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Aisha K Ahmed, Alicia Youssef, Nedaa Skeik
Chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPD) share a stem cell-derived clonal myeloproliferation. This group of disorders includes essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), with the respective features of thrombocytosis, erythrocytosis, and bone marrow fibrosis(1). These disorders can be associated with genetic mutations affecting protein tyrosine kinases, resulting in different configurations of abnormal signal transduction. The Janus tyrosine kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation can be used as a key diagnostic tool for diagnosing MPDs, specifically, ET, PV, and PMF(2)...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Kira Behrens, Katrin Maul, Nilgün Tekin, Neele Kriebitzsch, Daniela Indenbirken, Vladimir Prassolov, Ursula Müller, Hubert Serve, Jörg Cammenga, Carol Stocking
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is induced by the cooperative action of deregulated genes that perturb self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation. Internal tandem duplications (ITDs) in the FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinase are common mutations in AML, confer poor prognosis, and stimulate myeloproliferation. AML patient samples with FLT3-ITD express high levels of RUNX1, a transcription factor with known tumor-suppressor function. In this study, to understand this paradox, we investigated the impact of RUNX1 and FLT3-ITD coexpression...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Thamer Sliwa, Christine Beham-Schmid, Sonja Burgstaller, Veronika Buxhofer-Ausch, Günther Gastl, Klaus Geissler, Maria Krauth, Peter Krippl, Alois Lang, Andreas Petzer, Stefan Wöhrer, Albert Wölfler, Heinz Gisslinger
The entity "myelofibrosis" represents a subgroup of the Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. It comprises primary myelofibrosis, post-polycythemia vera myelofibrosis and post-essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis. This heterogeneous disease is characterized by clonal myeloproliferation, dysregulated kinase signalling and the abnormal expression of several proinflammatory cytokines. Clinically, patients present with symptoms related to thrombocytosis/leukocytosis, anemia and/or progressive splenomegaly...
December 13, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Jacob Grinfeld, Anna L Godfrey
The JAK2V617F mutation accounts for the vast majority of patients with polycythaemia vera (PV) and around half of those with other Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Since its discovery in 2005, numerous insights have been gained into the pathways by which JAK2V617F causes myeloproliferation, including activation of JAK-STAT signalling but also through other canonical and non-canonical pathways. A variety of mechanisms explain how this one mutation can be associated with distinct clinical disorders, demonstrating how constitutional and acquired factors may interact in the presence of a single mutation to determine disease phenotype...
November 15, 2016: Blood Reviews
Ayalew Tefferi
Disease overview: Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) characterized by stem cell-derived clonal myeloproliferation that is often but not always accompanied by JAK2, CALR or MPL mutation, abnormal cytokine expression, bone marrow fibrosis, anemia, splenomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH), constitutional symptoms, cachexia, leukemic progression and shortened survival. DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis is based on bone marrow morphology. The presence of JAK2, CALR or MPL mutation is supportive but not essential for diagnosis; approximately 90% of patients carry one of these mutations and 10% are "triple-negative...
December 2016: American Journal of Hematology
Hajime Maeda, Hayato Go, Takashi Imamura, Maki Sato, Nobuo Momoi, Mitsuaki Hosoya
Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are at risk of developing a transient myeloproliferative disorder during the neonatal period, known as transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM). It is characterized by clonal myeloproliferation and is typically self-limiting. However, TAM can be a life-threatening disorder, when complicated by liver fibrosis. Here, we evaluated cytokine profiles in two male DS infants having TAM with or without liver dysfunction. The first patient, Patient 1, had hyperleukocytosis with cholestatic liver dysfunction, coagulopathy, and increased counts of blasts and was treated with exchange transfusion (ExT) due to the serious general condition...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Elisa Barbieri, Gianluca Deflorian, Federica Pezzimenti, Debora Valli, Marco Saia, Natalia Meani, Alicja M Gruszka, Myriam Alcalay
Nucleophosmin (NPM1) is a ubiquitous multifunctional phosphoprotein with both oncogenic and tumor suppressor functions. Mutations of the NPM1 gene are the most frequent genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and result in the expression of a mutant protein with aberrant cytoplasmic localization, NPMc+. Although NPMc+ causes myeloproliferation and AML in animal models, its mechanism of action remains largely unknown. Here we report that NPMc+ activates canonical Wnt signaling during the early phases of zebrafish development and determines a Wnt-dependent increase in the number of progenitor cells during primitive hematopoiesis...
August 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Ting Zhou, Stephanie N Perez, Ziming Cheng, Marsha C Kinney, Madeleine E Lemieux, Linda M Scott, Vivienne I Rebel
Perturbations in CREB binding protein (CREBBP) are associated with hematopoietic malignancies, including myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Mice hemizygous for Crebbp develop myelodysplasia with proliferative features, reminiscent of human MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasm-unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-U), and a proportion goes on to develop acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We have also shown that the Crebbp+/- non-hematopoietic bone marrow microenvironment induces excessive myeloproliferation of wild-type cells. We now report that transplantation of unfractionated Crebbp+/- bone marrow into wild-type recipients resulted in either early-onset AML or late-onset MDS and MDS/MPN-U...
