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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052226/translational-high-dimensional-drug-interaction-discovery-and-validation-using-health-record-databases-and-pharmacokinetics-models
#1
Chien-Wei Chiang, Pengyue Zhang, Xueying Wang, Lei Wang, Shijun Zhang, Xia Ning, Li Shen, Sara K Quinney, Lang Li
Polypharmacy increases the risk of drug-drug interactions (DDI's). Combining epidemiological studies with pharmacokinetic modeling, we detected and evaluated high-dimensional DDI's among thirty frequent drugs. Multi-drug combinations that increased risk of myopathy were identified in the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and electronic medical record (EMR) databases by a mixture drug-count response model. CYP450 inhibition was estimated among the 30 drugs in the presence of 1 to 4 inhibitors using in vitro in vivo extrapolation...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049110/evidence-for-the-efficacy-of-systemic-opioid-sparing-analgesics-in-pediatric-surgical-populations-a-systematic-review
#2
Alyssa Zhu, Hubert A Benzon, T Anthony Anderson
While a large number of studies has examined the efficacy of opioid-sparing analgesics in adult surgical populations, fewer studies are available to guide postoperative pain treatment in pediatric patients. We systematically reviewed available publications on the use of systemic nonopioid agents for postoperative analgesia in pediatric surgical populations. A comprehensive literature search identified meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of systemic, nonopioid agents on postoperative narcotic requirements or pain scores in pediatric surgical populations...
November 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026504/loperamide-dependency-a-case-report
#3
Mehran Zarghami, Maryam Rezapour
BACKGROUND: Loperamide is used as an antidiarrheal drug and is available over-the-counter. It cannot pass the blood-brain barrier and it does not have a considerable abuse potential. It can lead to dangerous cardiac arrhythmia. CASE REPORT: Herein, we report a 35-year-old man with a 13-year history of abusing opioids who had undergone detoxification for four times during this period. He underwent detoxification for using 200 mg loperamide daily with anticholinergic agents, clonidine, non-steroidal analgesics, and diazepam...
January 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990851/stability-study-of-a-clonidine-oral-solution-in-a-novel-vehicle-designed-for-pediatric-patients
#4
Arnaud Potier, Julien Voyat, Alain Nicolas
Clonidine hydrochloride is administered to opioid-addicted mothers' neonates to reduce neonatal abstinence syndrome. It is prescribed off-label to neonates at 0.5-1 µg/kg/6 hours, alone or in combination. The commercially injectable form of clonidine - Catapressan® 0.15 mg/mL - is being orally given after an appropriate dilution in water. However, this practice is not suitable for a perfectly safe and accurate administration. The objectives were to design a 10 µg/mL oral solution of clonidine hydrochloride in Inorpha® and to study the stability of this solution by a validated stability indicating liquid chromatography (LC) method...
October 9, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984477/pediatric-pharmacoepidemiology-safety-and-effectiveness-of-medicines-for-adhd
#5
Antonio Clavenna, Maurizio Bonati
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder in children and adolescents that comprises core symptoms of developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. Stimulant (methylphenidate, amphetamines) and non stimulant (atomoxetine, clonidine and guanfacine) are the treatment usually prescribed for ADHD. Area covered: This review covers the safety of ADHD medications in children and adolescents. MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases were searched with the aim to retrieve prospective studies that monitored the incidence of adverse events (AEs) in children receiving drug therapy for ADHD...
October 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981572/spinal-anaesthesia-in-neonates-and-infants-what-about-the-cerebral-oxygen-saturation
#6
C Sola, L Hertz, S Bringuier, P De La Arena, C Macq, S Deziel-Malouin, O Raux, C Dadure
Background: Spinal Anaesthesia (SA) has been firmly established as an efficient and safe technique, with minimal cardio-respiratory disturbance when administered in the neonatal period. Our objective was to assess the haemodynamic consequences of SA in infants, particularly its impact on cerebral perfusion using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-based cerebral oximetry (r S c O2 ). Methods: All infants up to 60 weeks' postmenstrual age, whether formerly preterm or not, and undergoing spinal anaesthesia, were enrolled...
