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Thalamus glutamate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934366/early-metabolite-changes-after-melatonin-treatment-in-neonatal-rats-with-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-studied-by-in-vivo1h-mr-spectroscopy
#1
Hester Rijkje Berger, Axel K G Nyman, Tora Sund Morken, Riyas Vettukattil, Ann-Mari Brubakk, Marius Widerøe
Melatonin is a promising neuroprotective agent after perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. We used in-vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate effects of melatonin treatment on brain metabolism after HI. Postnatal day 7 Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral HI brain injury were treated with either melatonin 10 mg/kg dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or vehicle (5% DMSO and/or PBS) directly and at 6 hours after HI. 1H MR spectra from the thalamus in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere were acquired 1 day after HI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927446/neurochemical-and-behavioral-characterization-of-neuronal-glutamate-transporter-eaat3-heterozygous-mice
#2
Luis F González, Francisca Henríquez-Belmar, Claudia Delgado-Acevedo, Marisol Cisternas-Olmedo, Gloria Arriagada, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate, Dennis L Murphy, Pablo R Moya
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe neuropsychiatric condition affecting 1-3% of the worldwide population. OCD has a strong genetic component, and the SLC1A1 gene that encodes neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3 is a strong candidate for this disorder. To evaluate the impact of reduced EAAT3 expression in vivo, we studied male EAAT3 heterozygous and wild-type littermate mice using a battery of behavioral paradigms relevant to anxiety (open field test, elevated plus maze) and compulsivity (marble burying), as well as locomotor activity induced by amphetamine...
September 19, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920084/effects-of-methamphetamine-on-locomotor-activity-and-thalamic-gene-expression-in-leptin-deficient-obese-mice
#3
Betina González, Candela González, Verónica Bisagno, Francisco J Urbano
Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that regulates energy balance. Leptin receptors are expressed in extrahypothalamic sites and several reports showed that leptin can influence feeding and locomotor behavior via direct actions on dopaminergic neurons. The leptin deficient mouse (ob/ob) has been used as an animal model of blunted leptin action, and presents with obesity and mild type 2 diabetes. We used ob/ob mice to study the effect of repeated 7-day methamphetamine (METH) administration analyzing locomotion, behavioral sensitization, and somatosensory thalamic mRNA expression of voltage-gated calcium channels and glutamatergic receptors using RT-PCR...
July 2017: Translational Brain Rhythmicity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913875/alterations-in-the-%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-ligand-thrombospondin-1-in-a-rat-model-of-spontaneous-absence-epilepsy-and-in-patients-with-idiopathic-genetic-generalized-epilepsies
#4
Ines Santolini, Roberta Celli, Milena Cannella, Tiziana Imbriglio, Michela Guiducci, Pasquale Parisi, Julian Schubert, Michele Iacomino, Federico Zara, Holger Lerche, Slavianka Moyanova, Richard Teke Ngomba, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Giuseppe Battaglia, Valeria Bruno, Pasquale Striano, Ferdinando Nicoletti
OBJECTIVES: Thrombospondins, which are known to interact with the α2 δ subunit of voltage-sensitive calcium channels to stimulate the formation of excitatory synapses, have recently been implicated in the process of epileptogenesis. No studies have been so far performed on thrombospondins in models of absence epilepsy. We examined whether expression of the gene encoding for thrombospondin-1 was altered in the brain of WAG/Rij rats, which model absence epilepsy in humans. In addition, we examined the frequency of genetic variants of THBS1 in a large cohort of children affected by idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsies (IGE/GGEs)...
