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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225214/noradrenergic-effects-in-rat-sacral-autonomic-nucleus-using-in-vitro-slice-patch-clamp-recordings
#1
Masahiro Kawatani, Nozomi Akimoto, Akihiro Yamada, Hidemasa Furue, Masahito Kawatani
Noradrenergic modulation has been frequently discussed in the context of neural activities that are related to pelvic organs. The sacral preganglionic nucleus (SPN) is a spinal nucleus containing parasympathetic preganglionic neurons that send fibers to pelvic nerves. In spite of the abundant presence of noradrenergic fibers around the SPN, the effects of noradrenaline (NA) remain obscure. To explore this issue, NA (50 μM) was applied to parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in the SPN during whole-cell patch clamp recording...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208884/role-of-oral-clonidine-premedication-on-intra-operative-haemodynamics-and-ponv-in-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#2
M Masud, S Yeasmeen, A K Haque, S Jahan, N C Saha, D Banik
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a gold standard surgical procedure for gallbladder operation. It causes altered haemodynamic responses due to pneumoperitoneum and surgical procedure also causes high incidence of postoperative nausea &vomiting. Clonidine has been shown to reduce intraoperative haemodynamic instability. This randomized prospective single blind clinical study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of oral clonidine premedication for attenuation of haemodynamic responses associated with pneumoperitoneum & also reduce the incidence of postoperative nausea & vomiting and carried out in the department of Anaesthesia Analgesia and Intensive care Medicine, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2010 to June 2010...
October 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207811/comparative-evaluation-of-ropivacaine-and-fentanyl-versus-ropivacaine-and-fentanyl-with-clonidine-for-postoperative-epidural-analgesia-in-total-knee-replacement-surgery
#3
Shivali Panwar, Preeti S Govind, Parag Jyoti Duarah, Hari Kishan Mahajan, Smita Anil Korde
Introduction: Clonidine an alpha 2 adrenoceptor agonist possesses analgesic properties and has been used as an adjuvant in epidural analgesia. The addition of clonidine to other analgesics may result in enhanced analgesia through additive mechanisms or synergistic mechanisms. The enhanced analgesia may lead to a decrease in the dosage of analgesic drugs along with reduction of side effects. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding clonidine to epidural ropivacaine and fentanyl mixture in terms of quality of analgesia and side effects in patients of total knee replacement surgery...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202549/clonidine-sedation-effects-in-children-during-electroencephalography
#4
Mohammad Barzegar, Reza Piri, Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad, Masoumeh Ghasempour
It is very important to have proper management in children with Seizure. Electroencephalography (EEG) as a diagnostic instrument has a key role in determining the management method of seizure in children. Because of poor cooperation of some children (especially children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders and developmental disorders) in performing EEG, it is the best choice to sedate children before EEG. The aim of present study is to evaluate the sedation efficacy of clonidine in children before EEG...
September 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199231/augmented-contractility-to-noradrenaline-in-femoral-arteries-from-the-otsuka-long-evans-tokushima-fatty-rat-a-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#5
Shota Kobayashi, Takayuki Matsumoto, Makoto Ando, Maika Iguchi, Kumiko Taguchi, Tsuneo Kobayashi
Although vasculopathies may occur systemically, there are few reports regarding femoral arteries of type 2 diabetes. Here, we investigated whether contractile response to noradrenaline in femoral arteries would change in type 2 diabetic male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat at the chronic stage of disease (1 year old) versus age-matched control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rat. OLETF rat exhibited hyperglycemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hypoinsulinemia compared to age-matched LETO rat...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195907/presynaptic-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-modulates-glutamatergic-synaptic-transmission-in-rat-nucleus-accumbens-in-vitro
#6
Shi-Yu Peng, Bin Li, Kang Xi, Jian-Jun Wang, Jing-Ning Zhu
The nucleus accumbens (NAc), integrating information from the prefrontal cortex and limbic structures, plays a critical role in reward and emotion regulation. Previous studies have reported that the NAc shell receives direct noradrenergic projections, and activation of α2-adrenoceptor (α2-AR) in the NAc shell decreases the fear or anxiety level of rats. However, the underlying mechanism is still little known. Intriguingly, glutamatergic neurotransmission in the NAc shell is closely related to reward and emotion...
November 30, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189290/period-dependent-associations-between-hypotension-during-and-for-4-days-after-noncardiac-surgery-and-a-composite-of-myocardial-infarction-and-death-a-substudy-of-the-poise-2-trial
#7
Daniel I Sessler, Christian S Meyhoff, Nicole M Zimmerman, Guangmei Mao, Kate Leslie, Skarlet M Vásquez, Packianathaswamy Balaji, Jesús Alvarez-Garcia, Alexandre B Cavalcanti, Joel L Parlow, Prashant V Rahate, Manfred D Seeberger, Bruno Gossetti, S A Walker, Rajendra K Premchand, Rikke M Dahl, Emmanuelle Duceppe, Reitze Rodseth, Fernando Botto, P J Devereaux
BACKGROUND: The relative contributions of intraoperative and postoperative hypotension to perioperative morbidity remain unclear. We determined the association between hypotension and a composite of 30-day myocardial infarction and death over three periods: 1) intraoperative; 2) remaining day of surgery; and 3) during the initial four postoperative days. METHODS: This was a substudy of POISE-2, a 10,010-patient factorial-randomized trial of aspirin and clonidine for prevention of myocardial infarction...
