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Alternative infection control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471342/alternative-treatment-strategies-to-accelerate-the-elimination-of-onchocerciasis
#1
Michel Boussinesq, Grace Fobi, Annette C Kuesel
The use of alternative (or complementary) treatment strategies (ATSs) i.e. differing from annual community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) is required in some African foci to eliminate onchocerciasis by 2025. ATSs include vector control, biannual or pluriannual CDTI, better timing of CDTI, community-directed treatment with combinations of currently available anthelminthics or new drugs, and 'test-and-treat' (TNT) strategies requiring diagnosis of infection and/or contraindications to treatment for decisions on who to treat with what regimen...
March 1, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470529/xenopus-an-alternative-model-system-for-identifying-muco-active-agents
#2
Hyo Jung Sim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Kyung-Jae Myung, Taejoon Kwon, Hyun-Shik Lee, Tae Joo Park
The airway epithelium in human plays a central role as the first line of defense against environmental contaminants. Most respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and respiratory infections, disturb normal muco-ciliary functions by stimulating the hypersecretion of mucus. Several muco-active agents have been used to treat hypersecretion symptoms in patients. Current muco-active reagents control mucus secretion by modulating either airway inflammation, cholinergic parasympathetic nerve activities or by reducing the viscosity by cleaving crosslinking in mucin and digesting DNAs in mucus...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468193/scc-mec-finder-a-web-based-tool-for-typing-of-staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mec-in-staphylococcus-aureus-using-whole-genome-sequence-data
#3
Hülya Kaya, Henrik Hasman, Jesper Larsen, Marc Stegger, Thor Bech Johannesen, Rosa Lundbye Allesøe, Camilla Koldbæk Lemvigh, Frank Møller Aarestrup, Ole Lund, Anders Rhod Larsen
Typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is important in infection control and surveillance. The current nomenclature of MRSA includes the genetic background of the S. aureus strain determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) or equivalent methods like spa typing and typing of the mobile genetic element staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ), which carries the mecA or mecC gene. Whereas MLST and spa typing are relatively simple, typing of SCC mec is less trivial because of its heterogeneity...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468005/assessment-of-trained-hand-hygiene-observers-using-parallel-observations
#4
Humberto Guanche Garcell, Ariadna Villanueva Arias, Isme Borroto Garcés, Alexis Cardoso Gil, Pedro Rivero Companioni, Katiana Figueredo Arias, Osiris I Escobar More, Norgely Rivero Rodríguez, Francisco Gutierrez García
Objectives: To validate hand hygiene (HH) observers following training and determine the concordance between the observers and the Kappa index. Methods: This study was conducted during June 2017. HH observers from 15 hospital units received eight-hours training including a two-hour workshop conducted by the infection control practitioner and hospital epidemiologist. After its completion, parallel observations were conducted by trained nurses from each respective unit for a maximum of 20 minutes per session at any time or day...
