updated when additional new information is gained, either preclinically or clinically, for offering the greatest opportunity for discovering panels of biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of schizophrenia...
May 3, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680514/brain-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-serum-biomarkers-in-schizophrenia
#3
REVIEW
Alireza Mohammadi, Ehsan Rashidi, Vahid Ghasem Amooeian
Over the last decade, finding a reliable biomarker for the early detection of schizophrenia (Scz) has been a topic of interest. The main goal of the current review is to provide a comprehensive view of the brain, blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and serum biomarkers of Scz disease. Imaging studies have demonstrated that the volumes of the corpus callosum, thalamus, hippocampal formation, subiculum, parahippocampal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, and amygdala-hippocampal complex were reduced in patients diagnosed with Scz...
April 13, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658111/architectonic-characteristics-of-the-visual-thalamus-and-superior-colliculus-in-titi-monkeys
#4
Mary Kl Baldwin, Leah Krubitzer
Titi monkeys are arboreal, diurnal New World monkeys whose ancestors were the first surviving branch of the New World radiation. In the current study, we use cytoarchtectonic and immunohistochemical characteristics to compare subcortical structures associated with visual processing with those of other well-studied primates. Our goal was to appreciate features that are similar across all New World monkeys, and primates in general, versus those features that are unique to titi monkeys and other primate taxa. We examined tissue stained for Nissl substance, cytochrome oxidase (CO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), calbindin (Cb), parvalbumin (Pv), and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) to characterize the superior colliculus, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual pulvinar...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651654/in-the-telencephalon-glun2c-nmda-receptor-subunit-mrna-is-predominately-expressed-in-glial-cells-and-glun2d-mrna-in-interneurons
#5
Hassan A Alsaad, Nicholas W DeKorver, Zhihao Mao, Shashank M Dravid, Jyothi Arikkath, Daniel T Monaghan
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are widely distributed in the brain with high concentrations in the telencephalon where they modulate synaptic plasticity, working memory, and other functions. While the actions of the predominate GluN2 NMDAR subunits, GluN2A and GluN2B are relatively well understood, the function of GluN2C and GluN2D subunits in the telencephalon is largely unknown. To better understand the possible role of GluN2C subunits, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) together with multiple cell markers to define the distribution and type of cells expressing GluN2C mRNA...
April 12, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650024/vglut1-or-vglut2-mrna-positive-neurons-in-spinal-trigeminal-nucleus-provide-collateral-projections-to-both-the-thalamus-and-the-parabrachial-nucleus-in-rats
#6
Chun-Kui Zhang, Zhi-Hong Li, Yu Qiao, Ting Zhang, Ya-Cheng Lu, Tao Chen, Yu-Lin Dong, Yun-Qing Li, Jin-Lian Li
The trigemino-thalamic (T-T) and trigemino-parabrachial (T-P) pathways are strongly implicated in the sensory-discriminative and affective/emotional aspects of orofacial pain, respectively. These T-T and T-P projection fibers originate from the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vsp). We previously determined that many vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT1 and/or VGLUT2) mRNA-positive neurons were distributed in the Vsp of the adult rat, and most of these neurons sent their axons to the thalamus or cerebellum. However, whether VGLUT1 or VGLUT2 mRNA-positive projection neurons exist that send their axons to both the thalamus and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) has not been reported...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608930/atomoxetine-a-selective-norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibitor-improves-short-term-histological-outcomes-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-the-neonatal-male-rat
#7
Masatake Toshimitsu, Yoshimasa Kamei, Mari Ichinose, Takahiro Seyama, Shinya Imada, Takayuki Iriyama, Tomoyuki Fujii
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent progress of perinatal medicine, perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insult remains an important cause of brain injury in neonates, and is pathologically characterized by neuronal loss and the presence of microglia. Neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine (NE) and glutamate, are involved in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy via the interaction between neurons and microglia. Although it is well known that the monoamine neurotransmitter NE acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in the brain under pathological conditions, its effects on perinatal HI insult remains elusive...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608920/the-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-radioligand-11-c-azd9272-identifies-unique-binding-sites-in-primate-brain
#8
Katarina Varnäs, Anders Juréus, Sjoerd J Finnema, Peter Johnström, Patrick Raboisson, Nahid Amini, Akihiro Takano, Vladimir Stepanov, Christer Halldin, Lars Farde
The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is a target for drug development and for imaging studies of the glutamate system in neurological and psychiatric disorders. [11 C]AZD9272 is a selective mGluR5 PET radioligand that is structurally different from hitherto applied mGluR5 radioligands. In the present investigation we compared the binding patterns of radiolabeled AZD9272 and other mGluR5 radioligands in the non-human primate (NHP) brain. PET studies were undertaken using [11 C]AZD9272 and the commonly applied mGluR5 radioligand [11 C]ABP688...
