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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102347/low-level-predation-by-lytic-phage-phiipla-rodi-promotes-biofilm-formation-and-triggers-the-stringent-response-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Lucía Fernández, Silvia González, Ana Belén Campelo, Beatriz Martínez, Ana Rodríguez, Pilar García
An important lesson from the war on pathogenic bacteria has been the need to understand the physiological responses and evolution of natural microbial communities. Bacterial populations in the environment are generally forming biofilms subject to some level of phage predation. These multicellular communities are notoriously resistant to antimicrobials and, consequently, very difficult to eradicate. This has sparked the search for new therapeutic alternatives, including phage therapy. This study demonstrates that S...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099929/modeling-the-phenotype-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy-by-the-direct-conversion-of-human-fibroblasts-to-motor-neurons
#2
Qi-Jie Zhang, Jin-Jing Li, Xiang Lin, Ying-Qian Lu, Xin-Xin Guo, En-Lin Dong, Miao Zhao, Jin He, Ning Wang, Wan-Jin Chen
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a lethal autosomal recessive neurological disease characterized by selective degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord. In recent years, the development of cellular reprogramming technology has provided an alternative and effective method for obtaining patient-specific neurons in vitro. In the present study, we applied this technology to the field of SMA to acquire patient-specific induced motor neurons that were directly converted from fibroblasts via the forced expression of 8 defined transcription factors...
January 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099817/applying-proteomics-to-tick-vaccine-development-where-are-we
#3
Margarita Villar, Anabel Marina, José de la Fuente
Ticks are second to mosquitoes as a vector of human diseases and are the first vector of animal diseases with a great impact on livestock farming. Tick vaccines represent a sustainable and effective alternative to chemical acaricides for the control of tick infestations and transmitted pathogens. The application of proteomics to tick vaccine development is a fairly recent area, which has resulted in the characterization of some tick-host-pathogen interactions and the identification of candidate protective antigens...
January 18, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095414/mosquito-disseminated-insecticide-for-citywide-vector-control-and-its-potential-to-block-arbovirus-epidemics-entomological-observations-and-modeling-results-from-amazonian-brazil
#4
Fernando Abad-Franch, Elvira Zamora-Perea, Sérgio L B Luz
BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne viruses threaten public health worldwide. When the ratio of competent vectors to susceptible humans is low enough, the virus's basic reproductive number (R0) falls below 1.0 (each case generating, on average, <1.0 additional case) and the infection fades out from the population. Conventional mosquito control tactics, however, seldom yield R0 < 1.0. A promising alternative uses mosquitoes to disseminate a potent growth-regulator larvicide, pyriproxyfen (PPF), to aquatic larval habitats; this kills most mosquito juveniles and substantially reduces adult mosquito emergence...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093314/remote-sensing-of-multiple-vital-signs-using-a-cmos-camera-equipped-infrared-thermography-system-and-its-clinical-application-in-rapidly-screening-patients-with-suspected-infectious-diseases
#5
Guanghao Sun, Yosuke Nakayama, Sumiyakhand Dagdanpurev, Shigeto Abe, Hidekazu Nishimura, Tetsuo Kirimoto, Takemi Matsui
BACKGROUND: Infrared thermography (IRT) is used to screen febrile passengers at international airports, but it suffers from low sensitivity. This study explored the application of a combined visible and thermal image processing approach that used a CMOS camera equipped with IRT to remotely sense multiple vital signs and screen patients with suspected infectious diseases. METHODS: An IRT system that produced visible and thermal images was used for image acquisition...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090562/hepatitis-c-virus-induced-monocyte-differentiation-into-polarized-m2-macrophages-promotes-stellate-cell-activation-via%C3%A2-tgf-%C3%AE
#6
Banishree Saha, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Monocyte and macrophage (MΦ) activation contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Disease pathogenesis is regulated by both liver-resident MΦs and monocytes recruited as precursors of MΦs into the damaged liver. Monocytes differentiate into M1 (classic/proinflammatory) or M2 (alternative/anti-inflammatory) polarized MΦs in response to tissue microenvironment. We hypothesized that HCV-infected hepatoma cells (infected with Japanese fulminant hepatitis-1 [Huh7...
May 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089674/assessment-of-ventilator-associated-events-using-the-geometric-distribution
#7
Ragheb Assaly, William R Barnett, Fadi Safi, Sadik Khuder, John Macko
Hospital-acquired rare events, such as nosocomial infections and other low-occurring incidents, in the clinical environment are difficult to monitor using traditional quality indicators. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of ventilator-associated events, we demonstrate an alternative method for assessment of rare events.
