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D Lü, R R Shao, Y H Liang, Y H Xia, S Q Guo
Objective: To explore the whole brain activity features of childhood and adolescence-onset schizophrenia using resting state fMRI. Methods: A total of 63 childhood and adolescence-onset schizophrenia patients (patients group), admitted to the second affiliated hospital of Xinxiang Medical University from October 2013 to October 2015 and fulfilled our inclusion criteria, and 39 healthy controls with age, sex and education matched (control group) were enrolled, then a resting-state fMRI scan was conducted for each participant...
November 22, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Hyun Gi Kim, Na-Young Shin, Yunjin Bak, Kyung Ran Kim, Young-Chul Jung, Kyunghwa Han, Seung-Koo Lee, Soo Mee Lim
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the pattern of altered intrinsic brain activity in gastric cancer patients after chemotherapy (CTx). METHODS: Patients before and after CTx (n = 14) and control subjects (n = 11) underwent resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) at baseline and 3 months after CTx. Regional homogeneity (ReHo), amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), and fractional ALFF (fALFF) were calculated and compared between the groups using the two-sample t test...
November 23, 2016: European Radiology
Mònica Giménez, Andrés Guinea-Izquierdo, Victoria Villalta-Gil, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Cinto Segalàs, Marta Subirà, Eva Real, Jesús Pujol, Ben J Harrison, Josep Maria Haro, Joao R Sato, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Narcís Cardoner, Pino Alonso, José Manuel Menchón, Carles Soriano-Mas
The extent of functional abnormalities in frontal-subcortical circuits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is still unclear. Although neuroimaging studies, in general, and resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI), in particular, have provided relevant information regarding such alterations, rs-fMRI studies have been typically limited to the analysis of between-region functional connectivity alterations at low-frequency signal fluctuations (i.e., <0.08 Hz). Conversely, the local attributes of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signal across different frequency bands have been seldom studied, although they may provide valuable information...
October 22, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Chiara Sarappa, Elena Salvatore, Alessandro Filla, Sirio Cocozza, Cinzia Valeria Russo, Francesco Saccà, Arturo Brunetti, Giuseppe De Michele, Mario Quarantelli
The fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations (fALFF) and the degree of local synchronization (Regional Homogeneity - ReHo) of resting-state BOLD signal have been suggested to map spontaneous neuronal activity and local functional connectivity, respectively. We compared voxelwise, independent of atrophy, the fALFF and ReHo patterns of 11 presymptomatic (ps-HD) and 28 symptomatic (sHD) Huntington's disease mutation carriers, with those of 40 normal volunteers, and tested their possible correlations with the motor and cognitive subscores of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Lyle Wiemerslage, Wei Zhou, Gaia Olivo, Julia Stark, Pleunie S Hogenkamp, Elna-Marie Larsson, Magnus Sundbom, Helgi B Schiöth
Past studies utilizing resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI), have shown that obese humans exhibit altered activity in brain areas related to reward compared to normal-weight controls. However, to what extent bariatric surgery-induced weight loss alters resting-state brain activity in obese humans is less well-studied. Thus, we measured the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) from eyes-closed, rsfMRI in obese females (n = 11, mean age = 42 years, mean BMI = 41 kg/m(2) ) in both a pre- and post-prandial state at two time points: four weeks before, and four weeks after bariatric surgery...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Feng Lin, Ping Ren, Raymond Y Lo, Benjamin P Chapman, Alanna Jacobs, Timothy M Baran, Anton P Porsteinsson, John J Foxe
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 carriers and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have high risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Scaffolding Theory of Aging and Cognition proposes that recruitment of additional frontal brain regions can protect cognition against aging. This thesis has yet to be fully tested in older adults at high risk for AD. In the present study, 75 older participants (mean age: 74 years) were included. Applying a voxel-wise approach, fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in resting-state functional neuroimaging data were analyzed as a function of APOEɛ4 status (carrier versus noncarrier) and clinical status (healthy control [HC] versus MCI) using a 2×2 analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Mao-Lin Hu, Xiao-Fen Zong, Jun-Jie Zheng, Spiro P Pantazatos, Jeffrey M Miller, Zong-Chang Li, Yan-Hui Liao, Ying He, Jun Zhou, De-En Sang, Hong-Zeng Zhao, Lu-Xian Lv, Jin-Song Tang, J John Mann, Xiao-Gang Chen
It is unclear whether abnormal spontaneous neural activation patterns found in chronic schizophrenia patients (CSP) are part of the pathogenesis of disease, consequences of chronic illness, or effects of antipsychotic treatment. We performed a longitudinal resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in 42 treatment-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients (FESP) at baseline and then after 8-weeks of risperidone monotherapy, and compared the findings to 38 healthy volunteers. Spontaneous brain activity was quantified using the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) and compared between patients and controls...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Song Wang, Ming Zhou, Taolin Chen, Xun Yang, Guangxiang Chen, Meiyun Wang, Qiyong Gong
As a personality trait, grit involves the tendency to strive to achieve long-term goals with continual passion and perseverance and plays an extremely crucial role in personal achievement. However, the neural mechanisms of grit remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between grit and the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in 217 healthy adolescent students using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). We found that an individual's grit was negatively related to the regional fALFF in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), which is involved in self-regulation, planning, goal setting and maintenance, and counterfactual thinking for reflecting on past failures...