March 30, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605418/selective-downregulation-of-vesicular-glutamate-transporter2-in-ventral-posterolateral-nucleus-of-thalamus-attenuates-neuropathic-mechanical-allodynia-in-mice
#9
Zhi-Ling Zhang, Gang Yu, Xiao-Nan Liang, Rui-Bin Su, Ze-Hui Gong
Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) transport glutamate into synaptic vesicles prior to exocytotic release. The expression pattern of VGLUT2 and studies of genetically modified mice have revealed that VGLUT2 contributes to neuropathic pain. We previously showed that VGLUT2 is upregulated in supraspinal regions including the thalamus in mice following spared nerve injury (SNI), and blocking VGLUTs using the VGLUT inhibitor CSB6B attenuated mechanical allodynia. To further evaluate the role of VGLUT2 in neuropathic pain, in this study, we developed a lentiviral vector expressing small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against mouse VGLUT2, which was injected into the ventral posterolateral (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus in the presence or absence of SNI...
March 29, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596688/age-related-susceptibility-to-epileptogenesis-and-neuronal-loss-in-male-fischer-rats-exposed-to-soman-and-treated-with-medical-countermeasures
#10
Brenda Marrero-Rosado, Franco Rossetti, Matthew W Rice, Mark C Moffett, Robyn Lee, Michael F Stone, Lucille A Lumley
Elderly individuals compose a large percentage of the world population; however, few studies have addressed the efficacy of current medical countermeasures (MCM) against the effects of chemical warfare nerve agent exposure in aged populations. We evaluated the efficacy of the anticonvulsant diazepam in an old adult rat model of soman (GD) poisoning and compared the toxic effects to those observed in young adult rats when anticonvulsant treatment is delayed. After determining their respective median lethal dose (LD50) of GD, we exposed young adult and old adult rats to an equitoxic 1...
March 27, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580804/neurometabolite-levels-in-antipsychotic-na%C3%A3-ve-free-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-1-h-mrs-studies
#11
REVIEW
Yusuke Iwata, Shinichiro Nakajima, Eric Plitman, Yukiko Mihashi, Fernando Caravaggio, Jun Ku Chung, Julia Kim, Philip Gerretsen, Masaru Mimura, Gary Remington, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
BACKGROUND: Studies using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) have reported altered neurometabolite levels in patients with schizophrenia. However, results are possibly confounded by the influence of antipsychotic (AP). Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to examine neurometabolite levels in AP-naïve/free patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline, and PsycINFO to identify studies that compared neurometabolite levels in AP-naïve/free patients with schizophrenia to healthy controls (HCs)...
March 23, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547778/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-as-drug-targets-for-the-treatment-of-absence-epilepsy
#12
REVIEW
Richard Teke Ngomba, Gilles van Luijtelaar
Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are expressed in key regions of the cortex and the thalamus and are known to regulate spike and wave discharges (SWDs), the electroclinical hallmarks of absence seizures. Recent preclinical studies have highlighted the therapeutic potential of selective group I and III mGlu receptor subtype allosteric modulators, which can suppress pathological SWDs. Of particular interest are positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) for mGlu5 receptors, as they currently show the most promise as novel anti-absence epilepsy drugs...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530756/axon-terminals-expressing-eaat2-glt-1-slc1a2-are-common-in-the-forebrain-and-not-limited-to-the-hippocampus
#13
Yun Zhou, Bjørnar Hassel, Tore Eid, Niels Christian Danbolt
The excitatory amino acid transporter type 2 (EAAT2) represents the major mechanism for removal of extracellular glutamate. In the hippocampus, there is some EAAT2 in axon-terminals, whereas most of the protein is found in astroglia. The functional importance of the neuronal EAAT2 is unknown, and it is debated whether EAAT2-expressing nerve terminals are present in other parts of the brain. Here we selectively deleted the EAAT2 gene in neurons (by crossing EAAT2-flox mice with synapsin 1-Cre mice in the C57B6 background)...
March 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524403/short-term-mastication-after-weaning-upregulates-gabaergic-signalling-and-reduces-dendritic-spine-in-thalamus
#14
Mana Ogawa, Toshitada Nagai, Yoshikazu Saito, Hitonari Miyaguchi, Kei Kumakura, Keiko Abe, Tomiko Asakura
Mastication enhances brain function and mental health, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of mastication on neural development in early childhood. Therefore, we analysed the gene expression in juvenile neural circuits in rats fed with a soft or chow diet immediately after weaning. We observed that the gene expression patterns in the thalamus varied depending on the diet. Furthermore, gene ontology analysis revealed that two terms were significantly enhanced: chemical synaptic transmission and positive regulation of dendritic spine morphogenesis...