January 2018: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459860/humoral-responses-elicited-by-adenovirus-displaying-epitopes-are-induced-independently-of-the-infection-process-and-shaped-by-the-toll-like-receptor-myd88-pathway
#5
Aleksandra Anchim, Najat Raddi, Lena Zig, Patrick Perrieau, Ronan Le Goffic, Bernhard Ryffel, Karim Benihoud
The use of serotype 5 adenovirus (Ad)-derived vectors in vaccination is confronted to preexisting anti-Ad immunity. Epitope display on Ad capsid is currently being investigated as an alternative approach of vaccination. The present study seeks to better understand virus- and host-related factors controlling the efficacy of this new vaccination approach. In contrast to an Ad vector expressing ovalbumin as a transgene, Ad displaying an ovalbumin-derived B-cell epitope inserted into the fiber protein was able to elicit antibody responses in both Ad-naive and Ad-immune mice...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458673/denture-associated-biofilm-infection-in-three-dimensional-oral-mucosal-tissue-models
#6
Daniel J Morse, Melanie J Wilson, Xiaoqing Wei, Michael A O Lewis, David J Bradshaw, Craig Murdoch, David W Williams
PURPOSE: In vitro analyses of virulence, pathogenicity and associated host cell responses are important components in the study of biofilm infections. The Candida-related infection, denture-associated oral candidosis, affects up to 60 % of denture wearers and manifests as inflammation of palatal tissues contacting the denture-fitting surface. Commercially available three-dimensional tissue models can be used to study infection, but their use is limited for many academic research institutions, primarily because of the substantial purchase costs...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458534/specific-transcriptional-and-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-the-major-immediate-early-icp4-gene-of-gahv-2-during-the-lytic-latent-and-reactivation-phases
#7
Perrine Rasschaert, Isabelle Gennart, Imane Boumart, Ginette Dambrine, Benoit Muylkens, Denis Rasschaert, Sylvie Laurent
Transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are involved in the switch between the lytic, latent and reactivation phases of the viral cycle in herpesviruses. During the productive phases, herpesvirus gene expression is characterized by a temporally regulated cascade of immediate early (IE), early (E) and late (L) genes. In alphaherpesviruses, the major product of the IE ICP4 gene is a transcriptional regulator that initiates the cascade of gene expression that is essential for viral replication. In this study, we redefine the infected cell protein 4 (ICP4) gene of the oncogenic Marek's disease virus (MDV or gallid herpesvirus 2) as a 9438 nt gene ended with four alternative poly(A) signals and controlled by two alternative promoters containing essentially ubiquitous functional response elements (GC, TATA and CCAAT boxes)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457583/financial-incentives-to-reduce-hospital-acquired-infections-under-alternative-payment-arrangements
#8
Catherine Crawford Cohen, Jianfang Liu, Bevin Cohen, Elaine L Larson, Sherry Glied
OBJECTIVE The financial incentives for hospitals to improve care may be weaker if higher insurer payments for adverse conditions offset a portion of hospital costs. The purpose of this study was to simulate incentives for reducing hospital-acquired infections under various payment configurations by Medicare, Medicaid, and private payers. DESIGN Matched case-control study. SETTING A large, urban hospital system with 1 community hospital and 2 tertiary-care hospitals. PATIENTS All patients discharged in 2013 and 2014...
February 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454901/methylene-blue-internalization-and-photodynamic-action-against-clinical-and-atcc-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-staphyloccocus-aureus-strains
#9
André Henrique Correia Pereira, Juliana Guerra Pinto, Mirian Aparecida Alves Freitas, Letícia Corrêa Fontana, Cristina Pacheco Soares, Juliana Ferreira-Strixino
Bacterial infections have been a major challenge to health studies, facing the increasingly resistance to antimicrobial agents, which according to World Health Organization, could be the major death cause until 2050. Photodynamic therapy emerges as an alternative in microbial inactivation, due to its selectivity and to decreasing or dismissing the antibiotic use. This study aimed at evaluating, in vitro, the internalization of the Methylene Blue and its photodynamic activity against a clinical and ATCC strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphyloccocus aureus...
February 15, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451376/-phage-therapy-an-alternative-to-antibiotic-therapy
#10
REVIEW
J Reina, N Reina
Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and parasitize bacteria. They can present a lytic cycle that determines the lysis of the infected bacteria. Each phage is specific to a particular bacterial genus or species. The current increase in the incidence of antibiotic resistance in human bacteria has favored the study of phages as a therapeutic alternative (phage therapy). Previous studies have shown the efficacy of these elements in cutaneous and intestinal infections. Different clinical trials are underway to establish the safety, reactogenicity and therapeutic efficacy of multiple phage...
