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The diffuse endocrine system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480607/adiponectin-enhances-quiescence-exit-of-murine-hematopoietic-stem-cells-and-hematopoietic-recovery-through-mtorc1-potentiation
#1
Yosuke Masamoto, Shunya Arai, Tomohiko Sato, Naoto Kubota, Iseki Takamoto, Takashi Kadowaki, Mineo Kurokawa
Myelotoxic injury, such as chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation, unlocks the vigorous power of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to replenish the hematopoietic system, making quiescent HSCs enter the cell cycle. Considering that both HSC-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms enforce quiescence of HSCs, the drastic change in bone marrow (BM) environment after injury, represented by massive expansion of BM adipocytes, might trigger HSC activation. BM adipocytes, the major cellular component in the ablated marrow, however, reportedly suppress proliferation of hematopoietic cells, which may indicate the BM adipocytogenesis is an irrational response of injured organism...
May 8, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419534/endocrine-imbalance-associated-with-proteome-changes-in-diabetes
#2
Amr A Sayed, Ahmed M Alhawary, Aboalela Farag, Dina R Johar, Larry H Bernstein
The dynamics of cellular metabolism involves rapid interactions between proteins and nucleotides, proteins and proteins, proteins and mRNA, the action of miRNA, and signaling. These also involve the interactions with respect to the sulfur bond, oxygen radicals that initiate a change in conformation and a chain of events. We review a development in molecular medicine that is a very promising work in progress. We also review the current and future research methods involving mitochondria. Long-term effects of diabetes include glycation of proteins, e...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357654/human-adipocyte-differentiation-and-characterization-in-a-perfusion-based-cell-culture-device
#3
Yunxiao Liu, Patthara Kongsuphol, Sajay Bhuvanendran Nair Gourikutty, Qasem Ramadan
Adipocytes have gained significant attention recently, because they are not only functioning as energy storage but also as endocrine cells. Adipocytes secret various signaling molecules, including adiponectin, MCP-1, and IL-6, termed collectively as "adipokines". Adipokines regulate glucose metabolism, thereby play an important role in obesity, diabetes type 2, and other metabolic disorders. Conventionally, to study the secretory function, adipocytes are cultured in vitro in static conditions. However, static culturing condition falls short of mimicking the interstitial fluid flows in living systems...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318786/modulation-of-the-stress-response-in-wild-fish-is-associated-with-variation-in-dissolved-nitrate-and-nitrite
#4
Tom G Pottinger
Disruption of non-reproductive endocrine systems in wildlife by chemicals has received little attention but represents a potentially significant problem. Nitrate is a major anthropogenic contaminant in the freshwater aquatic environment and has been identified as a potential disrupter of endocrine function in aquatic animals. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the function of the neuroendocrine stress axis in fish and inorganic N loading along reaches of rivers receiving cumulative point source and diffuse chemical inputs...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290072/changes-in-brain-white-matter-integrity-after-systemic-treatment-for-breast-cancer-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#5
Sanne Menning, Michiel B de Ruiter, Dick J Veltman, Willem Boogerd, Hester S A Oldenburg, Liesbeth Reneman, Sanne B Schagen
An increasing number of studies suggest chemotherapy for breast cancer may be neurotoxic. Cross-sectional MRI diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies suggest a vulnerability of brain white matter to various chemotherapeutic regimens. Up till now, this was confirmed in one prospective DTI study: Deprez et al. (2012) showed a widespread decline in fractional anisotropy (FA) of breast cancer patients after chemotherapy consisting of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (FEC) +/- taxanes +/- endocrine treatment...
March 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162928/secretin-stimulated-mri-characterization-of-pancreatic-morphology-and-function-in-patients-with-chronic-pancreatitis
#6
Adnan Madzak, Søren Schou Olesen, Ingfrid Salvesen Haldorsen, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Jens Brøndum Frøkjær
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by abnormal pancreatic morphology and impaired endocrine and exocrine function. However, little is known about the relationship between pancreatic morphology and function, and also the association with the etiology and clinical manifestations of CP. The aim was to explore pancreatic morphology and function with advanced MRI in patients with CP and healthy controls (HC) METHODS: Eighty-two patients with CP and 22 HC were enrolled in the study...
January 27, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876011/nivolumab-associated-acute-glomerulonephritis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Kyungsuk Jung, Xu Zeng, Marijo Bilusic
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are changing the landscape of oncology treatment as they are significantly improving treatment for multiple malignancies. Nivolumab, an anti-programmed death 1 antibody, is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and kidney cancer but can result in a spectrum of autoimmune side effects. Adverse effects can occur within any organ system in the body including the colon, lung, liver, endocrine systems, or kidneys...