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087659/plant-parasitic-nematodes-towards-understanding-molecular-players-in-stress-responses
#8
REVIEW
François-Xavier Gillet, Caroline Bournaud, Jose Dijair Antonino de Souza Júnior, Maria Fatima Grossi-de-Sa
BACKGROUND: Plant-parasitic nematode interactions occur within a vast molecular plant immunity network. Following initial contact with the host plant roots, plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) activate basal immune responses. Defence priming involves the release in the apoplast of toxic molecules derived from reactive species or secondary metabolism. In turn, PPNs must overcome the poisonous and stressful environment at the plant-nematode interface. The ability of PPNs to escape this first line of plant immunity is crucial and will determine its virulence...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081126/a-pan-lyssavirus-taqman-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-highly-variable-rabies-virus-and-other-lyssaviruses
#9
Ashutosh Wadhwa, Kimberly Wilkins, Jinxin Gao, Rene Edgar Condori Condori, Crystal M Gigante, Hui Zhao, Xiaoyue Ma, James A Ellison, Lauren Greenberg, Andres Velasco-Villa, Lillian Orciari, Yu Li
Rabies, resulting from infection by Rabies virus (RABV) and related lyssaviruses, is one of the most deadly zoonotic diseases and is responsible for up to 70,000 estimated human deaths worldwide each year. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies is essential for timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans and control of the disease in animals. Currently, only the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test is recommended for routine rabies diagnosis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based diagnostic methods have been widely adapted for the diagnosis of other viral pathogens, but there is currently no widely accepted rapid real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of all lyssaviruses...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075072/use-of-erythrocyte-indicators-of-health-and-condition-in-vertebrate-ecophysiology-a-review-and-appraisal
#10
Christopher P Johnstone, Alan Lill, Richard D Reina
We review evidence for and against the use of erythrocyte indicators of health status and condition, parasite infection level and physiological stress in free-living vertebrates. The use of indicators that are measured directly from the blood, such as haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and parameters that are calculated from multiple measured metrics, such as mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin content or mean cell haemoglobin concentration is evaluated. The evidence for or against the use of any given metric is equivocal when the relevant research is considered in total, although there is sometimes strong support for using a particular metric in a particular taxon...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072863/a-single-dose-oral-azithromycin-versus-intramuscular-benzathine-penicillin-for-the-treatment-of-yaws-a-randomized-non-inferiority-trial-in-ghana
#11
Cynthia Kwakye-Maclean, Nsiire Agana, John Gyapong, Priscilia Nortey, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Esther Aryee, Kingsley Asiedu, Roland Ballard, Fred Binka
BACKGROUND: Yaws is a treponemal infection that was almost eradicated fifty years ago; however, the disease has re-emerged in a number of countries including Ghana. A single-dose of intramuscular benzathine penicillin has been the mainstay of treatment for yaws. However, intramuscular injections are painful and pose safety and logistical constraints in the poor areas where yaws occurs. A single center randomized control trial (RCT) carried out in Papua New Guinea in 2012 demonstrated the efficacy of a single-dose of oral azithromycin for the treatment of yaws...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071145/bacteriophages-and-their-derivatives-for-the-treatment-and-control-of-food-producing-animal-infections
#12
Carla Carvalho, Ana Rita Costa, Filipe Silva, Ana Oliveira
Nowadays, the world is facing an increasing emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Simultaneously, the banning of some existing antibiotics and the lack of development of new antimicrobials have created an urgent need to find new alternatives against animal infections. Bacteriophages (phages) are naturally occurring predators of bacteria, ubiquitous in the environment, with high host specificity and harmless to animals. For these reasons, phages and their derivatives are being considered valuable antimicrobial alternatives and an opportunity to reduce the current use of antibiotics in agri-food production, increasing animal productivity and providing environmental protection...
January 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068186/bactericidal-efficacy-of-photodynamic-therapy-and-chitosan-in-root-canals-experimentally-infected-with-enterococcus-faecalis-an-in-vitro-study
#13
Fabio Camacho-Alonso, Encarnación Julián-Belmonte, Fernando Chiva-García, Yolanda Martínez-Beneyto
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chitosan against Enterococcus faecalis and assess the possible enhancive effect of chitosan on the photosensitizer methylene blue in experimentally infected root canals of extracted human teeth in vitro. BACKGROUND DATA: E. faecalis is frequently found in persistent endodontic infections. In this context, the antimicrobial PDT or newer antibacterial alternatives such as chitosan could become modern alternatives to existing antibacterial treatment approaches...
January 9, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063174/oral-supplementation-of-trans-cinnamaldehyde-reduces-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-colonization-in-a-mouse-model
#14
Amoolya Narayanan, Muhammed Shafeekh Muyyarikkandy, Shankumar Mooyottu, Kumar Venkitanarayanan, Mary Anne Roshni Amalaradjou
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the United States result in more than 7 million hospital visits per year. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) is responsible for more than 80% of UTIs. Although antibiotics are the drug of choice to control UTIs, their repeated use has resulted in the emergence of antibiotic resistant UPEC. Thus, there is a need for effective alternate strategies to control UPEC infections. This study investigated the efficacy of trans-cinnamaldehye (TC), a food-grade molecule present in cinnamon, in reducing UPEC colonization and pathogenesis in the lower UTI...
