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Alternative infection control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655666/environmental-considerations-in-the-selection-of-isolation-gowns-a-life-cycle-assessment-of-reusable-and-disposable-alternatives
#1
Eric Vozzola, Michael Overcash, Evan Griffing
BACKGROUND: Isolation gowns serve a critical role in infection control by protecting healthcare workers, visitors, and patients from the transfer of microorganisms and body fluids. The decision of whether to use a reusable or disposable garment system is a selection process based on factors including sustainability, barrier effectiveness, cost, and comfort. Environmental sustainability is increasingly being used in the decision-making process. Life cycle assessment is the most comprehensive and widely used tool used to evaluate environmental performance...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651932/alternative-host-models-for-testing-anti-protozoal-or-antifungal-compounds-and-fungal-infection
#2
Ana Claudia Torrecilhas, Patricia Xander, Karen Spadari Ferreira, Wagner Luiz Batista
The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are caused by several parasites, fungi, bacteria and viruses and affect more than one billion people in the world. The control and prevention against NTDs need implementation of alternative methods for testing new compounds against these diseases. For the implementation of alternative methods, it is necessary to apply the principles of replacement, reduction and refinement (the 3Rs) for the use of laboratory animals. Accordingly, the present review addressed a variety of alternative models to study the infections caused by protozoa and fungi...
April 12, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650147/source-sink-relations-of-sunflower-plants-as-affected-by-a-parasite-modifies-carbon-allocations-and-leaf-traits
#3
Shahar Pincovici, Amnon Cochavi, Arnon Karnieli, Jhonathan Ephrath, Shimon Rachmilevitch
Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana) is a root holoparasitic plant causing major damage to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Parasite infection initiates source-sink relations between the parasite (sink) and the host (source), allocating carbohydrates, water and nutrients to the parasite. The primary aim of the current study was to explore responses of sunflower to broomrape parasitism, specifically to examine alternations in leaf area, leaf mass per area (LMA), mesophyll structure and root hydraulic conductivity...
June 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642937/evaluation-of-a-simple-polytetrafluoroethylene-ptfe-based-membrane-for-blood-feeding-of-malaria-and-dengue-fever-vectors-in-the-laboratory
#4
Doreen J Siria, Elis P A Batista, Mercy A Opiyo, Elizangela F Melo, Robert D Sumaye, Halfan S Ngowo, Alvaro E Eiras, Fredros O Okumu
BACKGROUND: Controlled blood-feeding is essential for maintaining laboratory colonies of disease-transmitting mosquitoes and investigating pathogen transmission. We evaluated a low-cost artificial feeding (AF) method, as an alternative to direct human feeding (DHF), commonly used in mosquito laboratories. METHODS: We applied thinly-stretched pieces of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes cut from locally available seal tape (i.e. plumbers tape, commonly used for sealing pipe threads in gasworks or waterworks)...
April 11, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629587/an-nihr-approved-two-year-observational-study-on-magnetically-controlled-growth-rods-in-the-treatment-of-early-onset-scoliosis
#5
C Nnadi, C Thakar, J Wilson-MacDonald, P Milner, A Rao, D Mayers, J Fairbank, T Subramanian
Aims The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and safety of magnetically controlled growth rods in the treatment of early onset scoliosis. Secondary aims were to evaluate the clinical outcome, the rate of further surgery, the rate of complications, and the durability of correction. Patients and Methods We undertook an observational prospective cohort study of children with early onset scoliosis, who were recruited over a one-year period and followed up for a minimum of two years. Magnetically controlled rods were introduced in a standardized manner with distractions performed three-monthly thereafter...
April 1, 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625765/lema-and-erp-y-like-recombinant-proteins-from-leptospira-interrogans-protect-hamsters-from-challenge-using-addavax%C3%A2-as-adjuvant
#6
Thaís Larré Oliveira, Rodrigo Andrade Schuch, Guilherme Roig Inda, Bárbara Couto Roloff, Amilton Clair Pinto Seixas Neto, Marta Amaral, Odir Antonio Dellagostin, Daiane Drawanz Hartwig
BACKGROUND: Recombinant subunit vaccines have been extensively evaluated as promising alternatives against leptospirosis. Here, we evaluated two proteins in formulations containing the adjuvant AddaVax™ as vaccine candidates for prevention and control of leptospirosis. METHODS: Recombinant proteins rErp Y-like and rLemA were characterized by ELISA to assess their ability to bind extracellular matrix (ECM) components and fibrinogen. Groups of eight hamsters were immunized intramuscularly with rErp Y-like or rLemA mixed with a squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVax), and then vaccine efficacy was determined in terms of protection against a lethal challenge...
April 3, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625098/evaluation-of-kinase-inhibitors-nilotinib-and-everolimus-against-alveolar-echinococcosis-in-vitro-and-in-a-mouse-model
#7
Deborah E Joekel, Britta Lundström-Stadelmann, Beat Müllhaupt, Andrew Hemphill, Peter Deplazes
Infection with the larval stage (metacestode) of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis leads to a primary hepatic disease referred to as alveolar echinococcosis (AE). The progressive disease can be lethal if untreated. In cases where complete parasite resection by surgery is not feasible, the current treatment regimens of AE consist of chemotherapy with the parasitostatic benzimidazoles albendazole or mebendazole over decades. Kinase-inhibitors currently administered in various cancer treatments are of increasing interest also as anti-parasitic drugs due to previous promising in vitro results...