November 22, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848893/the-medicinal-chemistry-of-nitrite-as-a-source-of-nitric-oxide-signaling
#8
Arlin B Blood
Conventional understanding of nitric oxide (NO) signaling in biology is commonly based on the premise that it simply diffuses randomly from its site of production by NO synthases to its site of action or inactivation. This notion has been challenged on a systemic cardiovascular scale with the realization that NO has endocrine effects despite being unable to exist in blood for more than a few milliseconds. Investigation of this phenomenon has led to the understanding that many of the chemical pathways that consume NO may not render it inactive as once thought...
November 16, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566421/progress-in-pediatrics-in-2015-choices-in-allergy-endocrinology-gastroenterology-genetics-haematology-infectious-diseases-neonatology-nephrology-neurology-nutrition-oncology-and-pulmonology
#9
EDITORIAL
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510679/isolated-ileal-ganglioneuromatosis-in-an-11-year-old-boy-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#10
REVIEW
Subhashis Mitra, Sanghamitra Mukherjee, Hema Chakraborty
Ganglioneuromatous proliferation in the gastrointestinal tract is a rare occurrence and is usually associated with specific syndrome complexes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 2B or von Recklinghausen's disease. We report here a case of diffuse intestinal ganglioneuromatosis, presenting as intestinal obstruction and chronic constipation in an 11-year-old boy. Sporadic cases of intestinal ganglioneuromatosis in the absence of any systemic manifestations are a very rare cause of enteric motility disorders in childhood, and we discuss the pathological and clinical significance of this finding...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27128301/recent-updates-on-neuroendocrine-tumors-from-the-gastrointestinal-and-pancreatobiliary-tracts
#11
REVIEW
Joo Young Kim, Seung-Mo Hong
CONTEXT: -Gastrointestinal (GI) and pancreatobiliary tracts contain a variety of neuroendocrine cells that constitute a diffuse endocrine system. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) from these organs are heterogeneous tumors with diverse clinical behaviors. Recent improvements in the understanding of NETs from the GI and pancreatobiliary tracts have led to more-refined definitions of the clinicopathologic characteristics of these tumors. Under the 2010 World Health Organization classification scheme, NETs are classified as grade (G) 1 NETs, G2 NETs, neuroendocrine carcinomas, and mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas...
May 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27107988/common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-responses-to-sub-chronic-exposure-to-perfluorooctanoic-acid
#12
Luisa Giari, Fabio Vincenzi, Simone Badini, Cristiana Guerranti, Bahram S Dezfuli, Elisa A Fano, Giuseppe Castaldelli
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an important and diffuse perfluorinated alkylated substance, but knowledge of the toxicological effects of this endocrine disrupter in fish is limited. Adult common carp Cyprinus carpio, L. were exposed to 200 ng/l (a concentration reported in impacted aquatic ecosystems) and 2 mg/l PFOA solutions in a flow-through system for 56 days to determine tissue accumulation and histological alterations of the primary target organs. PFOA was extracted from blood, gill, liver, muscle, kidney, gonad, and brain by an ion-pairing liquid extraction procedure and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry...
August 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27075353/diagnosis-and-management-of-hereditary-carcinoids
#13
Sarah Benafif, Rosalind Eeles
Carcinoid tumours arise in cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system and can develop in a number of anatomical sites including the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. There has been a move away from the use of the term carcinoid tumour to the more appropriate use of neuroendocrine tumour (NET) to highlight the potential for invasion and metastasis associated with some NETs. Although most cases are sporadic, 15-20% of cases are related to a hereditary syndrome, the most common of these being multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN1)...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27028239/effect-of-hydrochloric-acid-decalcification-on-expression-pattern-of-prognostic-markers-in-invasive-breast-carcinomas
#14
Shawn C Maclary, Sambit K Mohanty, Shikha Bose, Fai Chung, Bonnie L Balzer
CONTEXT: In the United States, it is estimated that 100,000 people are living with metastatic breast cancer (BC) with bone representing the most common site of involvement. However, patients with isolated bone metastasis at presentation may have a longer survival. Therapeutic options for BC bone metastases often include systemic anticancer therapy (endocrine, chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, and/or other targeted therapies), which is largely dependent on the immunohistochemical (IHC) repertoire of the cancer for the prognostic markers [estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR), Ki-67, p53, and Her-2/neu] at its osseous metastatic site...