February 16, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451040/pulmonary-delivery-of-influenza-vaccine-formulations-in-cotton-rats-site-of-deposition-plays-a-minor-role-in-the-protective-efficacy-against-clinical-isolate-of-h1n1pdm-virus
#11
Yoshita Bhide, Jasmine Tomar, Wei Dong, Jacqueline de Vries-Idema, Henderik W Frijlink, Anke Huckriede, Wouter L J Hinrichs
Administration of influenza vaccines to the lungs could be an attractive alternative to conventional parenteral administration. In this study, we investigated the deposition site of pulmonary delivered liquid and powder influenza vaccine formulations and its relation to their immunogenicity and protective efficacy. In vivo deposition studies in cotton rats revealed that, the powder formulation was mainly deposited in the trachea ( ∼ 65%) whereas the liquid was homogenously distributed throughout the lungs ( ∼ 96%)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450988/salso-bromo-iodine-thermal-water-a-nonpharmacological-alternative-treatment-for-postnasal-drip-related-cough-in-children-with-upper-respiratory-tract-infections
#12
I La Mantia, G Ciprandi, A Varricchio, F Cupido, C Andaloro
Postnasal drip (PND)-related cough is a very common symptom in patients with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). At present, there is not a standard treatment for postnasal drip and postnasal drip-related cough. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of a specific salso-bromo-iodine thermal water containing hyaluronic acid and grapefruit seed extract (SBI-H-GSE) comparing it with a normal saline solution in children with URTIs who refer PND-related symptoms. The study was randomized, single-blind, and controlled...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449668/rhinovirus-3c-protease-suppresses-apoptosis-and-triggers-caspase-independent-cell-death
#13
Mark Lötzerich, Pascal S Roulin, Karin Boucke, Robert Witte, Oleg Georgiev, Urs F Greber
Apoptosis and programmed necrosis (necroptosis) determine cell fate, and antagonize infection. Execution of these complementary death pathways involves the formation of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) containing complexes. RIPK1 binds to adaptor proteins, such as TRIF (Toll-IL-1 receptor-domain-containing-adaptor-inducing interferon-beta factor), FADD (Fas-associated-protein with death domain), NEMO (NF-κB regulatory subunit IKKγ), SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1/p62), or RIPK3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3), which are involved in RNA sensing, NF-κB signaling, autophagosome formation, apoptosis, and necroptosis...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444080/promising-approach-to-reducing-malaria-transmission-by-ivermectin-sporontocidal-effect-against-plasmodium-vivax-in-the-south-american-vectors-anopheles-aquasalis-and-anopheles-darlingi
#14
Yudi T Pinilla, Stefanie C P Lopes, Vanderson S Sampaio, Francys S Andrade, Gisely C Melo, Alessandra S Orfanó, Nágila F C Secundino, Maria G V B Guerra, Marcus V G Lacerda, Kevin C Kobylinski, Karin S Escobedo-Vargas, Victor M López-Sifuentes, Craig A Stoops, G Christian Baldeviano, Joel Tarning, Gissella M Vasquez, Paulo F P Pimenta, Wuelton M Monteiro
BACKGROUND: The mosquito resistance to the insecticides threatens malaria control efforts, potentially becoming a major public health issue. Alternative methods like ivermectin (IVM) administration to humans has been suggested as a possible vector control to reduce Plasmodium transmission. Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles darlingi are competent vectors for Plasmodium vivax, and they have been responsible for various malaria outbreaks in the coast of Brazil and the Amazon Region of South America...
February 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439661/genome-wide-scan-for-commons-snps-affecting-bovine-leukemia-virus-infection-level-in-dairy-cattle
#15
Hugo A Carignano, Dana L Roldan, María J Beribe, María A Raschia, Ariel Amadio, Juan P Nani, Gerónimo Gutierrez, Irene Alvarez, Karina Trono, Mario A Poli, Marcos M Miretti
BACKGROUND: Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection is omnipresent in dairy herds causing direct economic losses due to trade restrictions and lymphosarcoma-related deaths. Milk production drops and increase in the culling rate are also relevant and usually neglected. The BLV provirus persists throughout a lifetime and an inter-individual variation is observed in the level of infection (LI) in vivo. High LI is strongly correlated with disease progression and BLV transmission among herd mates...
