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The diffuse endocrine system

Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Subhashis Mitra, Sanghamitra Mukherjee, Hema Chakraborty
Ganglioneuromatous proliferation in the gastrointestinal tract is a rare occurrence and is usually associated with specific syndrome complexes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 2B or von Recklinghausen's disease. We report here a case of diffuse intestinal ganglioneuromatosis, presenting as intestinal obstruction and chronic constipation in an 11-year-old boy. Sporadic cases of intestinal ganglioneuromatosis in the absence of any systemic manifestations are a very rare cause of enteric motility disorders in childhood, and we discuss the pathological and clinical significance of this finding...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Joo Young Kim, Seung-Mo Hong
CONTEXT: -Gastrointestinal (GI) and pancreatobiliary tracts contain a variety of neuroendocrine cells that constitute a diffuse endocrine system. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) from these organs are heterogeneous tumors with diverse clinical behaviors. Recent improvements in the understanding of NETs from the GI and pancreatobiliary tracts have led to more-refined definitions of the clinicopathologic characteristics of these tumors. Under the 2010 World Health Organization classification scheme, NETs are classified as grade (G) 1 NETs, G2 NETs, neuroendocrine carcinomas, and mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas...
May 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Luisa Giari, Fabio Vincenzi, Simone Badini, Cristiana Guerranti, Bahram S Dezfuli, Elisa A Fano, Giuseppe Castaldelli
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an important and diffuse perfluorinated alkylated substance, but knowledge of the toxicological effects of this endocrine disrupter in fish is limited. Adult common carp Cyprinus carpio, L. were exposed to 200 ng/l (a concentration reported in impacted aquatic ecosystems) and 2 mg/l PFOA solutions in a flow-through system for 56 days to determine tissue accumulation and histological alterations of the primary target organs. PFOA was extracted from blood, gill, liver, muscle, kidney, gonad, and brain by an ion-pairing liquid extraction procedure and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry...
August 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sarah Benafif, Rosalind Eeles
Carcinoid tumours arise in cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system and can develop in a number of anatomical sites including the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. There has been a move away from the use of the term carcinoid tumour to the more appropriate use of neuroendocrine tumour (NET) to highlight the potential for invasion and metastasis associated with some NETs. Although most cases are sporadic, 15-20% of cases are related to a hereditary syndrome, the most common of these being multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN1)...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Shawn C Maclary, Sambit K Mohanty, Shikha Bose, Fai Chung, Bonnie L Balzer
CONTEXT: In the United States, it is estimated that 100,000 people are living with metastatic breast cancer (BC) with bone representing the most common site of involvement. However, patients with isolated bone metastasis at presentation may have a longer survival. Therapeutic options for BC bone metastases often include systemic anticancer therapy (endocrine, chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, and/or other targeted therapies), which is largely dependent on the immunohistochemical (IHC) repertoire of the cancer for the prognostic markers [estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR), Ki-67, p53, and Her-2/neu] at its osseous metastatic site...
March 29, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
A A Svistunov, N V Kireeva, M A Osadchuk, I M Kvetnoy
AIM: To study the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Ki-67, BCL-2, and endocrine cells (EC) of gastric mucosa producing somatostatin (SS), glucagon (GL), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) in diseases associated with Helicobacter pylori. To use the data obtained to develop early diagnostic criteria for the progress of structural changes in gastric mucosa of the patients with stomach ulcer disease [SUD), chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), gastric adenomatous polyps (GAP), and gastric cancer (GC) before and after surgical intervention and eradication of H...
2015: Klinicheskaia Meditsina
Paweł Gut, Agata Czarnywojtek, Jakub Fischbach, Maciej Bączyk, Katarzyna Ziemnicka, Elżbieta Wrotkowska, Maria Gryczyńska, Marek Ruchała
Chromogranin A, despite a number of limitations, is still the most valuable marker of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Granins belong to the family of acidic proteins that constitute a major component of secretory granules of various endocrine and neuroendocrine cells, which are components of both the classical endocrine glands and the diffuse neuroendocrine system. These cells are a potential source of transformation into neuroendocrine tumors. The awareness of potential causes influencing the false results of its concentrations simplifies diagnosis and treatment...
