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miliary tuberculosis review

C F Longman, T Campion, B Butler, T D Suaris, A Khanam, H Kunst, S Tiberi, S A O'Keeffe
AIM: To outline the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and relevant investigations of the different subtypes of breast tuberculosis (TB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review was undertaken of all cases (33 in total) of breast TB presenting to Barts Health NHS Trust within a 10-year period, including patient demographics, imaging features, and route of diagnosis. RESULTS: Thirty-three cases of proven granulomatous TB of the breast were identified (11 mastitis obliterans, 10 nodular caseous form, five sclerosing form, four disseminated disease, and three abnormal axillary lymph nodes)...
March 2017: Clinical Radiology
Parvaneh Baghaei, Payam Tabarsi, Syna Jabehdari, Majid Marjani, Afshin Moniri, Parissa Farnia, Ali Akbar Velayati
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The risk of mortality and morbidity among tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients is significantly higher than that of patients infected with TB alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of TB-HIV patients in a TB-referral center during a 10-year follow-up. METHODS: All TB-HIV patients in our referral center were enrolled in the study from 2003 to 2014, and patients were divided into two groups: HIV-TB patients without a history of TB treatment (new cases of TB) and HIV-TB patients with a history of TB treatment...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Yesim Ozguler, Gulen Hatemi, Serdal Ugurlu, Emire Seyahi, Melike Melikoglu, Sermin Borekci, Ersan Atahan, Gul Ongen, Vedat Hamuryudan
The use of anti-TNF agents is associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) and anti-TNF agents are stopped when active TB develops. However, discontinuation of treatment can result in flare of the underlying disease. The charts of 22 patients who developed active TB among a cohort of 2754 patients using anti-TNF agents between 2001 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients restarting biologics during further follow-up were identified. One patient with miliary TB died within 1 month. A biologic agent was restarted in 16 of the remaining 21 patients (76 %)...
December 2016: Rheumatology International
Bandar Al-Ghamdi, Hassan El Widaa, Maie Al Shahid, Mohammed Aladmawi, Jawaher Alotaibi, Aly Al Sanei, Magid Halim
BACKGROUND: Infection of cardiac implantable electronic devices is a serious cardiovascular disease and it is associated with a high mortality. Mycobacterium species may rarely cause cardiac implantable electronic devices infection. CASE PRESENTATION: We are reporting a case of miliary tuberculosis in an Arab patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and a cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator device that was complicated with infection of his cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator device...
August 24, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Cihadiye Elif Öztürk, İdris Şahin, Şükrü Öksüz, Nida Kılıç, Özge Kılınçel, Leyla Aydın, Dursun Atik, Emine Afşin
Throughout the history of mankind, tuberculosis (TB) has caused serious illness and still continues to do so. Archaeobiological studies indicated that TB in humans dates back to 4000-8000 BC, and cases were shown to be due to Mycobacterium bovis subsp.bovis rather than Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, this situation was thought to begin with domestication of animals, consumption of their milk, and living together in the same environment with them. Over time, with the consumption of boiled milk and with the establishment of separate animal shelters, M...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Jamilah Meghji, Hope Simpson, S Bertel Squire, Kevin Mortimer
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is an important risk factor for chronic respiratory disease in resource poor settings. The persistence of abnormal spirometry and symptoms after treatment are well described, but the structural abnormalities underlying these changes remain poorly defined, limiting our ability to phenotype post-TB lung disease in to meaningful categories for clinical management, prognostication, and ongoing research. The relationship between post-TB lung damage and patient-centred outcomes including functional impairment, respiratory symptoms, and health related quality of life also remains unclear...
2016: PloS One
Hassan A Hassanein, Mahmoud I Elbadry
Selective immunoglobulin M (SIgM) deficiency is a rare form of dysgammaglobulinemia. Here we are reporting a 31year old man with multiple cervical and testicular abscesses who was investigated and found to have miliary tuberculosis (MTB) with primary SIgM deficiency (Serum IgM: 17.4mg/dL) and was treated aggressively with anti-tuberculous treatment.