February 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26987137/-diffuse-neuroendocrine-system-of-the-stomach-and-characteristics-of-proliferation-in-realization-of-correa-s-cascade-in-diseases-associated-with-helicobacter-pylori
#15
A A Svistunov, N V Kireeva, M A Osadchuk, I M Kvetnoy
AIM: To study the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Ki-67, BCL-2, and endocrine cells (EC) of gastric mucosa producing somatostatin (SS), glucagon (GL), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) in diseases associated with Helicobacter pylori. To use the data obtained to develop early diagnostic criteria for the progress of structural changes in gastric mucosa of the patients with stomach ulcer disease [SUD), chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), gastric adenomatous polyps (GAP), and gastric cancer (GC) before and after surgical intervention and eradication of H...
2015: Klinicheskaia Meditsina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26925113/chromogranin-a-unspecific-neuroendocrine-marker-clinical-utility-and-potential-diagnostic-pitfalls
#16
Paweł Gut, Agata Czarnywojtek, Jakub Fischbach, Maciej Bączyk, Katarzyna Ziemnicka, Elżbieta Wrotkowska, Maria Gryczyńska, Marek Ruchała
Chromogranin A, despite a number of limitations, is still the most valuable marker of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Granins belong to the family of acidic proteins that constitute a major component of secretory granules of various endocrine and neuroendocrine cells, which are components of both the classical endocrine glands and the diffuse neuroendocrine system. These cells are a potential source of transformation into neuroendocrine tumors. The awareness of potential causes influencing the false results of its concentrations simplifies diagnosis and treatment...
February 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26695684/exposure-to-17%C3%AE-oestradiol-induces-oxidative-stress-in-the-non-oestrogen-receptor-invertebrate-species-eisenia-fetida
#17
Zbynek Heger, Petr Michalek, Roman Guran, Barbora Havelkova, Marketa Kominkova, Natalia Cernei, Lukas Richtera, Miroslava Beklova, Vojtech Adam, Rene Kizek
BACKGROUND: The environmental impacts of various substances on all levels of organisms are under investigation. Among these substances, endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) present a threat, although the environmental significance of these compounds remains largely unknown. To shed some light on this field, we assessed the effects of 17β-oestradiol on the growth, reproduction and formation of free radicals in Eisenia fetida. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Although the observed effects on growth and survival were relatively weak, a strong impact on reproduction was observed (50...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26508947/pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-in-an-adult-male-presenting-with-central-diabetes-insipidus-and-diabetes-mellitus-a-case-report
#18
Yeun Seoung Choi, Jung Soo Lim, Woocheol Kwon, Soon-Hee Jung, Il Hwan Park, Myoung Kyu Lee, Won Yeon Lee, Suk Joong Yong, Seok Jeong Lee, Ye-Ryung Jung, Jiwon Choi, Ji Sun Choi, Joon Taek Jeong, Jin Sae Yoo, Sang-Ha Kim
Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is an uncommon diffuse cystic lung disease in adults. In rare cases, it can involve extrapulmonary organs and lead to endocrine abnormalities such as central diabetes insipidus. A 42-year-old man presented with polyphagia and polydipsia, as well as a dry cough and dyspnea on exertion. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamic-pituitary system failed to show the posterior pituitary, which is a typical finding in patients with central diabetes insipidus. This condition was confirmed by a water deprivation test, and the patient was also found to have type 2 diabetes mellitus...
October 2015: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26424825/intestinal-ganglioneuromatosis-an-unusual-aetiology-for-occult-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#19
Alexandra Fernandes, Ana Margarida Ferreira, Paula Serra, Luís Carvalho
Intestinal ganglioneuromatosis is a rare disorder of the enteric nervous system. It is often associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b but, more rarely, it can present in a sporadic and isolated form. A 66-year-old man presented with a 14-year history of iron deficiency anaemia, with no visible bleeding, requiring occasional blood transfusions. Haematological causes of anaemia were thoroughly excluded, and conventional endoscopic and radiological examinations showed no lesions...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26303717/other-novel-therapies-biomarkers-micrornas-and-microrna-inhibitors-dna-methylation-epigenetics-immunotherapy-and-virotherapy
#20
REVIEW
Valeria Giandomenico, Chrissie Thirlwell, Magnus Essand
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) consist of heterogeneous neoplasms. The neuroendocrine cells of the human body are confined to certain organs, such as the thyroid, pancreas and adrenals, or they are dispersed throughout the body in the respiratory tract and in the intestinal mucosa. The cells belong to the diffuse endocrine cell system, share a neuroendocrine phenotype, and accumulate precursor molecules which are then processed into hormones, peptides or amines. The tightly controlled release on stimulation is either to the blood stream or adjacent cells or neurons...
2015: Frontiers of Hormone Research
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