2016: PloS One
Ulrike Höckendorf, Monica Yabal, Tobias Herold, Enkhtsetseg Munkhbaatar, Stephanie Rott, Stefanie Jilg, Johanna Kauschinger, Giovanni Magnani, Florian Reisinger, Michael Heuser, Hans Kreipe, Karl Sotlar, Thomas Engleitner, Roland Rad, Wilko Weichert, Christian Peschel, Jürgen Ruland, Mathias Heikenwalder, Karsten Spiekermann, Julia Slotta-Huspenina, Olaf Groß, Philipp J Jost
Since acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the blockade of hematopoietic differentiation and cell death, we interrogated RIPK3 signaling in AML development. Genetic loss of Ripk3 converted murine FLT3-ITD-driven myeloproliferation into an overt AML by enhancing the accumulation of leukemia-initiating cells (LIC). Failed inflammasome activation and cell death mediated by tumor necrosis factor receptor caused this accumulation of LIC exemplified by accelerated leukemia onset in Il1r1(-/-), Pycard(-/-), and Tnfr1/2(-/-) mice...
July 11, 2016: Cancer Cell
Maria Gabriela Berzoti-Coelho, Aline Fernanda Ferreira, Natalia de Souza Nunes, Mariana Tomazini Pinto, Maurício Cristiano Rocha Júnior, Belinda Pinto Simões, Carlos Martínez-A, Elizabeth Xisto Souto, Rodrigo Alexandre Panepucci, Dimas Tadeu Covas, Simone Kashima, Fabíola Attié Castro
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML), Polycythemia Vera (PV), Essential Thrombocythemia (ET) and Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF) are Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN) characterized by clonal myeloproliferation without cell maturation impairment. CML pathogenesis is associated with the Ph chromosome leading to BCR-ABL tyrosine-kinase constitutive expression. The Ph negative MPN (PV, ET and PMF) are characterized by the mutation JAK2(V617F) of the JAK2 protein in the auto-inhibitory JH2 domain, which is found in most PV patients and in approximately half of ET and PMF patients...
July 2016: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
Marketa Zaliova, Anthony V Moorman, Giovanni Cazzaniga, Martin Stanulla, Richard C Harvey, Kathryn G Roberts, Sue L Heatley, Mignon L Loh, Marina Konopleva, I-Ming Chen, Olga Zimmermannova, Claire Schwab, Owen Smith, Marie-Joelle Mozziconacci, Christian Chabannon, Myungshin Kim, J H Frederik Falkenburg, Alice Norton, Karen Marshall, Oskar A Haas, Julia Starkova, Jan Stuchly, Stephen P Hunger, Deborah White, Charles G Mullighan, Cheryl L Willman, Jan Stary, Jan Trka, Jan Zuna
To characterize the incidence, clinical features and genetics of ETV6-ABL1 leukemias, representing targetable kinase-activating lesions, we analyzed 44 new and published cases of ETV6-ABL1-positive hematologic malignancies [22 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (13 children, 9 adults) and 22 myeloid malignancies (18 myeloproliferative neoplasms, 4 acute myeloid leukemias)]. The presence of the ETV6-ABL1 fusion was ascertained by cytogenetics, fluorescence in-situ hybridization, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and RNA sequencing...
September 2016: Haematologica
Emilie Coppin, Maria De Grandis, Pier Paolo Pandolfi, Marie-Laure Arcangeli, Michel Aurrand-Lions, Jacques A Nunès
Dok1 and Dok2 proteins play a crucial role in myeloid cell proliferation as demonstrated by Dok1 and Dok2 gene inactivation, which induces a myeloproliferative disease in aging mice. In this study, we show that Dok1/Dok2 deficiency affects myeloproliferation even at a young age. An increase in the cellularity of multipotent progenitors is observed in young Dok1/Dok2-deficient mice. This is associated with an increase in the cells undergoing cell cycle, which is restricted to myeloid committed progenitors. Furthermore, cellular stress triggered by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment potentiates the effects of the loss of Dok proteins on multipotent progenitor cell cycle...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
William Vainchenker, Stefan N Constantinescu, Isabelle Plo
The classic BCR-ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), a form of chronic malignant hemopathies, have been classified into polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). ET and PMF are two similar disorders in their pathogenesis, which is marked by a key role of the megakaryocyte (MK) lineage. Whereas ET is characterized by MK proliferation, PMF is also associated with aberrant MK differentiation (myelodysplasia), leading to the release of cytokines in the marrow environment, which causes the development of myelofibrosis...
