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Taurine AND Review

Diego B Souza, Juan Del Coso, Juliano Casonatto, Marcos D Polito
PURPOSE: Caffeine-containing energy drinks (EDs) are currently used as ergogenic aids to improve physical performance in a wide variety of sport disciplines. However, the outcomes of previous investigations on this topic are inconclusive due to methodological differences, especially, in the dosage of the active ingredients and the test used to assess performance. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to evaluate the effects of acute ED intake on physical performance...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Hui-Fei Zheng, Wen-Qiang Wang, Xin-Min Li, Gail Rauw, Glen B Baker
A review of studies on the body fluid levels of neuroactive amino acids, including glutamate, glutamine, taurine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, tryptophan, D-serine, and others, in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is given. The results reported in the literature are generally inconclusive and contradictory, but there has been considerable variation among the previous studies in terms of factors such as age, gender, number of subjects, intelligence quotient, and psychoactive medication being taken...
September 29, 2016: Amino Acids
Ang-Peng Wong, Aleksandra Niedzwiecki, Matthias Rath
Heart failure is a multifactorial disease with poor prognosis. There are many hypotheses regarding the cause of heart failure. Leading among them are the hemodynamic and the neuro-hormonal hypotheses. Although the energy depletion hypothesis has been fairly recent, there is evidence suggesting that declining bioenergy plays a major role in heart failure. This review explored the myocardial energy depletion hypothesis from the role of micronutrients in correcting and alleviating symptoms of heart failure. Even though focus was on key nutrients such as coenzyme Q10, thiamine, riboflavin, L-carnitine, and taurine, emphasis was on the combined effect of multiple micronutrients as a whole...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Erik Konrad Grasser, Jennifer Lynn Miles-Chan, Nathalie Charrière, Cathríona R Loonam, Abdul G Dulloo, Jean-Pierre Montani
Globally, the popularity of energy drinks is steadily increasing. Scientific interest in their effects on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems in humans is also expanding and with it comes a growing number of case reports of adverse events associated with energy drinks. The vast majority of studies carried out in the general population report effects on blood pressure and heart rate. However, inconsistencies in the current literature render it difficult to draw firm conclusions with regard to the effects of energy drinks on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular variables...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Jisu Kim, Jonghoon Park, Kiwon Lim
Athletes make great efforts to increase their endurance capacity in many ways. Using nutrition supplements for stimulating lipolysis is one such strategy to improve endurance performance. These supplements contain certain ingredients that affect fat metabolism; furthermore, in combination with endurance training, they tend to have additive effects. A large body of scientific evidence shows that nutrition supplements increase fat metabolism; however, the usefulness of lipolytic supplements as ergogenic functional foods remains controversial...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Willard W Peveler, Gabe Sanders, Cecile Marczinski, Brady Holmer
The use of energy drinks among athletes has risen greatly. Caffeine and taurine are the two primary performance enhancing ingredients found in energy drinks. The number of emergency department visits involving energy drinks doubled over the last 5 years. Reviews of the health complications have highlighted adverse cardiovascular events. The literature reveals that caffeine is known to moderately increase blood pressure and heart rate. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three different energy drinks on cardiovascular and performance measures...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Mike Davies
In this overview of success stories in veterinary clinical nutrition topics in cats and dogs reviewed include the dietary management of chronic kidney disease, dissolution of urinary tract uroliths by dietary modification, the recognition that taurine and L-carnitine deficiencies can cause dilated cardiomyopathy; that clinical signs associated with feline hyperthyroidism (caused by a benign adenoma) can be controlled by a low-iodine diet alone; that dietary management of canine osteoarthritis can also reduce non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug doses; and that disease-free intervals and survival times can be statistically longer in dogs with Stage III lymphoma managed with diet...
August 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Jason L Robinson, Robert F Bertolo
The metabolic demand for methionine is great in neonates. Indeed, methionine is the only indispensable sulfur amino acid and is required not only for protein synthesis and growth but is also partitioned to a greater extent to transsulfuration for cysteine and taurine synthesis and to >50 transmethylation reactions that serve to methylate DNA and synthesize metabolites, including creatine and phosphatidylcholine. Therefore, the pediatric methionine requirement must accommodate the demands of rapid protein turnover as well as vast nonprotein demands...
May 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Mojdeh Mostafavi, Paul Hardy, L Eugene Arnold
OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential benefits of varenicline (CHANTIX(®)), a highly specific partial agonist of neuronal α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), for autistic symptoms, and present resulting biochemical changes in light of dopamine-related genotype. METHODS: The clinical and biochemical changes exhibited by a 19-year-old severely autistic man following the use of low-dose varenicline in an ABA experiment of nature, and his genotype, were extracted from chart review...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Wen Chen, Junxia Guo, Yanzhen Zhang, Jing Zhang
Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, has become a very serious public health concern. A number of studies have provided evidence that taurine has an efficient action against metabolic syndrome, which includes reducing triglycerides to prevent obesity, improving insulin resistance to regulate glucose metabolism, lowering cholesterol (especially decreasing VLDL + LDL cholesterol and increasing HDL cholesterol) to prevent diet-induced hypercholesterolemia, and regulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the kallikrein-kinin system etc...