November 21, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186993/medication-use-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-a-commercially-insured-population-in-the-united-states
#8
Zhou Zhou, Zheng-Yi Zhou, Sneha S Kelkar, Vanja Sikirica, Jipan Xie, Regina Grebla
OBJECTIVE: To examine real-world prescription medication usage among commercially-insured adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the US. METHODS: Adults with ADHD who received ≥1 ADHD medication during 2013 were identified from a large US claims database. Combination therapy was defined as overlap of ≥30 days between the index (first treatment ≥30 days in 2013) and another medication(s). Patients were classified into 6 groups: long-acting (LA) monotherapy, short-acting (SA) monotherapy, LA+LA, SA+SA, LA+SA, and >2 therapies...
November 30, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180967/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-different-interventions-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Ruiling Luan, Zhiling Mu, Fang Yue, Shaoying He
Background: Our study is an analysis of multiple publications involving assessing the comparable efficacy and tolerability of six interventions, which are lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), atomoxetine (ATX), methylphenidate (MPH), clonidine hydrochloride (CLON), guanfacine extended release (GXR), and bupropion, for young patients (6-18 years old) suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: A conventional meta-analysis (MA) was performed to give direct comparisons and a network meta-analysis (NMA) was used to show the combination of direct and indirect evidence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180481/validity-and-variability-of-xbrs-instantaneous-cardiac-baroreflex-sensitivity
#10
Karel H Wesseling, John M Karemaker, Paolo Castiglioni, Emil Toader, Andrei Cividjian, Jos J Settels, Luc Quintin, Berend E Westerhof
Spontaneous oscillations of blood pressure (BP) and interbeat interval (IBI) may reveal important information on the underlying baroreflex control and regulation of BP We evaluated the method of continuously measured instantaneous baroreflex sensitivity by cross correlation (xBRS) validating its mean value against the gold standard of phenylephrine (Phe) and nitroprusside (SNP) bolus injections, and focusing on its spontaneous changes quantified as variability around the mean. For this purpose, we analyzed data from an earlier study of eight healthy males (aged 25-46 years) who had received Phe and SNP in conditions of baseline and autonomic blocking agents: atropine, propranolol, and clonidine...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172123/existing-and-emerging-therapies-for-managing-constipation-and-diarrhea
#11
REVIEW
Adil E Bharucha, Mira M Wouters, Jan Tack
Functional bowel disorders (i.e., constipation and diarrhea) are characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, distention, and/or bowel habit abnormalities in the absence of obvious anatomic or physiologic abnormalities on routine diagnostic tests. These symptoms are attributable to gastrointestinal sensorimotor dysfunctions resulting from peripheral and/or central mechanisms. Available drugs target the underlying bowel disturbance (i.e., constipation, diarrhea, or both), supplemented when necessary by management of pain...
November 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165814/reverse-effect-of-opuntia-ficus-indica-l-juice-and-seeds-aqueous-extract-on-gastric-emptying-and-small-bowel-motility-in-rat
#12
Kaïs Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Khouloud Saidani, Dhekra Grami, Mohamed Amri, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
This study was conducted to compare the effects of juice and seeds on gastric emptying, small-bowel motility and intestinal ion transport. Separate groups of rats were randomized to receive NaCl, increasing doses of juice (5, 10, and 20 mL/kg, b.w.) or seeds aqueous extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w.). Simultaneously, two other groups were received, the reference drugs; clonidine (1 mg/kg) and yohimbine (2 mg/kg). The charcoal meal was used as a suspension for gastrointestinal motility test. The purgative action of juice was confirmed using the loperamide (5 mg/kg, p...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138105/adrenergic-receptor-agonists-modulation-of-dopaminergic-and-non-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#13
Kamil Pradel, Tomasz Blasiak, Wojciech B Solecki
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) neuronal population consists of dopaminergic (DAergic) and non-DAergic neurons (mainly GABAergic), the activity of which is intertwined with VTA behavioral functions. Both DAergic and GABAergic neurons in the VTA have been shown to express adrenergic receptors (ARs) and respond to AR stimulation. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effects of selective AR agonists on DAergic and non-DAergic neuronal activity in the central and lateral parts of the VTA using in vivo electrophysiological recording combined with microiontophoretic drug application in anaesthetized rats...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127057/quantitative-analysis-of-clonidine-and-ephedrine-by-a-microfluidic-system-on-chip-electromembrane-extraction-followed-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#14
Mahroo Baharfar, Yadollah Yamini, Shahram Seidi, Monireh Karami
In this work, a microfluidic device was developed for on-chip electromembrane extraction of trace amounts of ephedrine (EPH) and clonidine (CLO) in human urine and plasma samples followed by HPLC-UV analysis. Two polymethylmethacrylate plates were used as substrates and a microchannel was carved in each plate. The microchannel channel on the underneath plate provided the flow pass of the sample solution and the one on the upper plate dedicated to a compartment for the stagnant acceptor phase. A piece of polypropylene sheet was impregnated by an organic solvent and mounted between the two parts of the chip device...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125423/management-of-chronic-neuropathic-pain-with-single-and-compounded-topical-analgesics