September 26, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
C Y Shang, C G Yan, H Y Lin, W Y Tseng, F X Castellanos, S S Gau
BACKGROUND: Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are commonly prescribed for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, their therapeutic neural mechanisms remain unclear. METHOD: After baseline evaluation including cognitive testing of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), drug-naive children with ADHD (n = 46), aged 7-17 years, were randomly assigned to a 12-week treatment with methylphenidate (n = 22) or atomoxetine (n = 24)...
August 30, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Li Wang, Xueni Li, Ke Li, Yunai Su, Yawei Zeng, Qinge Zhang, Gang Wang, Zhen Jin, Qingmei Kong, Tianmei Si
Antidepressant medications represent the most common treatment option for major depressive disorder (MDD), but the neuro-psychological mechanisms by which antidepressants act to improve depressive symptoms remain under-specified. We designed this study to assess the effects of escitalopram treatment on spontaneous brain activity of MDD patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty first-episode drug-naive MDD patients received resting-state fMRI scans before and after 8 weeks of treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor - escitalopram...
August 15, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Yuanfang Zhao, Jingguang Li, Xiqin Liu, Yiying Song, Ruosi Wang, Zetian Yang, Jia Liu
Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) exhibit severe difficulties in recognizing faces and to a lesser extent, also exhibit difficulties in recognizing non-face objects. We used fMRI to investigate whether these behavioral deficits could be accounted for by altered spontaneous neural activity. Two aspects of spontaneous neural activity were measured: the intensity of neural activity in a voxel indexed by the fractional amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), and the connectivity of a voxel to neighboring voxels indexed by regional homogeneity (ReHo)...
August 2016: Neuropsychologia
Chun-Hong Liu, Cun-Zhi Liu, Jihui Zhang, Zhen Yuan, Li-Rong Tang, Chang-Le Tie, Jin Fan, Qing-Quan Liu
Poor sleep and insomnia have been recognized to be strongly correlated with the development of depression. The exploration of the basic mechanism of sleep disturbance could provide the basis for improved understanding and treatment of insomnia and prevention of depression. In this study, 31 subjects with insomnia symptoms as measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and 71 age- and gender-matched subjects without insomnia symptoms were recruited to participate in a clinical trial. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we examined the alterations in spontaneous brain activity between the two groups...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
Anny Reyes, Thomas Thesen, Xiuyuan Wang, Daniel Hahn, Daeil Yoo, Ruben Kuzniecky, Orrin Devinsky, Karen Blackmon
OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether presurgical resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides information for distinguishing temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with mesial temporal sclerosis (TLE-MTS) from TLE without MTS (TLE-noMTS). METHODS: Thirty-four patients with TLE and 34 sex-/age-matched controls consented to a research imaging protocol. MTS status was confirmed by histologic evaluation of surgical tissue (TLE-MTS = 16; TLE-noMTS = 18). The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFFs) in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) resting-state fMRI signal, a marker of local metabolic demand at rest, was averaged at five regions of interest (ROIs; hippocampus, amygdala, frontal, occipital, and temporal lobe), along with corresponding volume and cortical thickness estimates...
