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Taurine AND Review

Joseph Firth, Simon Rosenbaum, Philip B Ward, Jackie Curtis, Scott B Teasdale, Alison R Yung, Jerome Sarris
AIM: The effects of nutrient-based treatments, including adjunctive vitamin or antioxidant supplementation, have been explored extensively in long-term schizophrenia. However, no systematic evaluation of trials in "first-episode psychosis" (FEP) has been conducted, despite the potential benefits of using these treatments during the early stages of illness. Therefore, we aimed to review all studies examining efficacy, tolerability and the biological mechanisms of action, of nutrient supplementation in FEP...
March 21, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Mark Waldron, Stephen David Patterson, Jamie Tallent, Owen Jeffries
BACKGROUND: Taurine is central to many physiological processes, some of which are augmented by exogenous supply and have the potential to facilitate endurance performance; however, its independent effects on performance have not been systematically analysed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of isolated oral taurine ingestion on endurance performance and to assess the contribution of (1) the dose and (2) the supplementation period to the ergogenic effect. METHODS: A search was performed using various databases in September 2017...
March 15, 2018: Sports Medicine
Fabio Tonin, Isabel W C E Arends
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a pharmaceutical ingredient widely used in clinics. As bile acid it solubilizes cholesterol gallstones and improves the liver function in case of cholestatic diseases. UDCA can be obtained from cholic acid (CA), which is the most abundant and least expensive bile acid available. The now available chemical routes for the obtainment of UDCA yield about 30% of final product. For these syntheses several protection and deprotection steps requiring toxic and dangerous reagents have to be performed, leading to the production of a series of waste products...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Khaled Greish, Aanchal Mathur, Moiz Bakhiet, Sebastien Taurin
By the end of 2017 more than 200,000 scientific research articles had been published about nanomedicine. Out of this vast number only a few of the reported nanoconstructs reached clinical trials for various applications, including the diagnosis and treatment of several cancers, and the treatment of infections and other non-cancerous diseases. 30 years after the pioneering work in this field of research, the low product yield at the end of research pipeline leads to a question that is asked by many: 'had nanomedicine been lost in translation?' In this review, we will discuss the landscape of nanomedicine regarding cancer treatment and miscellaneous applications as well as some obstacles toward full utilization of this powerful therapeutic tool and suggest a few solutions to improve the current translational value of nanomedicine research...
March 2, 2018: Therapeutic Delivery
Inam-U-Llah, Fengyuan Piao, Rana Muhammad Aadil, Raheel Suleman, Kaixin Li, Mengren Zhang, Pingan Wu, Muhammad Shahbaz, Zulfiqar Ahmed
Diets in rats and humans have shown promising results. Taurine improved glucagon activity, promoted glycemic stability, modified glucose levels, successfully addressed hyperglycemia via advanced glycation end-product control, improved insulin secretion and had a beneficial effect on insulin resistance. Taurine treatment performed well against oxidative stress in brain, increased the secretion of required hormones and protected against neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy in diabetes compared with the control...
February 28, 2018: Amino Acids
Shun-Li Cao, Hong Jiang, Shi-Ping Niu, Xiao-Hu Wang, Shan Du
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of taurine supplementation on growth in low birth weight infants (LBW). METHODS: PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Library electronic databases were searched for published articles through March 2017. Analysis was done to examine the effect of taurine supplementation on growth, and sensitivity analysis was performed by removing each individual study from meta-analysis. RESULTS: Results of 9 trials totaling 216 LBW infants in the present meta-analysis were collected and analyzed...
January 25, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Christine Perdan Curran, Cecile A Marczinski
Energy drinks are emerging as a major component of the beverage market with sales projected to top $60 billion globally in the next five years. Energy drinks contain a variety of ingredients, but many of the top-selling brands include high doses of caffeine and the amino acid taurine. Energy drink consumption by children has raised concerns, due to potential caffeine toxicity. An additional risk has been noted among college-aged consumers of energy drinks who appear at higher risk of over-consumption of alcohol when the two drinks are consumed together...
December 1, 2017: Birth defects research
Grzegorz R Juszczak, Adrian M Stankiewicz
The identification of key genes in transcriptomic data constitutes a huge challenge. Our review of microarray reports revealed 88 genes whose transcription is consistently regulated by glucocorticoids (GCs), such as cortisol, corticosterone and dexamethasone, in the brain. Replicable transcriptomic data were combined with biochemical and physiological data to create an integrated view of the effects induced by GCs. The most frequently reported genes were Errfi1 and Ddit4. Their up-regulation was associated with the altered transcription of genes regulating growth factor and mTORC1 signaling (Gab1, Tsc22d3, Dusp1, Ndrg2, Ppp5c and Sesn1) and progression of the cell cycle (Ccnd1, Cdkn1a and Cables1)...