April 3, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624634/the-efficacy-of-a-nested-pcr-in-detecting-cytochrome-c-oxidase-subunit-1-gene-of-sarcoptes-scabiei-var-hominis-for-diagnosing-scabies
#8
J E Hahm, C W Kim, S S Kim
BACKGROUND: A widespread scabies infestation, associated to long-term residence in nursing homes, is becoming a serious issue in developed countries. Mineral oil examination is regarded as the gold standard in diagnosing scabies, but the sensitivity of this method is generally low-approximately 50%. Molecular tests may contribute to enhance the sensitivity of current tests for laboratory diagnosis of human scabies. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we developed new primers for a nested PCR for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of Sarcoptes scabiei var...
April 6, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624209/withdrawn-grommets-ventilation-tubes-for-recurrent-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#9
REVIEW
Loretta Lau, Paul Mick, Desmond A Nunez
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 4, 2008 and previously updated in 2011.Acute suppurative otitis media is one of the most common infectious diseases in childhood. Recurrent acute otitis media is defined for the purposes of this review as either three or more acute infections of the middle ear cleft in a six-month period, or at least four episodes in a year. Strategies for managing the condition include the assessment and modification of risk factors where possible, repeated courses of antibiotics for each new infection, antibiotic prophylaxis and the insertion of ventilation tubes (grommets)...
April 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624104/characterization-of-bacteriophages-targeting-non-o157-shiga-toxigenic-escherichia-coli
#10
Pushpinder Kaur Litt, Joyjit Saha, Divya Jaroni
Non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) are an important group of foodborne pathogens, implicated in several outbreaks and recalls in the past 2 decades. It is therefore crucial to devise effective control strategies against these pathogens. Bacteriophages present an attractive alternative to conventional pathogen control methods in the food industry. Bacteriophages, targeting non-O157 STEC (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145), were isolated from beef cattle operations in Oklahoma. Their host range and lytic ability were determined against several ( n = 21) non-O157 STEC isolates, by using the spot-on-lawn assay...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623836/microbial-biofilm-and-quorum-sensing-inhibition-endowment-of-medicinal-plants-to-combat-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#11
Dinesh Kumar Mehta, Rina Das
Continued emergence and spread of multidrug- resistant bacteria behooved the development of alternative treatment strategies, including antimicrobial drugs. A hopeful approach is to target cell-to-cell communications, commonly known as quorum-sensing (QS) and microbial biofilm formation. Quorum Sensing is machinery used by bacteria to determine their physiological behavior and coordinate gene expression based on the cell to cell signaling. Many physiological functions of bacteria are controlled by quorum sensings such as virulence, motility, sporulation, luminescence, and biofilm formation...
April 5, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620501/are-commercial-providers-a-viable-option-for-clinical-bacterial-sequencing
#12
Kathy Raven, Beth Blane, Carol Churcher, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock
Bacterial whole-genome sequencing in the clinical setting has the potential to bring major improvements to infection control and clinical practice. Sequencing instruments are not currently available in the majority of routine microbiology laboratories worldwide, but an alternative is to use external sequencing providers. To foster discussion around this we investigated whether send-out services were a viable option. Four providers offering MiSeq sequencing were selected based on cost and evaluated based on the service provided and sequence data quality...
April 5, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618667/evaluation-of-the-broad-spectrum-lytic-capability-of-bacteriophage-cocktails-against-various-salmonella-serovars-and-their-effects-on-weaned-pigs-infected-with-salmonella-typhimurium
#13
Byoung-Joo Seo, Eu-Tteum Song, Kichan Lee, Jong-Won Kim, Chang-Gi Jeong, Sung-Hyun Moon, Jee Soo Son, Sang Hyeon Kang, Ho-Seong Cho, Byeong Yeal Jung, Won-Il Kim
The broad-spectrum lytic capability of Salmonella bacteriophages against various Salmonella species was evaluated to determine their potential as an alternative for antibiotics, and the safety and preventive effects of the bacteriophages were assessed on mice and pigs. Four bacteriophage cocktails were prepared using 13 bacteriophages, and the lytic capability of the four bacteriophage cocktails was tested using Salmonella reference strains and field isolates. Bacteriophage cocktail C (SEP-1, SGP-1, STP-1, SS3eP-1, STP-2, SChP-1, SAP-1, SAP-2; ≥109 pfu/ml) showed the best lytic activity against the Salmonella reference strains (100% of 34) and field isolates (92...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618504/kaptive-web-user-friendly-capsule-and-lipopolysaccharide-serotype-prediction-for-klebsiella-genomes
#14
Ryan R Wick, Eva Heinz, Kathryn E Holt, Kelly L Wyres
As whole genome sequencing becomes an established component of the microbiologist's toolbox, it is imperative that researchers, clinical microbiologists and public health professionals have access to genomic analysis tools for rapid extraction of epidemiologically and clinically relevant information. For the gram-negative hospital pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae , initial efforts have focused on detection and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance genes and clones. However, with the resurgence of interest in alternative infection control strategies targeting Klebsiella surface polysaccharides, the ability to extract information about these antigens is increasingly important...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617332/rapid-identification-of-intact-staphylococcal-bacteriophages-using-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#15
Dana Štveráková, Ondrej Šedo, Martin Benešík, Zbyněk Zdráhal, Jiří Doškař, Roman Pantůček
Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of infections associated with hospital environments, where antibiotic-resistant strains have emerged as a significant threat. Phage therapy could offer a safe and effective alternative to antibiotics. Phage preparations should comply with quality and safety requirements; therefore, it is important to develop efficient production control technologies. This study was conducted to develop and evaluate a rapid and reliable method for identifying staphylococcal bacteriophages, based on detecting their specific proteins using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling that is among the suggested methods for meeting the regulations of pharmaceutical authorities...