September 2016: Epilepsia
Feng Kong, Song Xue, Xu Wang
Social well-being represents primarily public phenomena, which is crucial for mental and physical health. However, little is known about the neural basis of this construct, especially how it is maintained during resting state. To explore the neural correlates of social well-being, this study correlated the regional fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) with social well-being of healthy individuals. The results revealed that the fALFF in the bilateral posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right thalamus and right insula positively predicted individual differences in social well-being...
July 2016: Biological Psychology
Xing Meng, Rongtao Jiang, Dongdong Lin, Juan Bustillo, Thomas Jones, Jiayu Chen, Qingbao Yu, Yuhui Du, Yu Zhang, Tianzi Jiang, Jing Sui, Vince D Calhoun
Neuroimaging techniques have greatly enhanced the understanding of neurodiversity (human brain variation across individuals) in both health and disease. The ultimate goal of using brain imaging biomarkers is to perform individualized predictions. Here we proposed a generalized framework that can predict explicit values of the targeted measures by taking advantage of joint information from multiple modalities. This framework also enables whole brain voxel-wise searching by combining multivariate techniques such as ReliefF, clustering, correlation-based feature selection and multiple regression models, which is more flexible and can achieve better prediction performance than alternative atlas-based methods...
May 10, 2016: NeuroImage
Xujing Ma, Jiuquan Zhang, Youxue Zhang, Heng Chen, Rong Li, Zhiliang Long, Junjie Zheng, Jian Wang, Huafu Chen
This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) method to investigate low-frequency spontaneous neural activity at the bands of slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz) and slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) in 20 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 20 healthy controls. We determined that, at slow-5 band, patients with ALS showed increased fALFF in the right middle frontal gyrus and decreased fALFF in the left middle occipital gyrus. However, compared with healthy controls, patients with ALS exhibited higher fALFF in the right caudate nucleus, left superior frontal gyrus, and right anterior cingulate cortex and lower fALFF in the right inferior occipital gyrus and bilateral middle occipital gyrus at slow-4 band...
August 2016: Neurological Sciences
Lian Du, Jingjie Wang, Ben Meng, Na Yong, Xiangying Yang, Qingling Huang, Yan Zhang, Lingling Yang, Yuan Qu, Zhu Chen, Yongmei Li, Fajin Lv, Hua Hu
Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
2016: Scientific Reports
Christian La, Veena A Nair, Pouria Mossahebi, Brittany M Young, Marcus Chacon, Matthew Jensen, Rasmus M Birn, Mary E Meyerand, Vivek Prabhakaran
The processes of normal aging and aging-related pathologies subject the brain to an active re-organization of its brain networks. Among these, the default-mode network (DMN) is consistently implicated with a demonstrated reduction in functional connectivity within the network. However, no clear stipulation on the underlying mechanisms of the de-synchronization has yet been provided. In this study, we examined the spectral distribution of the intrinsic low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) of the DMN sub-networks in populations of young normals, older subjects, and acute and subacute ischemic stroke patients...
July 2016: Brain Connectivity
M Argyelan, T Lencz, S Kaliora, D K Sarpal, N Weissman, P B Kingsley, A K Malhotra, G Petrides
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for depression, yet its mechanism of action is unknown. Our goal was to investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of ECT response using longitudinally collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in 16 patients with treatment-resistant depression and 10 healthy controls. Patients received bifrontal ECT 3 times a week under general anesthesia. We acquired rs-fMRI at three time points: at baseline, after the 1st ECT administration and after the course of the ECT treatment; depression was assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D)...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Jihoon Cha, Sung Tae Kim, Won Beom Jung, Yong Hee Han, Geun Ho Im, Jung Hee Lee
Ischemic stroke is accompanied by structural deformation and functional deficits in the affected hemisphere. Within a couple of hours after symptom onset, the accurate identification of brain characteristics is critical to design the therapeutic strategies and it can potentially improve overall brain tissue viability by minimizing irreversible brain damage. In this study, white matter integrity and functional connectivity within 2-4h after right middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats were investigated using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging...
October 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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