September 15, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899919/astrocyte-mediated-neuronal-synchronisation-properties-revealed-by-false-gliotransmitter-release
#5
Tiina M Pirttimaki, Robert E Sims, Gregory Saunders, Serena A Antonio, Neela Krushna Codadu, H Rheinallt Parri
Astrocytes spontaneously release glutamate as a gliotransmitter (GT) resulting in the generation of extrasynaptic NMDA-R mediated slow inward currents (SICs) in neighbouring neurons, which can increase local neuronal excitability. However, there is a deficit in our knowledge of the factors that control spontaneous astrocyte GT release, and the extent of its influence. We found that in rat brain slices, increasing the supply of the physiological transmitter glutamate increased the frequency and signalling charge of SICs over an extended period...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884874/cerebral-dopaminergic-and-glutamatergic-transmission-relate-to-different-subjective-responses-of-acute-alcohol-intake-an-in-vivo-multimodal-imaging-study
#6
Gil Leurquin-Sterk, Jenny Ceccarini, Cleo Lina Crunelle, Akila Weerasekera, Bart de Laat, Uwe Himmelreich, Guy Bormans, Koen Van Laere
Converging preclinical evidence links extrastriatal dopamine release and glutamatergic transmission via the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) to the rewarding properties of alcohol. To date, human evidence is lacking on how and where in the brain these processes occur. Mesocorticolimbic dopamine release upon intravenous alcohol administration and mGluR5 availability were measured in 11 moderate social drinkers by single-session [(18) F]fallypride and [(18) F]FPEB positron emission tomography, respectively...
September 8, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831734/interactions-of-hallucinogens-with-the-glutamatergic-system-permissive-network-effects-mediated-through-cortical-layer-v-pyramidal-neurons
#7
Gerard J Marek
Recordings made from layer V (L5) pyramidal cells of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and neocortex in rodent slice preparations have shown that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and serotonergic hallucinogens induce an increase in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the apical dendritic field by activating 5-HT2A receptors. Serotonergic hallucinogens induce late EPSCs and increase recurrent network activity when subcortical or mid-cortical regions are stimulated at low frequencies (e...
August 23, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827326/cell-type-specific-inhibition-of-the-dendritic-plateau-potential-in-striatal-spiny-projection-neurons
#8
Kai Du, Yu-Wei Wu, Robert Lindroos, Yu Liu, Balázs Rózsa, Gergely Katona, Jun B Ding, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski
Striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) receive convergent excitatory synaptic inputs from the cortex and thalamus. Activation of spatially clustered and temporally synchronized excitatory inputs at the distal dendrites could trigger plateau potentials in SPNs. Such supralinear synaptic integration is crucial for dendritic computation. However, how plateau potentials interact with subsequent excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs remains unknown. By combining computational simulation, two-photon imaging, optogenetics, and dual-color uncaging of glutamate and GABA, we demonstrate that plateau potentials can broaden the spatiotemporal window for integrating excitatory inputs and promote spiking...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803850/association-of-exposure-to-manganese-and-iron-with-striatal-and-thalamic-gaba-and-other-neurometabolites-neuroimaging-results-from-the-weldox-ii-study
#9
Swaantje Casjens, Urike Dydak, Shalmali Dharmadhikari, Anne Lotz, Martin Lehnert, Clara Quetscher, Christoph Stewig, Benjamin Glaubitz, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, David Edmondson, Chien-Lin Yeh, Tobias Weiss, Christoph van Thriel, Lennard Herrmann, Siegfried Muhlack, Dirk Woitalla, Michael Aschner, Thomas Brüning, Beate Pesch
OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive method to quantify neurometabolite concentrations in the brain. Within the framework of the WELDOX II study, we investigated the association of exposure to manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and other neurometabolites in the striatum and thalamus of 154 men. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GABA-edited and short echo-time MRS at 3T was used to assess brain levels of GABA, glutamate, total creatine (tCr) and other neurometabolites...