2016: F1000Research
Staci L Haney, G Michael Upchurch, Jana Opavska, David Klinkebiel, Ryan A Hlady, Abhinav Suresh, Samuel J Pirruccello, Vipul Shukla, Runqing Lu, Stefan Costinean, Angie Rizzino, Adam R Karpf, Shantaram Joshi, Patrick Swanson, Rene Opavsky
DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3A) catalyzes the formation of 5-methyl-cytosine in mammalian genomic DNA, and it is frequently mutated in human hematologic malignancies. Bi-allelic loss of Dnmt3a in mice results in leukemia and lymphoma, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Here, we investigate whether mono-allelic loss of Dnmt3a is sufficient to induce disease. We show that, by 16 months of age, 65% of Dnmt3a(+/-) mice develop a CLL-like disease, and 15% of mice develop non-malignant myeloproliferation...
May 10, 2016: Cell Reports
H Zhan, Y Ma, C H S Lin, K Kaushansky
The myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are characterized by hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion and overproduction of mature blood cells. The JAK2(V617F) mutation is present in hematopoietic cells in a majority of patients with MPNs, but the mechanism(s) responsible for MPN stem cell expansion remain incomplete. One hallmark feature of the marrow in patients with MPNs is megakaryocyte (MK) hyperplasia. We report here that mice bearing a human JAK2(V617F) gene restricted exclusively to the MK lineage develop many of the features of a MPN...
December 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Vittorio Rosti, Rita Campanelli, Margherita Massa, Gianluca Viarengo, Laura Villani, Valentina Poletto, Elisa Bonetti, Paolo Catarsi, Umberto Magrini, Ambra A Grolla, Cristina Travelli, Armando A Genazzani, Giovanni Barosi
Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN)-associated myelofibrosis is a clonal, neoplastic disorder of the hematopoietic stem cells, in which inflammation and immune dysregulation play an important role. Extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT), also known as visfatin, is a cytokine implicated in a number of inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Here plasma levels of eNAMPT in patients with MPN-associated myelofibrosis and their effects on disease phenotype and outcomes were examined. The concordance of eNAMPT levels with the marker of general inflammation high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was also studied...
July 2016: American Journal of Hematology
Xuefeng Jing, Takashi Sonoki, Masayasu Miyajima, Takahiro Sawada, Nanako Terada, Shigeki Takemura, Kazushige Sakaguchi
UNLABELLED: EphA4 belongs to the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Although EphA4 is highly expressed in the central nervous system, EphA4 has also been implicated in cancer progression. Most of the studies focus on the expression and function in tumor cells. It is unknown whether EphA4-deleted microenvironment affects tumor progression. Some of cancers in animals and humans, such as 4T1 cancer cells, are known to produce a large amount of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF/Csf3) which can stimulate myeloproliferation, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) leading to a poor recipient prognosis...
2016: Cancer Medicine
Alberto Alvarez-Larrán, Ana Kerguelen, Juan C Hernández-Boluda, Manuel Pérez-Encinas, Francisca Ferrer-Marín, Abelardo Bárez, Joaquín Martínez-López, Beatriz Cuevas, M Isabel Mata, Valentín García-Gutiérrez, Pilar Aragües, Sara Montesdeoca, Carmen Burgaleta, Gonzalo Caballero, J Angel Hernández-Rivas, M Antonia Durán, M Teresa Gómez-Casares, Carles Besses
The clinical significance of resistance/intolerance to hydroxycarbamide (HC) was assessed in a series of 890 patients with polycythaemia vera (PV). Resistance/intolerance to HC was recorded in 137 patients (15·4%), consisting of: need for phlebotomies (3·3%), uncontrolled myeloproliferation (1·6%), failure to reduce massive splenomegaly (0·8%), development of cytopenia at the lowest dose of HC to achieve a response (1·7%) and extra-haematological toxicity (9%). With a median follow-up of 4·6 years, 99 patients died, resulting in a median survival of 19 years...
March 2016: British Journal of Haematology
S Koschmieder, T I Mughal, H C Hasselbalch, G Barosi, P Valent, J-J Kiladjian, G Jeryczynski, H Gisslinger, J S Jutzi, H L Pahl, R Hehlmann, A Maria Vannucchi, F Cervantes, R T Silver, T Barbui
The Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal disorders involving hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and are associated with myeloproliferation, splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms. Similar signs and symptoms can also be found in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, and inflammatory processes have been found to play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of MPNs. Signal transduction pathways involving JAK1, JAK2, STAT3 and STAT5 are causally involved in driving both the malignant cells and the inflammatory process...
May 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Sonia Cerquozzi, Nosha Farhadfar, Ayalew Tefferi
Myelofibrosis (MF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm that presents either as a primary disease or evolves secondarily from polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia to post-polycythemia vera MF or post-essential thrombocythemia MF, respectively. Myelofibrosis is characterized by stem cell-derived clonal myeloproliferation, abnormal cytokine expression, bone marrow fibrosis, anemia, splenomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis, constitutional symptoms, cachexia, leukemic progression, and shortened survival...
January 2016: Cancer Journal
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