#15
Nebojsa Nick Knezevic, Tatiana Tverdohleb, Farid Nikibin, Ivana Knezevic, Kenneth D Candido
The goal of our review was to emphasize important aspects that physicians should take into consideration when prescribing topical analgesics as part of chronic neuropathic pain treatment. We discuss the dermatopharmacokinetics and microstructural components of the skin, differences between topical and transdermal drug delivery, and topical medication effects on peripheral neuropathy and central sensitization. Even though the US FDA approved topical analgesics are 8%-capsaicin and 5%-lidocaine patches for treating postherpetic neuralgia, there are many other studies conducted on the efficacy of topical ketamine cream, clonidine gel, topical gabapentin, topical baclofen and topical phenytoin for peripheral neuropathic pain, either alone or in combination with other formulations...
November 10, 2017: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120894/advances-in-pharmacotherapies-for-movement-disorders-in-children-current-limitations-and-future-progress
#16
Jean-Pierre Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In childhood, movement disorders are generated by a very large number of disorders of the nervous system, and the very different developmental ages at which these occur make studies of pharmacotherapy efficacy extremely difficult. In most clinical practices, medication used in management is by trial and error, and limited by lack of efficacy and/or adverse drug reactions leading to drug intolerance. Nevertheless, symptom reduction using polypharmacy must be balanced against any accompanying comorbidities such as poor attention and concentration, constipation, ileus, urinary retention, blurred vision sedation and respiratory depression...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109642/comparison-of-intra-articular-analgesics-in-arthroscopic-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-surgeries-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Vijayalakshmi Sivapurapu, Shishir Suranigi Murugharaj, Sai Saran Panathula Venkata
Background and Aims: Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is one of the most common knee surgeries done worldwide today. It involves immense pain at sites of graft harvest, tibial, and femoral tunnels, thereby delaying recovery and increased patient morbidity, and delayed rehabilitation. Various drugs and combination of drugs administered intra-articularly have been studied for analgesic efficacy. Our study gives an insight if there is any added advantage of additives morphine or clonidine to bupivacaine when compared to administering bupivacaine alone...
July 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109641/comparative-efficacy-of-clonidine-versus-magnesium-sulfate-as-an-adjunct-to-lignocaine-in-intravenous-regional-anesthesia-for-postoperative-analgesia-a-prospective-randomized-double-blind-study
#18
Parminder Kaur, Tanveer Singh Kundra, Dinesh Sood
Background and Aims: Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) is a very good technique to be used in unstable patients. Various adjuvants have been added, but till date, there is no ideal adjuvant. Clonidine is one of the most widely used adjuvants in IVRA. However, it has many side effects. Hence, the search continues for a better adjuvant. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of clonidine versus MgSO4 as an adjunct to lignocaine in IVRA for postoperative analgesia and to compare their side effect profile...
July 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094305/noradrenergic-fiber-sprouting-and-altered-transduction-in-neuropathic-prefrontal-cortex
#19
Steven Cordeiro Matos, Maria Zamfir, Geraldine Longo, Alfredo Ribeiro-da-Silva, Philippe Séguéla
Functional changes in hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels have been shown to contribute to medial prefrontal (mPFC) hyperexcitability after peripheral nerve injury. A reduction in the open probability of these neuronal channels might be relevant since this can enhance membrane input resistance and synaptic summation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neuropathy-associated alterations in HCN channel activity remain elusive. Using the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain in Long-Evans rats, we first discovered a significant increase in noradrenergic innervation within the mPFC of nerve-injured compared to control animals...
November 1, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093170/locus-coeruleus-phasic-discharge-is-essential-for-stimulus-induced-gamma-oscillations-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#20
Ricardo M Neves, Silvia van Keulen, Mingyu Yang, Nikos K Logothetis, Oxana Eschenko
The Locus Coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic (NE) neuromodulatory system is critically involved in regulation of neural excitability via its diffuse ascending projections. Tonic NE release in the forebrain is essential for maintenance of vigilant states and increases the signal-to-noise ratio of cortical sensory responses. The impact of phasic NE release on cortical activity and sensory processing is less explored. We have previously reported that LC microstimulation caused a transient desynchronization of the population activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), similar to noxious somatosensory stimuli...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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