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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424440/gemcitabine-induced-coronary-vasospasm-a-case-report
#1
Mahmut Tuna Katırcıbaşı, Aynur Eken
Gemcitabine is a chemotherapy drug. It is a nucleoside analogue that is usually well tolerated by patients, with myelosuppression (especially thrombocytopenia) as dose-limiting side effect. Other mild to moderate side effects include alopecia, vomiting, nausea, rash, and fever. Coronary ischemia is the most common cardiotoxic effect of gemcitabine, which is due to its antimetabolites. While underlying cause of coronary ischemia following use of gemcitabine is uncertain, endothelial dysfunction and coronary thrombosis are potential explanations...
March 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420723/mitochondrial-bax-determines-the-predisposition-to-apoptosis-in-human-aml
#2
Frank Reichenbach, Cornelius Wiedenmann, Enrico Schalk, Diana Becker, Kathrin Funk, Peter Scholz-Kreisel, Franziska Todt, Denise Wolleschak, Konstanze Dohner, Jens U Marquardt, Florian Heidel, Frank Edlich
Purpose: Cell-to-cell variability in apoptosis signaling contributes to heterogenic responses to cytotoxic stress in clinically heterogeneous neoplasia, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The BCL-2 proteins BAX and BAK can commit mammalian cells to apoptosis and are inhibited by retrotranslocation from the mitochondria into the cytosol. The subcellular localization of BAX and BAK could determine the cellular predisposition to apoptotic death. Experimental design: The relative localization of BAX and BAK was determined by fractionation of AML cell lines and patient samples of a test cohort and a validation cohort...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413320/panax-ginseng-meyer-prevents-radiation-induced-liver-injury-via-modulation-of-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#3
Hyeong-Geug Kim, Seong-Soon Jang, Jin-Seok Lee, Hyo-Seon Kim, Chang-Gue Son
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is one of the most important modalities in cancer treatment; however, normal tissue damage is a serious concern. Drug development for the protection or reduction of normal tissue damage is therefore a clinical issue. Herein, we evaluated the protective properties of Panax ginseng Meyer and its corresponding mechanisms. METHODS: C56BL/6 mice were orally pretreated with P. ginseng water extract (PGE; 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, or 100 mg/kg) or intraperitoneally injected melatonin (20 mg/kg) for 4 d consecutively, then exposed to 15-Gy X-ray radiation 1 h after the last administration...
April 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408800/rutin-protects-against-neuronal-damage-in-vitro-and-ameliorates-doxorubicin-induced-memory-deficits-in-vivo-in-wistar-rats
#4
Grandhi Venkata Ramalingayya, Sri Pragnya Cheruku, Pawan G Nayak, Anoop Kishore, Rekha Shenoy, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao, Nandakumar Krishnadas
Doxorubicin (DOX) is the most widely used broad-spectrum anticancer agent, either alone or in combination, for most cancers including breast cancer. Long-term use of chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer patients results in cognitive complications with a negative impact on survivors' quality of life. The study objective was to evaluate rutin (RUT) for its neuroprotective effect against DOX in human neuroblastoma (IMR32) cells in vitro and study its potential to ameliorate DOX-induced cognitive dysfunction in Wistar rats...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402958/thalidomide-combined-with-thanscatheter-artierial-chemoembolzation-for-primary-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
De-Dong Cao, Hui-Lin Xu, Liang Liu, Yong-Fa Zheng, Si-Fa Gao, Xi-Ming Xu, Wei Ge
OBJECTIVE: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and thalidomide have been used for treating primary hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC). This study aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of thalidomide and TACE in primary HCC. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials(RCTs) about efficacy and safety of thalidomide combined with TACE for primary HCC were identified from the Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Embase, CNKI, and Wan Fang until August, 2016. The retrieved trials were reviewed and the data were extracted by two reviewers, independently...