March 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Takahiro Mikawa, Kazuyasu Miyoshi, Koji Fujita, Ryota Hase, Naoto Hosokawa
In the same manner as syphilis, tuberculosis (TB) was often called "The Great Imitator". We have to consider not only malignancies but also TB as a differential diagnosis when we find any tumorous regions. We report herein on a rare case, clavicular osteomyelitis due to TB. A 72-year-old female, with diabetic nephropathy, was on maintenance hemodialysis. She had a fall 2 months prior to admission followed by pain around her right clavicle. Ulceration occurred in that region a month prior to admission, and CT scan revealed a fracture of the right clavicle with a tumor surrounding that area...
September 2015: Kansenshōgaku Zasshi. the Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
Marisa Pereira, Fernando F Gazzoni, Edson Marchiori, Klaus Irion, Jose Moreira, Irai L Giacomelli, Alessandro Pasqualotto, Bruno Hochhegger
OBJECTIVE: Renal transplantation recipients are at increased risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection because of immunosuppression. The aim of this study was to assess high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in renal transplantation recipients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: We reviewed HRCT findings from patients diagnosed with pulmonary TB, established by M. tuberculosis detection in bronchoalveolar lavage, sputum or biopsy sample. Two observers independently reviewed HRCT images and reached consensus decisions on the presence and distribution of: (i) miliary nodules, (ii) cavitation and centrilobular tree-in-bud nodules, (iii) ground-glass attenuation and consolidation, (iv) mediastinal lymph node enlargement and (v) pleural effusion...
2016: British Journal of Radiology
Dong Yang, Ying Kong
With high morbidity and mortality worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is still an important public health threat. The majority of human TB cases are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although pulmonary TB is the most common presentation, M. tuberculosis can disseminate into other organs and causes extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). The dissemination of bacteria from the initial site of infection to other organs can lead to fatal diseases, such as miliary and meningeal TB. Thoroughly understanding the mechanisms and pathways of dissemination would develop therapies to prevent the lethal prognosis of EPTB (miliary and meningeal TB) and vaccines to promote the development of adaptive immunity...
June 2015: Frontiers in Biology
Chandan Kakkar, Ashwin M Polnaya, Prakashini Koteshwara, S Smiti, K V Rajagopal, Ankur Arora
OBJECTIVES: We aim to illustrate the multimodal imaging spectrum of hepatic involvement in tuberculosis (TB). Whilst disseminated tuberculosis on imaging typically manifests as multiple small nodular lesions scattered in the liver parenchyma, isolated hepatic tuberculosis remains a rare and intriguing entity. METHODS: Indubitably, imaging is the mainstay for detection of tubercular hepatic lesions which display a broad spectrum of imaging manifestations on different modalities...
December 2015: Insights Into Imaging
Yuan-qiang Zheng, Youssef W Naguib, Yixuan Dong, Yan-chun Shi, Shorgan Bou, Zhengrong Cui
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccines are attenuated live strains of Mycobacterium bovis and are among the most widely used vaccines in the world. BCG is proven to be effective in preventing severe infant meningitis and miliary tuberculosis. Intravesical instillation of BCG is also a standard treatment for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. In the past few decades, recombinant BCG (rBCG) technology had been extensively applied to develop vaccine candidates for a variety of infectious diseases, including bacterial, viral, and parasite infections, and to improve the efficacy of BCG in bladder cancer therapy...
2015: Expert Review of Vaccines
Ming Yang, Jia-Tang Zhang, Yan Yao, Qing-Che Tan, Ting Gao, Cheng-Lin Tian, Xusheng Huang, Sheng-Yuan Yu
Brain tuberculomas can exhibit many different clinical and radiological patterns. However, disseminated or miliary brain tuberculomas are very rare. Miliary brain tuberculomas have specific clinical prognostic implications. Seven patients diagnosed with miliary brain tuberculomas between December 2004 and August 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. Their clinical features, cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics, treatments, and outcomes were reviewed. The median patient age was 42 years (range, 22-66 years)...
May 20, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yu-Feng Wu, Cheng-Maw Ho, Chang-Tsu Yuan, Chiung-Nien Chen
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis is known as a notorious mimicker and distinguishing between intestinal tuberculosis and Crohn's disease is a huge diagnostic challenge. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here, we report a case of hollow organ perforation due to intestinal tuberculosis that was previously mistreated as Crohn's disease. Staged operation with emergency resection of the diseased small bowel and temporary ileostomy was performed for the perforation, followed by 6-month standard treatment for miliary tuberculosis, which was diagnosed on the basis of the presence of acid-fast bacilli in the diseased bowel and positive culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum, ascites, and stool samples...
