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starring roles for astroglial

Michael D Scofield
Astrocytes are stellate cells whose appearance can resemble a pointed star, especially when visualizing glial fibrillary acidic protein, a canonical marker for astrocytes. Accordingly, there is a commonly made connection between the points of light that shine in the night sky and the diffuse and abundant cells that buffer ions and provide support for neurons. An exceptional amount of function has been attributed to, negated for, and potentially reaffirmed for these cells, especially regarding their ability to release neuroactive molecules and influence synaptic plasticity...
November 11, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
Robert Krencik, Erik M Ullian
What roles do astrocytes play in human disease?This question remains unanswered for nearly every human neurological disorder. Yet, because of their abundance and complexity astrocytes can impact neurological function in many ways. The differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into neuronal and glial subtypes, including astrocytes, is becoming routine, thus their use as tools for modeling neurodevelopment and disease will provide one important approach to answer this question. When designing experiments, careful consideration must be given to choosing paradigms for differentiation, maturation, and functional analysis of these temporally asynchronous cellular populations in culture...
2013: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jason G Emsley, Paola Arlotta, Jeffrey D Macklis
Astroglia have long been thought to play merely a supporting role in the life of the neuron. However, these star-shaped cells have recently been the focus of intense study that has begun to emphasize remarkable and novel roles for these amazing cells. While astroglia play positive roles in the life of the neuron, they can simultaneously exert negative influences. Kinouchi et al. convincingly demonstrate and characterize an inhibitory role played by astroglia after neuronal transplantation. These findings remind us that astroglia exert positive and negative influences on neuronal survival, migration, neurite outgrowth and functional integration...
May 2004: Trends in Neurosciences
L Facci, S D Skaper, M Favaron, A Leon
Rat cerebral astroglial cells in culture display specific morphological and biochemical behaviors in response to exogenously added gangliosides. To examine a potential function for endogenous gangliosides in the processes of astroglial cell differentiation, we have used the B subunit of cholera toxin as a ganglioside-specific probe. The B subunit, which is multivalent and binds specifically to GM1 ganglioside on the cell surface, induced a classical star-shaped (stellate) morphology in the astroglial cells and inhibited DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner...
March 1988: Journal of Cell Biology
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