July 19, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979194/the-locus-coeruleus-norepinephrine-system-mediates-empathy-for-pain-through-selective-up-regulation-of-p2x3-receptor-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-in-rats
#7
Yun-Fei Lü, Yan Yang, Chun-Li Li, Yan Wang, Zhen Li, Jun Chen
Empathy for pain (vicariously felt pain), an ability to feel, recognize, understand and share the painful emotions of others, has been gradually accepted to be a common identity in both humans and rodents, however, the underlying neural and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Recently, we have developed a rat model of empathy for pain in which pain can be transferred from a cagemate demonstrator (CD) in pain to a naïve cagemate observer (CO) after 30 min dyadic priming social interaction. The naïve CO rats display both mechanical pain hypersensitivity (hyperalgesia) and enhanced spinal nociception...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973650/bupivacaine-field-block-with-clonidine-for-postoperative-pain-control-in-posterior-spine-approaches-a-randomized-double-blind-trial
#8
Joe Abdel Hay, Sandra Kobaiter-Maarrawi, Patrick Tabet, Ronald Moussa, Tony Rizk, Georges Nohra, Nabil Okais, Elie Samaha, Jospeh Maarrawi
BACKGROUND: The synergistic effect of clonidine with bupivacaine, well established in peripheral nerve blocks, remains controversial in local field block for postoperative analgesia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential analgesic benefit of adding clonidine to bupivacaine during preincisional field block in posterior approaches for spine surgeries. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-five patients were enrolled in this study and underwent lumbar spinal fusion (n = 80), lumbar laminectomy (n = 25), lumbar microdiscectomy (n = 94), or cervical laminectomy (n = 26)...
July 21, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964282/adherence-to-swedish-guidelines-for-pain-treatment-in-relation-to-pediatric-tonsil-surgery-a-survey-of-the-multidisciplinary-team
#9
F Alm, M Jaensson, S Lundeberg, E Ericsson
BACKGROUND: Pain management in children after tonsil surgery is essential, and optimal pain treatment has been discussed for many years. Data from the National Tonsil Register in Sweden (NTRS) and a national mapping have demonstrated the need for national pain treatment guidelines for pediatric tonsil surgery. As a result, Swedish national guidelines, together with updated patient information on the website tonsilloperation.se, were developed and implemented in 2013. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the professionals' opinions of and adherence to pain treatment guidelines for pediatric tonsil surgery patients in a two-year follow-up...
October 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955200/cingulate-alpha-2a-adrenoceptors-mediate-the-effects-of-clonidine-on-spontaneous-pain-induced-by-peripheral-nerve-injury
#10
Yong-Jie Wang, Zhen-Xing Zuo, Cheng Wu, Li Liu, Zhi-Hui Feng, Xiang-Yao Li
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is an important brain area for the regulation of neuropathic pain. The α2A adrenoceptor is a good target for pain management. However, the role of cingulate α2A adrenoceptors in the regulation of neuropathic pain has been less studied. In this study, we investigated the involvement of cingulate α2A adrenoceptors in the regulation of neuropathic pain at different time points after peripheral nerve injury in mice. The application of clonidine, either systemically (0.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or specifically to the ACC, increased paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) and induced conditioned place preference (CPP) at day 7 after nerve injury, suggesting that cingulate α2 adrenoceptors are involved in the regulation of pain-like behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944594/effect-of-clonidine-on-the-efficacy-of-lignocaine-local-anesthesia-in-dentistry-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
REVIEW
Gowri Sivaramakrishnan, Kannan Sridharan
Alternatives to adrenaline with lignocaine local anesthesia, such as clonidine, have been trialed in various randomized, controlled trials. Therefore, the aim of the present systematic review was to compile the available evidence on using clonidine with lignocaine for dental anesthesia. Electronic databases were searched for eligible studies. A data-extraction form was created, extracted data were analyzed using non-Cochrane mode in RevMan 5.3 software. Heterogeneity between the studies were assessed using the forest plot, I(2) statistics (where >50% was considered to have moderate-to-severe heterogeneity), and χ(2) -test...
September 24, 2017: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942992/a-new-drosophila-octopamine-receptor-responds-to-serotonin
#12
Yi-Xiang Qi, Gang Xu, Gui-Xiang Gu, Fen Mao, Gong-Yin Ye, Weiwei Liu, Jia Huang
As the counterparts of the vertebrate adrenergic transmitters, octopamine and tyramine are important physiological regulators in invertebrates. They control and modulate many physiological and behavioral functions in insects. In this study, we reported the pharmacological properties of a new α2-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (CG18208) from Drosophila melanogaster, named DmOctα2R. This new receptor gene encodes two transcripts by alternative splicing. The long isoform DmOctα2R-L differs from the short isoform DmOctα2R-S by the presence of an additional 29 amino acids within the third intracellular loop...