February 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Zbynek Heger, Petr Michalek, Roman Guran, Barbora Havelkova, Marketa Kominkova, Natalia Cernei, Lukas Richtera, Miroslava Beklova, Vojtech Adam, Rene Kizek
BACKGROUND: The environmental impacts of various substances on all levels of organisms are under investigation. Among these substances, endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) present a threat, although the environmental significance of these compounds remains largely unknown. To shed some light on this field, we assessed the effects of 17β-oestradiol on the growth, reproduction and formation of free radicals in Eisenia fetida. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Although the observed effects on growth and survival were relatively weak, a strong impact on reproduction was observed (50...
2015: PloS One
Yeun Seoung Choi, Jung Soo Lim, Woocheol Kwon, Soon-Hee Jung, Il Hwan Park, Myoung Kyu Lee, Won Yeon Lee, Suk Joong Yong, Seok Jeong Lee, Ye-Ryung Jung, Jiwon Choi, Ji Sun Choi, Joon Taek Jeong, Jin Sae Yoo, Sang-Ha Kim
Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is an uncommon diffuse cystic lung disease in adults. In rare cases, it can involve extrapulmonary organs and lead to endocrine abnormalities such as central diabetes insipidus. A 42-year-old man presented with polyphagia and polydipsia, as well as a dry cough and dyspnea on exertion. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamic-pituitary system failed to show the posterior pituitary, which is a typical finding in patients with central diabetes insipidus. This condition was confirmed by a water deprivation test, and the patient was also found to have type 2 diabetes mellitus...
October 2015: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Alexandra Fernandes, Ana Margarida Ferreira, Paula Serra, Luís Carvalho
Intestinal ganglioneuromatosis is a rare disorder of the enteric nervous system. It is often associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b but, more rarely, it can present in a sporadic and isolated form. A 66-year-old man presented with a 14-year history of iron deficiency anaemia, with no visible bleeding, requiring occasional blood transfusions. Haematological causes of anaemia were thoroughly excluded, and conventional endoscopic and radiological examinations showed no lesions...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
Valeria Giandomenico, Chrissie Thirlwell, Magnus Essand
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) consist of heterogeneous neoplasms. The neuroendocrine cells of the human body are confined to certain organs, such as the thyroid, pancreas and adrenals, or they are dispersed throughout the body in the respiratory tract and in the intestinal mucosa. The cells belong to the diffuse endocrine cell system, share a neuroendocrine phenotype, and accumulate precursor molecules which are then processed into hormones, peptides or amines. The tightly controlled release on stimulation is either to the blood stream or adjacent cells or neurons...
2015: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Catuxa Celeiro-Muñoz, Thomas A Huebner, Scott A Robertson, Meredith E Pittman, Aatur D Singhi, Christina A Arnold, Feriyl Bhaijee, Lysandra Voltaggio, Elizabeth A Montgomery
Tactile corpuscle-like bodies (TCLB) are microscopic Schwannian structures that simulate the superficial mechanoreceptors of the peripheral nervous system (Wagner-Meissner corpuscles). They have been described nearly exclusively in peripheral nerve sheath tumors, namely diffuse neurofibromas, and schwannomas but also in cellular nevi. There are rare reports of these structures in the gastrointestinal tract (predominantly the lower tract), with the presumption that they are incidental reactive neural proliferations...