March 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397022/hospitalizations-outcomes-and-management-costs-of-febrile-neutropenia-in-patients-from-a-managed-care-population
#6
Aniket A Kawatkar, Albert J Farias, Chun Chao, Wansu Chen, Richard Barron, Florian D Vogl, David B Chandler
PURPOSE: The study objective was to evaluate chemotherapy treatment patterns and incidence, cost, and resource utilization of febrile neutropenia-related hospitalization (FNH) in patients with breast cancer, lung cancer, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) from Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC), a large integrated delivery system. METHODS: Adults ≥18 years with any stage breast cancer, lung cancer, or NHL who initiated myelosuppressive chemotherapy from 01/01/2006 to 12/31/2009 were included...
April 10, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395110/murine-models-of-transplantation-tolerance-through-mixed-chimerism-advances-and-roadblocks
#7
REVIEW
Benedikt Mahr, Thomas Wekerle
Organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage organ failure but chronic immunosuppression is taking its toll in terms of morbidity and poor efficacy in preventing late graft loss. Therefore a drug-free state would be desirable where the recipient permanently accepts a donor organ while remaining otherwise fully immunologically competent. Mouse studies unveiled mixed chimerism as an effective approach to deliberately induce such donor-specific tolerance and laid the foundation for a series of clinical pilot trials...
April 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391026/radiopharmaceuticals-in-the-elderly-cancer-patient-practical-considerations-with-a-focus-on-prostate-cancer-therapy-a-position-paper-from-the-international-society-of-geriatric-oncology-task-force
#8
John O Prior, Silke Gillessen, Manfred Wirth, William Dale, Matti Aapro, Wim J G Oyen
Molecular imaging using radiopharmaceuticals has a clear role in visualising the presence and extent of tumour at diagnosis and monitoring response to therapy. Such imaging provides prognostic and predictive information relevant to management, e.g. by quantifying active tumour mass using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). As these techniques require only pharmacologically inactive doses, age and potential frailty are generally not important. However, this may be different for therapy involving radionuclides because the radiation can impact normal bodily function (e...
April 6, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391009/the-promise-of-pharmacogenomics-in-reducing-toxicity-during-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-maintenance-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Shoshana Rudin, Marcus Marable, R Stephanie Huang
Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) affects a substantial number of children every year and requires a long and rigorous course of chemotherapy treatments in three stages, with the longest phase, the maintenance phase, lasting 2-3 years. While the primary drugs used in the maintenance phase, 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and methotrexate (MTX), are necessary for decreasing risk of relapse, they also have potentially serious toxicities, including myelosuppression, which may be life-threatening, and gastrointestinal toxicity...
April 5, 2017: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389455/dinutuximab-for-maintenance-therapy-in-pediatric-neuroblastoma
#10
REVIEW
Lauren McGinty, Jill Kolesar
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, clinical efficacy, safety, dosage and administration, and role in therapy of dinutuximab for the treatment of high-risk pediatric neuroblastoma are reviewed. SUMMARY: Dinutuximab (Unituxin, United Therapeutics) is a novel monoclonal antibody recently approved for use in combination with granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-2, and isotretinoin for the treatment of pediatric patients with high-risk neuroblastoma...