August 11, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796815/effect-of-teriflunomide-on-cortex-basal-ganglia-thalamus-cxbgth-circuit-glutamatergic-dysregulation-in-the-theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis-virus-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Claire M Modica, Ferdinand Schweser, Michelle L Sudyn, Nicola Bertolino, Marilena Preda, Paul Polak, Danielle M Siebert, Jacqueline C Krawiecki, Michele Sveinsson, Jesper Hagemeier, Michael G Dwyer, Suyog Pol, Robert Zivadinov
BACKGROUND: Pathology of gray matter is associated with development of physical and cognitive disability in patients with multiple sclerosis. In particular, glutamatergic dysregulation in the cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus (CxBGTh) circuit could be associated with decline in these behaviors. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of an immunomodulatory therapy (teriflunomide, Aubagio®) on changes of the CxBGTh loop in the Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus, (TMEV) mouse model of MS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794459/multiple-excitatory-actions-of-orexins-upon-thalamo-cortical-neurons-in-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-implications-for-vision-modulation-by-arousal
#11
Lukasz Chrobok, Katarzyna Palus-Chramiec, Anna Chrzanowska, Mariusz Kepczynski, Marian Henryk Lewandowski
The orexinergic system of the lateral hypothalamus plays a crucial role in maintaining wakefulness and mediating arousal in a circadian time-dependent manner. Due to the extensive connections of orexinergic neurons, both orexins (OXA and OXB) exert mainly excitatory effects upon remote brain areas, including the thalamus. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (DLG) is a relay thalamic centre for the visual system. Its thalamo-cortical (TC) neurons convey photic information from the retina to the primary visual cortex...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772144/epileptic-rat-brain-tissue-analyzed-by-2d-correlation-raman-spectroscopy
#12
Julia Sacharz, Aleksandra Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Janina Zięba-Palus, Marian H Lewandowski, Rafał Kowalski, Katarzyna Palus, Łukasz Chrobok, Paulina Moskal, Malwina Birczyńska, Agnieszka Sozańska
Absence epilepsy is the neurological disorder characterized by the pathological spike-and wave discharges present in the electroencephalogram, accompanying a sudden loss of consciousness. Experiments were performed on brain slices obtained from young male WAG/Rij rats (2-3weeks old), so that they were sampled before the appearance of brain-damaging seizures symptoms. Two differing brain areas of the rats' brain tissue were studied: the somatosensory cortex (Sc) and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (DLG)...
January 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726540/mechanisms-of-the-analgesic-effect-of-calcitonin-on-chronic-pain-by-alteration-of-receptor-or-channel-expression
#13
Akitoshi Ito, Megumu Yoshimura
The polypeptide hormone calcitonin is well known clinically for its ability to relieve osteoporotic back pain and neuropathic pain such as spinal canal stenosis, diabetic neuropathy, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, and complex regional pain syndrome. Because the analgesic effects of calcitonin have a broad range, the underlying mechanisms of pain relief by calcitonin are largely unknown. However, recent studies using several types of chronic pain models combined with various methods have been gradually clarifying the mechanism...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711710/comparison-of-the-role-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-1-in-developmental-refinement-of-neuronal-connectivity-between-the-cerebellum-and-the-sensory-thalamus
#14
REVIEW
Madoka Narushima
Developmental refinement of neuronal connectivity is crucial for proper brain function. In the early phase of development, input fibers arrive at their target areas guided by specific molecular cues and form abundant immature synapses. Then, functionally important synapses are preserved and strengthened by neural activity while unnecessary synapses are eliminated. Afferent synapses in the sensory thalamus, such as from retina to lateral geniculate nucleus, and climbing fiber (CF)-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses in the cerebellum are valuable models for studying this developmental refinement of synaptic connectivity because only a limited number of input fibers innervate a given postsynaptic thalamocortical (TC) neuron or PC...