April 2016: Food & Function
Xiang-Wen Li, Hong-Yan Gao, Jing Liu
Objectives Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the central nervous system and has important functions in the promotion of brain development. This study aimed to determine the mechanistic role of taurine in improving neuronal proliferation, stem cell proliferation, and neural differentiation. Methods The data for this review were primarily retrieved from the PubMed database from 1985 to 2015 in English. The search string included the keywords taurine, brain development, neuronal, stem cell, proliferation, differentiation, and others...
February 23, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Gerard Aragonès, Andrea Ardid-Ruiz, Maria Ibars, Manuel Suárez, Cinta Bladé
Leptin is mainly secreted by white adipose tissue and regulates energy homeostasis by inhibiting food intake and stimulating energy expenditure through its action in neuronal circuits in the brain, particularly in the hypothalamus. However, hyperleptinemia coexists with the loss of responsiveness to leptin in common obese conditions. This phenomenon has been defined as leptin resistance and the restoration of leptin sensitivity is considered to be a useful strategy to treat obesity. This review summarizes the existing literature on potentially valuable nutrients and food components to reverse leptin resistance...
August 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Antonin Ginguay, Jean-Pascal De Bandt, Luc Cynober
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review assesses the utility of supplementing parenteral or enteral nutrition of ICU patients with each of five specific amino acids that display pharmacological properties. Specifying indications implies also stating contraindications.Combined supplementation of amino acids with ω3-fatty acids and/or trace elements (immune-enhancing diets) will not be considered in this review because these mixtures do not allow the role of amino acids in the effect (positive or negative) of the mixture to be isolated, and so cannot show whether or not supplementation of a given amino acid is indicated...
March 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Brendon D Gill, Harvey E Indyk, David C Woollard
Infant formula is designed to provide the human infant with a sole source of nutrition and it is intended to imitate breast milk. In recent years, advances in the science of infant nutrition have led to an increasing number of novel ingredients that are supplemented into infant formula. As the list of these nutritionally important nutrients is lengthy, this review summarizes contemporary analytical methods that have been applied to a representative selection (lutein, carnitine, choline, nucleotides, inositol, taurine, sialic acid, gangliosides, triacylglycerides, oligosaccharides, α-lactalbumin, and lactoferrin)...
January 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Synne M Andersen, Rune Waagbø, Marit Espe
Protein is the most expensive part of fish diets and supplies amino acids (AA) for energy, growth, protein synthesis and as substrates for key metabolic pathways. Functional AA is a term used to describe AA that are involved in cellular processes apart from protein synthesis. A deficiency, or imbalance, in functional AA may impair body metabolism and homeostasis. Recent years have seen an increased interest in AA to increase disease resistance, immune response, reproduction, behavior and more. This has led to a boost of commercially available functional fish feeds that aim to optimize fish performance and quality of the product...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Paldeep S Atwal, Fernando Scaglia
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) is a severe autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism first described in 1978. It is characterized by a neonatal presentation of intractable seizures, feeding difficulties, severe developmental delay, microcephaly with brain atrophy and coarse facial features. MoCD results in deficiency of the molybdenum cofactor dependent enzymes sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase and mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component. The resultant accumulation of sulfite, taurine, S-sulfocysteine and thiosulfate contributes to the severe neurological impairment...
January 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Thomas J Jentsch, Darius Lutter, Rosa Planells-Cases, Florian Ullrich, Felizia K Voss
A major player of vertebrate cell volume regulation is the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC), which conducts halide ions and organic osmolytes to counteract osmotic imbalances. The molecular entity of this channel was unknown until very recently, although its biophysical characteristics and diverse physiological roles have been extensively studied over the last 30 years. On the road to the molecular identification of VRAC, experimental difficulties led to the proposal of a variety of false candidates. In 2014, in a final breakthrough, two groups independently identified LRRC8A as indispensable component of VRAC...
March 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Sharon A George, Steven Poelzing
Physiologic variations in perfusate composition have been identified as a new and important modulator of cardiac conduction velocity (CV), particularly when gap junctions (GJ) are reduced. We recently demonstrated in ex vivo hearts that perfusates with low sodium and high potassium preferentially slow ventricular CV in mice genetically engineered to express 50% less of the gap junction protein, connexin43 (Cx43). We also reported the possible role of calcium in modulating CV. In this review we discuss previous murine studies that explored the CV-GJ relationship in isolated mouse heart preparations with approximately 50% reduced Cx43...
January 2016: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Yosuke Yumoto, Susumu Higuchi
We reviewed the available pharmacological therapies for alcohol use disorder in Japan. For treatment of withdrawal delirium, therapists prefer to use antipsychotic drugs rather than benzodiazepines, which is different from other countries. Japan does not have any substantial treatment guidelines for withdrawal delirium. Therefore, so treatment strategies matching the environment of each facility need to be formulated. Moreover, current choices for prescribing anti-alcoholic drugs to cope with alcohol craving are limited to drugs such as cyanamide and disulfiram...
September 2015: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
P A Ponizovskiy, A G Gofman
In this review, authors considered characteristics of depression and alcohol addiction. Depressive disorders comorbid to alcoholism are heterogeneous in their nature and structure and can be observed during alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in remission. Antidepressants, and first of all selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), along with the specific anti-relapse drugs (disulfiram, acamprosate and naltrexone), are the drugs of choice in treatment of alcohol addiction. Efficient combinations of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy can improve outcomes of both comorbid disorders...
2015: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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