April 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381664/therapeutic-potential-of-docetaxel-plus-cisplatin-chemotherapy-for-myasthenia-gravis-patients-with-metastatic-thymoma
#11
Guoyan Qi, Peng Liu, Huimin Dong, Shanshan Gu, Hongxia Yang, Yinping Xue
The prognosis of myasthenia gravis (MG) in association with invasive or metastatic thymoma is usually worse, and therapeutic options are quite limited. Here, we retrospectively reported the therapeutic effect of docetaxel plus cisplatin (docetaxel/cisplatin) chemotherapy in 7 MG patients with metastatic thymoma. Previously, all patients underwent thymectomy at the first onset of thymoma. After the metastasis of thymoma, none of the patients received thymectomy due to unresectable conditions after surgeon's evaluation for great risk of myasthenic crisis (n = 5) or patients' refusal (n = 2)...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378926/translational-modeling-of-drug-induced-myelosuppression-and-effect-of-pre-treatment-myelosuppression-for-azd5153-a-selective-brd4-inhibitor
#12
Teresa A Collins, Maureen Hattersley, James W T Yates, Edwin Clark, Madhu Mondal, Jerome T Mettetal
In this work, we evaluate the potential risk of thrombocytopenia in man for a BRD4 inhibitor, AZD5153, based on the platelet count decreases from a Han Wistar rat study. The effects in rat were modeled and used to make clinical predictions for human populations with healthy baseline blood counts. At doses >10 mg, a dose-dependent effect on circulating platelets is expected, with similar predicted changes for both QD and BID dose schedules. These results suggest that at predicted efficacious doses, AZD5153 is likely to have some reductions in the clinical platelet counts, but within the normal range at projected efficacious doses...
April 5, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373755/peg-asparaginase-in-bfm-90-regimen-improves-outcomes-in-adults-with-newly-diagnosed-lymphoblastic-lymphoma
#13
Wen Zheng, Hanyun Ren, Xiaoyan Ke, Mei Xue, Yongqing Zhang, Yan Xie, Ningjing Lin, Meifeng Tu, Weiping Liu, Lingyan Ping, Zhitao Ying, Chen Zhang, Lijuan Deng, Xiaopei Wang, Yuqin Song, Jun Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Although L-asparaginase (L-ASP) is a standard treatment for lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL), hypersensitivity reactions by some patients limit its application. Polyethylene glycol-conjugated asparaginase (PEG-ASP) has a lower immunogenicity and is a standard treatment in all pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this study, we investigated the efficacy and toxicity of PEG-ASP instead of L-ASP as used in the BFM-90 regimen (PEG-ASP-BFM-90) for adult LBL. METHODS: Between June 2012 and July 2015, we treated 30 adult patients with newly diagnosed LBL, using PEG-ASP-BFM-90 in a prospective, multicenter and single-arm clinical study at 5 participating institutions in China...
February 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360858/saponins-from-sanguisorba-officinalis-improve-hematopoiesis-by-promoting-survival-through-fak-and-erk1-2-activation-and-modulating-cytokine-production-in-bone-marrow
#14
Xin Chen, Bogang Li, Yue Gao, Jianxin Ji, Zhongliu Wu, Shuang Chen
Radix Sanguisorbae, the root of Sanguisorba officinalis L. is used as traditional Chinese medicine. In recent decades, it has been reported to be clinically effective against myelosuppression induced by chemotherapy and/ or radiotherapy. However, the underlining mechanism has not been well studied. In this work, we evaluated the hematopoietic effect of total saponins from S. officinalis L. on myelosuppressive mice induced by cyclophosphamide and by(60)Co-γ-irradiation and confirmed the therapeutic effect. Then, we found total saponins and their characteristic constituents Ziyuglycoside I and Ziyuglycoside II can inhibit apoptosis of TF-1 cells caused by cytokine deprivation, and promote survival of mouse bone marrow nuclear cells through focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) activation in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353359/impact-of-undernutrition-on-the-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-anticancer-drugs-a-literature-review
#15
Alejandro Pérez-Pitarch, Beatriz Guglieri-López, Amparo Nacher, Virginia Merino, Matilde Merino-Sanjuán
The etiology of undernourishment in cancer patients is multifactorial: tumor-related mechanisms (such as obstruction, metabolic abnormalities, and functionality changes) in addition to the influence of anticancer therapies, which can induce or worsen undernutrition. The evident role of undernutrition in cancer treatment outcomes suggests the need of considering nutritional status when evaluating anticancer drugs. In order to merge the available data and offer researchers and clinicians a global view of this phenomenon, the present manuscript reviews on a drug-by-drug basis the undernutrition-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of anticancer treatments...