February 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436744/long-term-use-of-mixed-oil-lipid-emulsion-in-adult-home-parenteral-nutrition-patients-a-case-series
#16
Manpreet S Mundi, Megan T McMahon, Jennifer J Carnell, Ryan T Hurt
BACKGROUND: Despite providing significant benefits, home parenteral nutrition (HPN) can be associated with complications such as infections, intestinal failure-associated liver disease, and metabolic abnormalities. Soybean oil (SO)-based intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been noted to contribute to some of these complications, leading to the development of alternative sources of ILE. Mixed-oil (MO) ILE has recently been approved for use in adults with short-term studies revealing a benefit over SO ILE...
February 13, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433430/sesotho-trial-switch-either-near-suppression-or-thousand-switch-to-second-line-versus-who-guided-standard-of-care-for-unsuppressed-patients-on-first-line-art-with-viremia-below-1000-copies-ml-protocol-of-a-multicenter-parallel-group-open-label-randomized-clinical
#17
Alain Amstutz, Bienvenu Lengo Nsakala, Fiona Vanobberghen, Josephine Muhairwe, Tracy Renée Glass, Beatrice Achieng, Mamorena Sepeka, Katleho Tlali, Lebohang Sao, Kyaw Thin, Thomas Klimkait, Manuel Battegay, Niklaus Daniel Labhardt
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends viral load (VL) measurement as the preferred monitoring strategy for HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. The new WHO guidelines 2016 continue to define virologic failure as two consecutive VL ≥1000 copies/mL (at least 3 months apart) despite good adherence, triggering switch to second-line therapy. However, the threshold of 1000 copies/mL for defining virologic failure is based on low-quality evidence...
February 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433383/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-h37rv-infection-regulates-alternative-splicing-in-macrophages
#18
Wei Zhang, Chen Niu, Rui-Yang Fu, Zheng-Yu Peng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of genes encoding SR proteinsand alternative splicing of IL4 and TLR4 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) H37Rv-infected macrophages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: THP-1 cells were induced to differentiate into macrophages with 200 nM PMA, and H37Rv strains were used for macrophage infection. After RNA extraction, qRT-PCR was performed to evaluate the expression of many SR proteins as well as the alternative splicing of IL4 and TLR4...
February 13, 2018: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432910/lactobacillus-paracasei-28-4-reduces-in-vitro-hyphae-formation-of-candida-albicans-and-prevents-the-filamentation-in-an-experimental-model-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Liliana Scorzoni, Felipe de Camargo Ribeiro, Luciana Ruano de Oliveira Fugisaki, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Rodnei Dennis Rossoni
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of microbe-microbe interactions to identify a strain of Lactobacillus that could reduce the filamentation of Candida albicans ATCC 18804 using in vitro and in vivo models. Thus presenting a probiotic effect against the fungal pathogen. First, we analyzed the ability of 25 clinical isolates of Lactobacillus to reduce filamentation in C. albicans in vitro. We found that L. paracasei isolate 28.4 exhibited the greatest reduction of C. albicans hyphae (p = 0...
February 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430360/comparative-study-on-the-antileishmanial-activities-of-chemically-and-biologically-synthesized-silver-nanoparticles-agnps
#20
Ikram Ullah, Gizem Cosar, Emrah Sefik Abamor, Melahat Bagirova, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Adil M Allahverdiyev
The present study was conducted to investigate the antileishmanial activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) compared to chemically synthesized AgNPs. A nano dimension size (10-15 nm) biogenic AgNPs was produced and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction. The chemically synthesized AgNPs was recovering from our previous study with a nanoparticle (NP) size in the range of 10-40 nm. The antileishmanial activities were investigated through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cell viability assay...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
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