April 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488277/the-increase-in-medial-prefrontal-glutamate-glutamine-concentration-during-memory-encoding-is-associated-with-better-memory-performance-and-stronger-functional-connectivity-in-the-human-medial-prefrontal-thalamus-hippocampus-network
#15
Jan-Willem Thielen, Donghyun Hong, Seyedmorteza Rohani Rankouhi, Jens Wiltfang, Guillén Fernández, David G Norris, Indira Tendolkar
The classical model of the declarative memory system describes the hippocampus and its interactions with representational brain areas in posterior neocortex as being essential for the formation of long-term episodic memories. However, new evidence suggests an extension of this classical model by assigning the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) a specific, yet not fully defined role in episodic memory. In this study, we utilized 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis to lend further support for the idea of a mnemonic role of the mPFC in humans...
June 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483660/multiple-long-range-inputs-evoke-nmda-currents-in-prefrontal-cortex-fast-spiking-interneurons
#16
Luke Joseph Bogart, Patricio O'Donnell
Several aspects of schizophrenia can be mimicked acutely in healthy human volunteers via administration of NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists. As these agents decrease firing rates in prefrontal cortical (PFC) GABAergic fast-spiking interneurons (FSI) in animal studies, a leading hypothesis on schizophrenia pathophysiology is that NMDAR in FSI are impaired. However, whole-cell recordings of FSI in slices of adult mouse PFC revealed limited amounts of NMDAR-mediated current. Since those studies used local electrical stimulation to activate a heterogeneous set of synaptic inputs to the recorded cell, it is unclear whether specific afferent inputs may preferentially drive NMDAR responses in FSI...
February 26, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467681/glutamate-levels-and-resting-cerebral-blood-flow-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-are-associated-at-rest-and-immediately-following-infusion-of-s-ketamine-in-healthy-volunteers
#17
Kirsten Borup Bojesen, Kasper Aagaard Andersen, Sophie Nordahl Rasmussen, Lone Baandrup, Line Malmer Madsen, Birte Yding Glenthøj, Egill Rostrup, Brian Villumsen Broberg
Progressive loss of brain tissue is seen in some patients with schizophrenia and might be caused by increased levels of glutamate and resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) alterations. Animal studies suggest that the normalisation of glutamate levels decreases rCBF and prevents structural changes in hippocampus. However, the relationship between glutamate and rCBF in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of humans has not been studied in the absence of antipsychotics and illness chronicity. Ketamine is a noncompetitive N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist that transiently induces schizophrenia-like symptoms and neurobiological disturbances in healthy volunteers (HVs)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427613/microglial-activation-and-vascular-responses-that-are-associated-with-early-thalamic-neurodegeneration-resulting-from-thiamine-deficiency
#18
John F Bowyer, Karen M Tranter, Sumit Sarkar, Joseph P Hanig
Thiamine/vitamin B1 deficiency can lead to behavioral changes and neurotoxicity in humans. This may due in part to vascular damage, neuroinflammation and neuronal degeneration in the diencephalon, which is seen in animal models of pyrithiamine-enhanced thiamine deficiency. However, the time course of the progression of these changes in the animal models has been poorly characterized. Therefore, in this study, the progression of: 1) activated microglial association with vasculature; 2) neurodegeneration; and 3) any vascular leakage in the forebrain during the progress of thiamine deficiency were determined...
March 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371321/role-of-anterior-intralaminar-nuclei-of-thalamus-projections-to-dorsomedial-striatum-in-incubation-of-methamphetamine-craving
#19
Xuan Li, Kailyn R Witonsky, Olivia M Lofaro, Felicia Surjono, Jianjun Zhang, Jennifer M Bossert, Yavin Shaham
Relapse to methamphetamine (Meth) seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from drug self-administration (incubation of Meth craving). We previously demonstrated a role of dorsomedial striatum (DMS) dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) in this incubation. Here, we studied the role of afferent glutamatergic projections into the DMS and local D1R-glutamate interaction in this incubation in male rats. We first measured projection-specific activation on day 30 relapse test by using cholera toxin b (retrograde tracer) + Fos (activity marker) double-labeling in projection areas...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363733/generation-of-specific-antisera-directed-against-d-amino-acids-focus-on-the-neuroanatomical-distribution-of-d-glutamate-and-other-d-amino-acids
#20
Rafael Coveñas, Arturo Mangas, Manuel Lisardo Sánchez, Diana Cadena, Marianne Husson, Michel Geffard
This review updates the findings about the anatomical distribution (using immunohistochemical techniques) and possible functions of D-glutamate in the central nervous system of mammals, as well as compares the distribution of D-glutamate with the distribution of the most studied D-amino acids: D-serine and D-aspartate. The protocol used to obtain highly specific antisera directed against D-amino acids is also reported. Immunoreactivity for D-glutamate was found in dendrites and cell bodies, but not in nerve fibers...
2017: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
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