March 29, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348471/role-of-allopurinol-in-optimizing-thiopurine-therapy-in-patients-with-autoimmune-hepatitis-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Shivani Deswal, Anshu Srivastava
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic immune mediated liver disease characterized by elevated transaminases, hyper gammaglobulinemia, presence of autoantibodies and interface hepatitis in the absence of a known etiology of liver disease. Thiopurines (azathioprine [AZA]/6-mercaptopurine [6MP]) and steroids remain the first line of treatment of AIH in both children and adults. However, a small proportion of AIH patients are either non-responders or develop side effects with AZA. The metabolism of AZA is complex and mediated by multiple enzymes...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346814/nicotinamide-riboside-a-form-of-vitamin-b3-and-nad-precursor-relieves-the-nociceptive-and-aversive-dimensions-of-paclitaxel-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-in-female-rats
#17
Marta V Hamity, Stephanie R White, Roxanne Y Walder, Mark S Schmidt, Charles Brenner, Donna L Hammond
Injury to sensory afferents may contribute to the peripheral neuropathies that develop after administration of chemotherapeutic agents. Manipulations that increase levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) can protect against neuronal injury. This study examined whether nicotinamide riboside (NR), a third form of vitamin B3 and precursor of NAD, diminishes tactile hypersensitivity and place escape-avoidance behaviors in a rodent model of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received 3 intravenous injections of 6...
May 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337954/clinical-value-of-capecitabine-based-combination-adjuvant-chemotherapy-in-early-breast-cancer-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#18
Guanling Chen, Zhaoze Guo, Minfeng Liu, Guangyu Yao, Jianyu Dong, Jingyun Guo, Changsheng Ye
Capecitabine has consistently demonstrated high efficacy and acceptable tolerability in salvage chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer. However, there remains no consensus on its role in adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer (EBC). To estimate the value of capecitabine-based combination adjuvant treatment in EBC, eight randomized controlled trials with 14,072 participants were analyzed. The efficacy and safety outcomes included disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), relapse, breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS), and grade 3-5 adverse events...
March 23, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336242/pacritinib-versus-best-available-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-myelofibrosis-irrespective-of-baseline-cytopenias-persist-1-an-international-randomised-phase-3-trial
#19
Ruben A Mesa, Alessandro M Vannucchi, Adam Mead, Miklos Egyed, Anita Szoke, Aleksandr Suvorov, Janos Jakucs, Andrew Perkins, Ritam Prasad, Jiri Mayer, Judit Demeter, Peter Ganly, Jack W Singer, Huafeng Zhou, James P Dean, Peter A Te Boekhorst, Jyoti Nangalia, Jean-Jacques Kiladjian, Claire N Harrison
BACKGROUND: Available therapies for myelofibrosis can exacerbate cytopenias and are not indicated for patients with severe thrombocytopenia. Pacritinib, which inhibits both JAK2 and FLT3, induced spleen responses with limited myelosuppression in phase 1/2 trials. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of pacritinib versus best available therapy in patients with myelofibrosis irrespective of baseline cytopenias. METHODS: This international, multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trial (PERSIST-1) was done at 67 sites in 12 countries...
March 20, 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303057/retrospective-survey-and-evaluation-of-first-line-antibiotics-for-chemotherapy-induced-febrile-neutropenia-in-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#20
Naoki Mukoyama, Marie Nakashima, Koichi Miyamura, Akira Yoshimi, Yukihiro Noda, Kazuhiro Mori
Patients with acute leukemia are susceptible to chemotherapy-induced severe myelosuppression, and therefore are at a high risk for febrile neutropenia (FN). In such cases, the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics such as fourth-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems is recommended as first-line antimicrobial treatment; however, the effectiveness of these agents in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not been investigated in detail. We retrospectively examined and evaluated the effectiveness of first-line antibiotic treatment regimens for chemotherapy-induced FN in patients with AML in Japanese Red Cross Nagoya Daiichi Hospital...
February 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
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