September 21, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935564/antinociception-induced-by-a-novel-%C3%AE-2a-adrenergic-receptor-agonist-in-rodents-acute-and-chronic-pain-models
#13
Roberto Takashi Sudo, Rachel Vieiralves do Amaral, Carlos Eduardo da Silva Monteiro, Ivan da Rocha Pitta, Maria do Carmo Lima, Guilherme Carneiro Montes, Douglas Gordon Ririe, Kenichiro Hayashida, Gisele Zapata-Sudo
The mechanisms and antinociceptive effects of a novel α2A adrenoceptor agonist, 3-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzil)-imidazolinide-2,4-dione (PT-31) were investigated using animal models of acute and chronic pain. The effects of PT-31 on pain responses were examined using hot plate and formalin tests in mice and spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced hyperalgesia in rats. The effects of antagonists acting on α adrenoceptor were assessed to investigate the interaction of these pathways upon PT-31 induced antinociception...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930945/effects-of-propranolol-and-clonidine-on-brain-edema-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-and-endothelial-glycocalyx-disruption-following-fluid-percussion-brain-injury-in-the-rat
#14
Gustav Folmer Genét, Peter Bentzer, Morten Bagge Hansen, Sisse Rye Ostrowski, Pär Ingemar Johansson
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury causes a disruption of the vascular endothelial glycocalyx layer that is associated with an overactivation of the sympathoadrenal system. We hypothesized that early and unselective beta-blockade with propranolol alone or in combination with the alfa2-agonist clonidine would decrease brain edema, blood-brain-barrier permeability and glycocalyx disruption at 24 hours after trauma. METHODS: We subjected fifty-three adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to lateral fluid-percussion brain injury and randomized infusion with propranolol (n=16), propranolol+clonidine (n=16), vehicle (n=16) or sham (n=5) for 24 hours...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928600/erratum-comparative-study-of-oral-gabapentin-pregabalin-and-clonidine-as-premedication-for-anxiolysis-sedation-and-attenuation-of-pressor-response-to-endotracheal-intubation
#15
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 558 in vol. 11.].
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928599/erratum-prophylactic-use-of-intravenous-clonidine-compared-to-tramadol-in-prevention-of-intraoperative-shivering-under-regional-anesthesia
#16
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 477 in vol. 11, PMID: 28663645.].
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928573/a-comparative-study-for-the-analgesic-efficacy-and-safety-profile-of-fentanyl-versus-clonidine-as-an-adjuvant-to-epidural-ropivacaine-0-75-in-lower-abdominal-surgeries
#17
Shuchi Nigam, Shivani Rastogi, Amit Tyagi, Rajlakshmi Bhandari
CONTEXT: Different adjuvants are coadministered with local anesthetics to improve the speed of onset and duration of analgesia, and to reduce the dose, the selection of which is often left to the choice of an anesthesiologist. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy and safety profile of fentanyl and clonidine as an adjuvant to epidural ropivacaine anesthesia. SETTING AND DESIGN: With institutional ethical committee clearance, a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind clinical study was conducted at Vivekananda Polyclinic and Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928565/clonidine-as-an-adjuvant-to-lignocaine-infiltration-for-prolongation-of-analgesia-after-episiotomy
#18
Upasna Bhatia, Premal Soni, Udit Khilji, Yamini N Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Epidural labor analgesia has not been fully accepted despite many advantages. Many times, the pregnant females reach hospital without antenatal checkup, and at that time, "episiotomy infiltration" becomes an ideal method for vaginal delivery. One of the most important problems after episiotomy is the severe perineal pain on the 1(st) day of postpartum period. OBJECTIVES: We compared the efficacy of clonidine 1 μg/kg as an adjuvant to 20 mg/ml lignocaine infiltration along the line of episiotomy incision for prolonging the duration and quality of analgesia with respect to various activities by single injection...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928558/oral-clonidine-premedication-attenuates-hemodynamic-responses-of-ketamine-during-total-intravenous-anesthesia
#19
Pulak Tosh, Sunil Rajan, Nitu Puthenveettil, Lakshmi Kumar
BACKGROUND: The most commonly used drug for total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is ketamine which results in cardiovascular stimulation. AIMS: The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of oral clonidine premedication on attenuating the hemodynamic responses following ketamine administration. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: This was a prospective, observational, comparative study conducted in a tertiary care institution. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 40 female patients aged 18-55 years who were posted for elective short gynecological procedures under TIVA were recruited for this study...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928553/comparison-of-intrathecal-clonidine-and-fentanyl-as-adjuvant-to-hyperbaric-bupivacaine-in-subarachnoid-block-for-lower-limb-orthopedic-surgery
#20
Sidharth Sraban Routray, Khageswar Raut, Amit Pradhan, Abhilash Dash, Mina Soren
BACKGROUND: Many studies are there using adjuvants such as clonidine and fentanyl with bupivacaine in the subarachnoid block for prolonging postoperative analgesia. However, literature is divided regarding the dosage and efficacy of both intrathecal adjuvants. Furthermore, these adjuvants have their own side effects. Hence, search for ideal intrathecal adjuvant between clonidine and fentanyl to bupivacaine goes on. AIM: The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of intrathecal clonidine and fentanyl as adjuvant to bupivacaine in the subarachnoid block for lower limb orthopedic surgery...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
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