July 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689926/ablation-of-ib4-non-peptidergic-afferents-in-the-rat-facet-joint-prevents-injury-induced-pain-and-thalamic-hyperexcitability-via-supraspinal-glutamate-transporters
#15
Christine L Weisshaar, Jeffrey V Kras, Parul S Pall, Sonia Kartha, Beth A Winkelstein
The facet joint is a common source of neck pain, particularly after excessive stretch of its capsular ligament. Peptidergic afferents have been shown to have an important role in the development and maintenance of mechanical hyperalgesia, dysregulated nociceptive signaling, and spinal hyperexcitability that develop after mechanical injury to the facet joint. However, the role of non-peptidergic isolectin-B4 (IB4) cells in mediating joint pain is unknown. Isolectin-B4 saporin (IB4-SAP) was injected into the facet joint to ablate non-peptidergic cells, and the facet joint later underwent a ligament stretch known to induce pain...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686214/current-study-of-the-mechanism-of-action-of-the-potential-anti-epileptic-agent-q808
#16
Xiang Li, Hong-Jian Zhang, Qing Wang, Dian-Wen Zhang, Di Wu, Wei Li, Zhe-Shan Quan
Our previous study showed that the anticonvulsant Q808 might be effective against seizures induced by maximal electroshock, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), isoniazid (ISO), thiosemicarbazide (THIO), and 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MP). In the present study, we explored the possible mechanism of action of Q808. Results obtained with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) suggest that Q808 may affect neurotransmitter content in the brain, by specifically increasing GABA content in the rat hippocampus at doses of 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg, and by reducing the content of glutamate and glutamine in the rat thalamus at a dose of 80 mg/kg...
July 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651369/reduced-thalamus-volume-may-reflect-nicotine-severity-in-young-male-smokers
#17
Dahua Yu, Kai Yuan, Jiadong Cheng, Yanyan Guan, Yangding Li, Yanzhi Bi, Jinquan Zhai, Lin Luo, Bo Liu, Ting Xue, Xiaoqi Lu
Introduction: Nicotine acts as an agonist at presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and to facilitate synaptic release of several neurotransmitters including dopamine and glutamate. The thalamus has the highest density of nAChRs in the brain, which may make this area be more vulnerable to the addictive effects of nicotine. However, the volume of thalamus abnormalities and the association with smoking behaviors in young smokers remains unknown. Methods: Thirty-six young male smokers and 36 age-, gender- and education-matched nonsmokers participated in current study...
June 23, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546212/rapid-binge-like-eating-and-body-weight-gain-driven-by-zona-incerta-gaba-neuron-activation
#18
Xiaobing Zhang, Anthony N van den Pol
The neuronal substrate for binge eating, which can at times lead to obesity, is not clear. We find that optogenetic stimulation of mouse zona incerta (ZI) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons or their axonal projections to paraventricular thalamus (PVT) excitatory neurons immediately (in 2 to 3 seconds) evoked binge-like eating. Minimal intermittent stimulation led to body weight gain; ZI GABA neuron ablation reduced weight. ZI stimulation generated 35% of normal 24-hour food intake in just 10 minutes. The ZI cells were excited by food deprivation and the gut hunger signal ghrelin...
May 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538174/schizophrenia-related-microdeletion-impairs-emotional-memory-through-microrna-dependent-disruption-of-thalamic-inputs-to-the-amygdala
#19
Tae-Yeon Eom, Ildar T Bayazitov, Kara Anderson, Jing Yu, Stanislav S Zakharenko
Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at high risk of developing psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Individuals with 22q11DS and schizophrenia are impaired in emotional memory, anticipating, recalling, and assigning a correct context to emotions. The neuronal circuits responsible for these emotional memory deficits are unknown. Here, we show that 22q11DS mouse models have disrupted synaptic transmission at thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala (thalamo-LA projections). This synaptic deficit is caused by haploinsufficiency of the 22q11DS gene Dgcr8, which is involved in microRNA processing, and is mediated by the increased dopamine receptor Drd2 levels in the thalamus and by reduced probability of glutamate release from thalamic inputs...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485844/neuropeptides-and-neurotransmitters-that-modulate-thalamo-cortical-pathways-relevant-to-migraine-headache
#20
REVIEW
Rodrigo Noseda, David Borsook, Rami Burstein
Dynamic thalamic regulation of sensory signals allows the cortex to adjust better to rapidly changing behavioral, physiological, and environmental demands. To fulfill this role, thalamic neurons must themselves be subjected to constantly changing modulatory inputs that originate in multiple neurochemical pathways involved in autonomic, affective, and cognitive functions. This review defines a chemical framework for thinking about the complexity of factors that modulate the response properties of relay trigeminovascular thalamic neurons...
May 2017: Headache
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