2015: SpringerPlus
Rasmus Rude Laub, Pradeesh Sivapalan, Torgny Wilcke, Erik Svensson, Paul Frost Clementsen
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) can present in numerous ways and can be radiological indistinguishable from cancer. In several guidelines for bronchoscopy (FOB) in low-incidence areas, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis test is only recommended when TB is clinically suspected. Due to the expenses associated with M. tuberculosis cultures, we did an analysis of tests obtained by FOB and other invasive procedures (endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided needle biopsy via the oesophagus or trachea and percutaneous needle lung biopsy (PNLB))...
May 2015: Danish Medical Journal
Alberto L García-Basteiro, Elisa López-Varela, Orvalho Joaquim Augusto, Kizito Gondo, José Muñoz, Jahit Sacarlal, Ben Marais, Pedro L Alonso, José L Ribó
INTRODUCTION: Chest radiography remains a critical tool for diagnosing intrathoracic tuberculosis (TB) in young children who are unable to expectorate. We describe the radiological findings in children under 3 years of age investigated for TB in the district of Manhiça, southern Mozambique, an area with a high prevalence of TB and HIV. METHODS: Digital antero-posterior and lateral projections were performed and reviewed by two independent readers, using a standardized template...
2015: PloS One
Teresa Del Rosal Rabes, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, Ana María Méndez-Echevarría, María José Mellado Peña
A review was conducted on infants less than 3 months of age diagnosed with tuberculosis between 1978 and 2014. Eight patients were diagnosed (1.4% of paediatric tuberculosis cases): 3 confirmed congenital tuberculosis, 3 suspected (endometrial biopsy was not performed), and 2 postnatal tuberculosis. Tuberculin skin test was negative in two patients. Diagnostic performance of culture (7/7, 100%) and PCR (3/3, 100%) of gastric aspirates was higher than that of acid-fast bacilli smears (5/8, 62%) and IGRA test (1/3, 33%)...
April 29, 2015: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Toru Tanaka, Akimasa Sekine, Yoshiya Tsunoda, Hiroyuki Takoi, Shin-Yuan Lin, Yohei Yatagai, Kenji Hayasihara, Takefumi Saito
A 64-year-old neurologically asymptomatic woman with rheumatoid arthritis who was treated with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antagonist adalimumab developed disseminated tuberculosis (TB). After receiving anti-TB therapy and discontinuing adalimumab, she exhibited paradoxical worsening due to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) with the appearance of meningitis and brain tuberculomas. This case indicates that continuing anti-TNF therapy may be necessary to prevent IRIS in patients who develop TB, particularly disseminated TB, during the course of anti-TNF therapy...
2015: Internal Medicine
Morteza Sanei Taheri, Mohammad Ali Karimi, Hamidreza Haghighatkhah, Ramin Pourghorban, Mohammad Samadian, Hosein Delavar Kasmaei
Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis is a potentially life threatening condition which is curable if the correct diagnosis is made in the early stages. Its clinical and radiologic manifestations may mimic other infectious and noninfectious neurological conditions. Hence, familiarity with the imaging presentations of various forms of CNS tuberculosis is essential in timely diagnosis, and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality of this disease. In this review, we describe the imaging characteristics of the different forms of CNS tuberculosis, including meningitis, tuberculoma, miliary tuberculosis, abscess, cerebritis, and encephalopathy...
2015: Radiology Research and Practice
Selma Dizdar, Amra Dzinovic, Refet Gojak, Ganimeta Bakalovic, Amina Selimovic
INTRODUCTION: Due to the geographical position of Bosnia and Herzegovina and its socio economic momentum even though the standard vaccination program is carried out, the child population continues to suffer from pulmonary tuberculosis in significant percentage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was retrospective and included patients who were in the period from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013 (or the 10 years period) hospitalized at the Department of Pulmonology Pediatric Clinic dually diagnosed with lung TB and start treatment...
October 2014: Medical Archives
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