January 7, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062012/characterization-of-the-interaction-of-african-swine-fever-virus-with-monocytes-and-derived-macrophage-subsets
#15
Giulia Franzoni, Simon P Graham, Silvia Dei Giudici, Piero Bonelli, Giovannantonio Pilo, Antonio G Anfossi, Marco Pittau, Paola S Nicolussi, Alberto Laddomada, Annalisa Oggiano
African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating disease for which there is no vaccine available. The ASF virus (ASFV) primarily infects cells of the myeloid lineage and this tropism is thought to be crucial for disease pathogenesis. A detailed in vitro characterization of the interactions of a virulent Sardinian isolate (22653/14) and a tissue culture adapted avirulent strain (BA71V) of ASFV with porcine monocytes, un-activated (moMΦ), classically (moM1) and alternatively (moM2) activated monocyte-derived macrophages was conducted in an attempt to better understand this relationship...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062009/reduced-particle-size-wheat-bran-is-butyrogenic-and-lowers-salmonella-colonization-when-added-to-poultry-feed
#16
K Vermeulen, J Verspreet, C M Courtin, F Haesebrouck, R Ducatelle, F Van Immerseel
Feed additives, including prebiotics, are commonly used alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters to improve gut health and performance in broilers. Wheat bran is a highly concentrated source of (in)soluble fiber which is partly degraded by the gut microbiota. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of wheat bran as such to reduce colonization of the cecum and shedding of Salmonella bacteria in vivo. Also, the effect of particle size was evaluated. Bran with an average reduced particle size of 280μm decreased levels of cecal Salmonella colonization and shedding shortly after infection when compared to control groups and groups receiving bran with larger particle sizes...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062007/a-recombinant-fusion-protein-consisting-of-west-nile-virus-envelope-domain-iii-fused-in-frame-with-equine-cd40-ligand-induces-antiviral-immune-responses-in-horses
#17
Shiliang A Liu, Muzammel Haque, Brent Stanfield, Frank M Andrews, Alma A Roy, Konstantin G Kousoulas
West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in the US and causes severe neurologic disease in horses since its introduction in 1999. There is no effective pharmaceutical treatment for WNV infection rendering vaccination as the only approach to prevention and control of disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a recombinant vaccine containing domain III (DIII) of the WNV envelope glycoprotein with and without a natural adjuvant equine (CD40L) in producing virus neutralizing antibodies in horses. Serum IgG1 concentration in the groups of horses vaccinated with the DIII-CD40L+TiterMax and DIII-CD40L proteins were significantly increased (p<0...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061951/role-and-contribution-of-pulmonary-cd103-dendritic-cells-in-the-adaptive-immune-response-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#18
Vanessa Hui Qi Koh, See Liang Ng, Michelle Lay Teng Ang, Wenwei Lin, Christiane Ruedl, Sylvie Alonso
Despite international control programmes, the global burden of tuberculosis remains enormous. Efforts to discover novel drugs have largely focused on targeting the bacterium directly. Alternatively, manipulating the host immune response may represent a valuable approach to enhance immunological clearance of the bacilli, but necessitates a deeper understanding of the immune mechanisms associated with protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Here, we examined the various dendritic cells (DC) subsets present in the lung and draining lymph nodes (LN) from mice intra-tracheally infected with M...
January 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061827/systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis-of-tedizolid-for-the-treatment-of-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-caused-by-mrsa
#19
Rachael McCool, Ian M Gould, Jacqui Eales, Teresa Barata, Mick Arber, Kelly Fleetwood, Julie Glanville, Teresa L Kauf
BACKGROUND: Tedizolid, the active moiety of tedizolid phosphate, is approved in the United States, the European Union, Canada and a number of other countries for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) caused by certain susceptible bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This network meta-analysis (NMA) evaluates the comparative effectiveness of tedizolid and other antibacterials indicated for the treatment of ABSSSI caused by MRSA...
January 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058593/ceftaroline-fosamil-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-a-systematic-review
#20
Maguy Saffouh El Hajj, Ricky D Turgeon, Kyle John Wilby
Background Ceftaroline is a parentally administered cephalosporin that has an in vitro expanded spectrum of activity compared with other cephalosporins yet data is conflicting regarding its place in therapy. Aim of the Review To compare the efficacy and safety of ceftaroline against standard antibiotic regimens for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs). Method The databases of MEDLINE, EBSCO, and Embase were searched up to June 2016. Manual review of references was completed and experts in the field were contacted for unpublished data...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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