April 4, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616305/polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-from-phyllocaulis-boraceiensis-mucus-block-the-replication-of-influenza-virus
#16
Ana Rita de Toledo-Piza, Maria Isabel de Oliveira, Giuseppina Negri, Ronaldo Zucatelli Mendonça, Cristina Adelaide Figueiredo
Influenza viruses cause worldwide outbreaks and pandemics in humans and animals every year with considerable morbidity and mortality. The molecular diversity of secondary metabolites extracted from mollusks is a good alternative for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds with unique structures and diverse biological activities. Phyllocaulis boraceiensis is a hermaphroditic slug that exudes mucus, in which was detected hydroxy polyunsaturated fatty acids that exhibited potent antiviral activity against measles virus...
April 3, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616193/a-comprehensive-in-silico-analysis-of-regulatory-snps-of-human-clec7a-gene-and-its-validation-as-genotypic-and-phenotypic-disease-marker-in-recurrent-vulvovaginal-infections
#17
Namarta Kalia, Manpreet Kaur, Sujata Sharma, Jatinder Singh
Recurrent Vulvovaginal infections (RVVI) are the commonly reported microbiological syndrome affecting millions of women globally. Various molecules of innate immune system are instrumental in clearance of these microbial pathogens, thus suggested as one of the most important contributing factor in determining the disease outcome. Dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin-1 (Dectin-1) is an important molecule of innate immunity that is primarily known for its role in antifungal defenses. However, role of dectin-1 in recognition of other pathogens is also documented...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615718/genetic-abrogation-of-immune-checkpoints-in-antigen-specific-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-as-a-potential-alternative-to-blockade-immunotherapy
#18
Chi Zhang, Yanchun Peng, Philip Hublitz, Haokang Zhang, Tao Dong
T cell function can be compromised during chronic infections or through continuous exposure to tumor antigens by the action of immune checkpoint receptors, such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). Systemic administration of blocking antibodies against the PD-1 pathway can restore T cell function, and has been approved for the treatment of several malignancies, although there is a risk of adverse immune-related side-effects. We have developed a method for generating gene knockouts in human antigen (Ag)-specific cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte (CTLs) using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) genome editing...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609650/a-gel-based-pcr-method-to-differentiate-sheeppox-virus-field-isolates-from-vaccine-strains
#19
Tesfaye Rufael Chibssa, Reingard Grabherr, Angelika Loitsch, Tirumala Bharani K Settypalli, Eeva Tuppurainen, Nick Nwankpa, Karim Tounkara, Hafsa Madani, Amel Omani, Mariane Diop, Giovanni Cattoli, Adama Diallo, Charles Euloge Lamien
BACKGROUND: Sheeppox (SPP) and goatpox (GTP) caused by sheeppox virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV), respectively of the genus Capripoxvirus in the family Poxviridae, are severely afflicting small ruminants' production systems in Africa and Asia. In endemic areas, SPP and GTP are controlled using vaccination with live attenuated vaccines derived from SPPV, GTPV or Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). Sometimes outbreaks occur following vaccination. In order to successfully control the spread of the virus, it is essential to identify whether the animals were infected by the field strain and the vaccine did not provide sufficient protection...
April 2, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609070/equivalent-efficacies-of-reverse-hybrid-and-bismuth-quadruple-therapies-in-eradication-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Ping-I Hsu, Feng-Woei Tsay, David Y Graham, Tzung-Jiun Tsai, Kuo-Wang Tsai, John Y Kao, Nan-Jing Peng, Chao-Hung Kuo, Sung-Shuo Kao, Huay-Min Wang, Te-Fu Lin, Deng-Chyang Wu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bismuth quadruple therapy is recommended as a first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection in the United States but hybrid therapy is an alternative option. Reverse hybrid therapy (proton pump inhibitor plus amoxicillin for 14 days, and clarithromycin plus metronidazole for the initial 7 days) is a simplified hybrid treatment. We aimed to assess the efficacies of reverse hybrid therapy vs bismuth quadruple therapy as first-line treatments for patients with H pylori infection in a randomized trial...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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