December 2015: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Wael Abdo Hassan, Naoka Udaka, Akihiko Ueda, Yukio Ando, Takaaki Ito
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is one of the most common heritable causes of stroke and dementia in adults. The gene involved in the pathogenesis of CADASIL is Notch3; in which mutations affect the number of cysteine residues in its extracellular domain, causing its accumulation in small arteries and arterioles of the affected individuals. Besides the usual neurological and vascular findings that have been well-documented in CADASIL patients, this paper additionally reports multiple neoplastic lesions that were observed in an autopsy case of CADASIL patient; that could be related to Notch3 mutation...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Kai Duan, Karen Gomez Hernandez, Ozgur Mete
Hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder with potential complications on the skeletal, renal, neurocognitive and cardiovascular systems. While most cases (95%) occur sporadically, about 5% are associated with a hereditary syndrome: multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes (MEN-1, MEN-2A, MEN-4), hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT-JT), familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH-1, FHH-2, FHH-3), familial hypercalciuric hypercalcaemia, neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism and isolated familial hyperparathyroidism...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Katherine Beebe, Dongkook Park, Paul H Taghert, Craig A Micchelli
The endocrine system employs peptide hormone signals to translate environmental changes into physiological responses. The diffuse endocrine system embedded in the gastrointestinal barrier epithelium is one of the largest and most diverse endocrine tissues. Furthermore, it is the only endocrine tissue in direct physical contact with the microbial environment of the gut lumen. However, it remains unclear how this sensory epithelium responds to specific pathogenic challenges in a dynamic and regulated manner. We demonstrate that the enteroendocrine cells of the adult Drosophila melanogaster midgut display a transient, sensitive, and systemic induction of the prosecretory factor dimmed (dimm) in response to the Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas entomophila (Pe)...
July 2015: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Eric H Liu, Carmen C Solorzano, Laurence Katznelson, Aaron I Vinik, Richard Wong, Gregory Randolph
OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a collection of complex tumors that arise from the diffuse endocrine system, primarily from the digestive tract. Carcinoid tumors most commonly originate from the small intestine. These tumors are either referred to as small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors or midgut carcinoids (MGCs). The purpose of this review article is to survey the diagnostic and therapeutic pathways for patients with MGC and provide an overview of the complex multidisciplinary care involved in improving their quality of life, treatment outcomes, and survival...
May 2015: Endocrine Practice
Wann Jia Loh, Kesavan Sittampalam, Suan Cheng Tan, Manju Chandran
UNLABELLED: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a potentially fatal condition characterized by infiltration of multiple organs by non-Langerhans histiocytes. Although endocrine dysfunction has been reported in association with ECD, to date, there have been no previous reports of empty sella syndrome (ESS) associated with it. We report the case of a patient with ECD who had symptomatic ESS. A 55-year-old man of Chinese ethnicity initially presented with symptoms of heart failure, fatigue and knee joint pain...
2015: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Valeriu Gheorghiţă, Alina Elena Barbu, Monica Livia Gheorghiu, Florin Alexandru Căruntu
Sepsis is a systemic, deleterious inflammatory host response triggered by an infective agent leading to severe sepsis, septic shock and multi-organ failure. The host response to infection involves a complex, organized and coherent interaction between immune, autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioral systems. Recent data have confirmed that disturbances of the autonomic nervous and neuroendocrine systems could contribute to sepsis-induced organ dysfunction. Through this review, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge about the endocrine dysfunction as response to sepsis, specifically addressed to vasopressin, copeptin, cortisol, insulin and leptin...
March 2015: Germs
Hilde Nelis, Julie Vanden Bussche, Bartosz Wojciechowicz, Anita Franczak, Lynn Vanhaecke, Bart Leemans, Pieter Cornillie, Luc Peelman, Ann Van Soom, Katrien Smits
Steroids play an important role in mammalian reproduction and early pregnancy. Although systemic changes in steroid concentrations have been well documented, it is not clear how these correlate with local steroid concentrations in the genital tract. We hypothesised that, in the horse, the preimplantation embryo may be subjected to high local steroid concentrations for several days. Therefore, we measured progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 17?-oestradiol, testosterone and 17?-testosterone concentrations in equine oviductal tissue by ultra-HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, and progesterone, 17?-oestradiol, oestrone and testosterone concentrations in oviduct fluid by radioimmunoassay, with reference to cycle stage and side of ovulation...
March 10, 2015: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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