March 2, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Christopher Tack, Faye Shorthouse, Lindsy Kass
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate current literature via systematic review to ascertain whether amino acids/ vitamins provide any influence on musculotendinous healing, and by which physiological mechanisms Methods: EBSCO, PUBMED, Science Direct, Embase Classic/ Embase, and MEDLINE were searched using terms including "vitamins", "amino acids", "healing", "muscle" and "tendon". The primary search had 479 citations, 466 of which were excluded predominantly due to non-randomised design. Randomised human and animal studies investigating all supplement types/ forms of administration were included...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Werner Kilb, Atsuo Fukuda
A variety of experimental studies demonstrated that neurotransmitters are an important factor for the development of the central nervous system, affecting neurodevelopmental events like neurogenesis, neuronal migration, programmed cell death, and differentiation. While the role of the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on neuronal development is well established, the aminosulfonic acid taurine has also been considered as possible neuromodulator during early neuronal development...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Sebastien Taurin, Aliyah A Almomen, Tatianna Pollak, Sun Jin Kim, John Maxwell, C Matthew Peterson, Shawn C Owen, Margit M Janát-Amsbury
Vaginal drug delivery represents an attractive strategy for local and systemic delivery of drugs otherwise poorly absorbed after oral administration. The rather dense vascular network, mucus permeability and the physiological phenomenon of the uterine first-pass effect can all be exploited for therapeutic benefit. However, several physiological factors such as an acidic pH, constant secretion, and turnover of mucus as well as varying thickness of the vaginal epithelium can impact sustained drug delivery. In recent years, polymers have been designed to tackle challenges mentioned above...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
Poulami Sarkar, Priyanka Basak, Sumit Ghosh, Mousumi Kundu, Parames C Sil
Taurine is a conditionally essential amino acid present in the body in free form. Mammalian taurine is synthesized in the pancreas via the cysteine sulfinic acid pathway. Anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation are two main properties through which it exerts its therapeutic effects. Many studies have shown its excellent therapeutic potential against diabetes mellitus and related complications like diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, hematological dysfunctions, reproductive dysfunctions, liver and pancreas related complications etc...
December 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Na Li, Ke Shi, Xinmei Kang, Wei Li
Taurine up-regulated gene 1 (TUG1) is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), has been reported that be dysregulated in various tumors, involved in proliferation and apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells. To detect the clinical significance of TUG1 expression in tumor patients, we carried out current systematic review and meta-analysis investigating its relation with the prognosis and clinicopathological features of cancers. A total of 15 studies comprise 1560 patients were analyzed. The pooled results showed that no significant relationship between high TUG1 expression and overall survival (OS) (HR = 1...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
Javier López, Joanna Dukes-McEwan, Gabby Drake, Julian Chantrey
Between 2006 and 2015, a high incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) was diagnosed in a captive population of banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) at Chester Zoo, United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to characterize DCM in these mongooses in order to raise awareness of this condition and help inform management and clinical decisions. Prospective clinical assessments, including echocardiography, radiography, and cardiac biomarkers, were carried out in four mongooses remaining in the collection. Radiographs from 15 mature mongooses were reviewed and cardiac size and metrics assessed...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Wen-Yu Wang, Yan-Fen Wang, Pei Ma, Tong-Peng Xu, Yong-Qian Shu
It is widely reported that long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in regulating cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and other biological processes. Certain lncRNAs have been found to be crucial in various types of tumor. Taurine‑upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) has been shown to be expressed in a tissue‑specific pattern and exert oncogenic or tumor suppressive functions in different types of cancer in humans. According to previous studies, TUG1 is predominantly located in the nucleus and may regulate gene expression at the transcriptional level...
November 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Monika Cahova, Miriam Bratova, Petr Wohl
Parenteral nutrition (PN) provides life-saving nutritional support in situations where caloric supply via the enteral route cannot cover the necessary needs of the organism. However, it does have serious adverse effects, including parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). The development of liver injury associated with PN is multifactorial, including non-specific intestine inflammation, compromised intestinal permeability, and barrier function associated with increased bacterial translocation, primary and secondary cholangitis, cholelithiasis, short bowel syndrome, disturbance of hepatobiliary circulation, lack of enteral nutrition, shortage of some nutrients (proteins, essential fatty acids, choline, glycine, taurine, carnitine, etc...
September 7, 2017: Nutrients
Julianne Manchester, Inbal Eshel, Donald W Marion
INTRODUCTION: Energy drinks (EDs) have become an integral part of the young adult, athletic, and military culture. Many athletes are convinced that EDs enhance performance, and service members as well as college students frequently use EDs as stimulants to counter sleep deprivation, or to improve academic performance. However, concerns have been raised by some military leaders about potential adverse effects of EDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A needs assessment survey of a convenience sample of military health care providers was conducted and identified EDs as a top knowledge need for those providers working in the area of traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
July 2017: Military Medicine
Shigeru Murakami
Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. It is established that obesity is a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, which is characterized by enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, increased infiltration by macrophages and marked changes in the secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids. The effects of taurine on the pathogenesis of obesity have been reported in animals and humans. Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-obesity action of taurine remain to be defined, taurine seems to ameliorate obesity through stimulation of energy expenditure, modulation of lipid metabolism, anorexic effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects...
October 1, 2017: Life Sciences
Roberto L Moreira, Ricardo P S M Lobo, Anderson Dias
A comprehensive set of optical vibrational modes of monoclinic taurine crystals was determined by Raman scattering, and infrared reflectivity and transmission spectroscopies. By using appropriate scattering/reflection geometries, the vibrational modes were resolved by polarization and the most relevant modes of the crystal could be assigned. In particular, we were able to review the symmetry of the gerade modes and to resolve ambiguities in the literature. Owing to the non-orthogonal character of Bu modes in monoclinic crystals (lying on the optic axial plane), we carried out a generalized Lorentz dispersion analysis consisting of simultaneous adjust of infrared-reflectivity spectra at various light polarization angles...
January 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Xiaoxiong Wang, Xin Chen, Daming Zhang, Guang Yang, Zhao Yang, Zhiqin Yin, Shiguang Zhao
The aberrant dysregulation of taurine upregulated 1, a novel discovered long non-coding RNA, was ubiquitous in different human solid tumors. Accumulating researches have indicated that taurine upregulated 1 is an independent prognostic indicator in cancer patients. This investigation aimed to further explore the prognostic and clinical significance of taurine upregulated 1 in various types of cancers. Eligible studies were systematically searched in PubMed, Embase, Medline, and Web of Science databases. A total of 12/14 studies with 1303/1228 individuals were included to evaluate the association of taurine upregulated 1 with overall survival and clinicopathological features by pooled hazard ratio and odds ratio in malignancies...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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