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Alternative infection control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231650/blood-sparing-efficacy-of-oral-tranexamic-acid-in-primary-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Qunn Jid Lee, Wai Yee Ching, Yiu Chung Wong
Purpose: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is effective in reducing blood loss in primary total knee replacement. Almost all studies used an intravenous form or a topical form. The aim of this study was to assess the blood sparing efficacy and the safety of oral TXA. Materials and Methods: All patients with primary total knee replacement performed in our institute from January 2015 to October 2015 were eligible. Oral TXA group was given 1 g oral TXA 2 hours before induction of anesthesia and 6 hours and 12 hours postoperatively...
March 1, 2017: Knee Surgery & related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230074/lack-of-resistance-development-in-bemisia-tabaci-to-isaria-fumosorosea-after-multiple-generations-of-selection
#2
Tianni Gao, Zhaolei Wang, Yü Huang, Nemat O Keyhani, Zhen Huang
The emergence of insecticide resistant insect pests is of significant concern worldwide. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is an important agricultural pest and has shown incredible resilience developing resistance to a number of chemical pesticides. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Isaria fumosorosea offer an attractive alternative to chemical pesticides for insect control, and this fungus has been shown to be an effective pathogen of B. tabaci. Little is known concerning the potential for the development of resistance to I...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230072/improved-social-interaction-recognition-and-working-memory-with-cannabidiol-treatment-in-a-prenatal-infection-poly-i-c-rat-model
#3
Ashleigh L Osborne, Nadia Solowij, Ilijana Babic, Xu-Feng Huang, Katrina Weston-Green
Neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia are associated with cognitive impairment, including learning, memory and attention deficits. Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their efficacy to improve cognition; therefore, new therapeutic agents are required. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating component of cannabis, has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antipsychotic-like properties, however, its ability to improve the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia remains unclear. Using a prenatal infection model, we examined the effect of chronic CBD treatment on cognition and social interaction...
February 23, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225337/multiple-cytokines-for-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-children-with-tuberculosis
#4
N Nausch, C Lundtoft, G Schulz, H Henckel, E Mayatepek, B Fleischer, F M Marx, M Jacobsen
SETTING: Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) play an important role in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. However, in children with tuberculosis (TB), some studies have shown increased frequencies of false-negative or indeterminate IGRA results. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the spectrum of different cytokines to improve the diagnostic accuracy of IGRAs in latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) and active TB. DESIGN: We performed multiplex cytokine expression analysis of QuantiFERON® Gold In-Tube supernatants in children with active TB (n = 21) and disease-free contacts with (n = 15) and without LTBI (n = 12), to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the modified tests...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224103/management-of-parenteral-nutrition-in-critically-ill-patients
#5
REVIEW
Paolo Cotogni
Artificial nutrition (AN) is necessary to meet the nutritional requirements of critically ill patients at nutrition risk because undernutrition determines a poorer prognosis in these patients. There is debate over which route of delivery of AN provides better outcomes and lesser complications. This review describes the management of parenteral nutrition (PN) in critically ill patients. The first aim is to discuss what should be done in order that the PN is safe. The second aim is to dispel "myths" about PN-related complications and show how prevention and monitoring are able to reach the goal of "near zero" PN complications...
February 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221905/efficacy-of-plant-derived-antimicrobials-in-controlling-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-virulence-in-vitro
#6
Sangeetha Ananda Baskaran, Anup Kollanoor-Johny, Meera Surendran Nair, Kumar Venkitanarayanan
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major foodborne pathogen that can cause serious human illness characterized by hemorrhagic diarrhea and kidney failure. The pathology of enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 (EHEC) infection is primarily mediated by verotoxins, which bind to the globotriaosylceramide receptor on host cells. Antibiotics are contraindicated for treating EHEC infection because they lead to increased verotoxin release, thereby increasing the risk of renal failure and death in patients. Thus, alternative strategies are needed for controlling EHEC infections in humans...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221840/inhibition-of-fusarium-growth-and-mycotoxin-production-in-culture-medium-and-in-maize-kernels-by-natural-phenolic-acids
#7
Elena Ferruz, Susana Loran, Marta Herrera, Isabel Gimenez, Noemi Bervis, Carmen Barcena, Juan Jose Carramiñana, Teresa Juan, Antonio Herrera, Agustin Ariño
The possible role of natural phenolic compounds in inhibiting fungal growth and toxin production has been of recent interest as an alternative strategy to the use of chemical fungicides for the maintenance of food safety. Fusarium is a worldwide fungal genus mainly associated with cereal crops. The most important Fusarium mycotoxins are trichothecenes, zearalenone, and fumonisins. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of four natural phenolic acids (caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, and chlorogenic) for the control of mycelial growth and mycotoxin production by six toxigenic species of Fusarium ...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221665/totally-percutaneous-versus-surgical-cut-down-femoral-artery-access-for-elective-bifurcated-abdominal-endovascular-aneurysm-repair
#8
REVIEW
Madelaine Gimzewska, Alexander Ir Jackson, Su Ern Yeoh, Mike Clarke
BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a vascular condition with significant risk attached, particularly if they rupture. It is, therefore, critical to identify and repair these as an elective procedure before they rupture and require emergency surgery. Repair has traditionally been an open surgical technique that required a large incision across the abdomen. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs (EVARs) are now a common alternative. In this procedure, the common femoral artery is exposed via a cut-down approach and a graft introduced to the aneurysm in this way...
February 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220200/intraurethral-bulking-agents-for-the-management-of-female-stress-urinary-incontinence-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Zain A Siddiqui, Hamid Abboudi, Ruairidh Crawford, Shahzad Shah
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The object of this review was to assess the efficacy and safety of urethral bulking agents (UBA), principally Macroplastique and Bulkamid, in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). METHODS: MEDLINE® and EMBASE® databases were systematically searched up to June 2016. Year of publication, study type, outcome measures, urodynamics before and after the procedure, number of participants, procedure complications, proportion requiring repeat injections or surgical procedures, frequency of follow-up, and results were analysed...
February 21, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219826/hot-topics-in-reactive-oxygen-therapy-antimicrobial-and-immunological-mechanisms-safety-and-clinical-applications
#10
REVIEW
Matthew Dryden, Jonathan Cooke, Rami Salib, Rebecca Holding, Sylvia Pender, Jill Brooks
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), when combined with various delivery mechanisms, has the potential to become a powerful novel therapeutic agent against difficult-to-treat infections, especially those involving biofilm. It is important in the context of the global antibiotic resistance crisis. ROS is rapidly active in vitro against all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. ROS also has antifungal and antiviral properties. ROS prevents the formation of biofilms caused by a range of bacterial species in wounds and respiratory epithelium...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217122/listeria-monocytogenes-10403s-arginine-repressor-argr-finely-tunes-arginine-metabolism-regulation-under-acidic-conditions
#11
Changyong Cheng, Zhimei Dong, Xiao Han, Jing Sun, Hang Wang, Li Jiang, Yongchun Yang, Tiantian Ma, Zhongwei Chen, Jing Yu, Weihuan Fang, Houhui Song
Listeria monocytogenes is able to colonize human and animal intestinal tracts and to subsequently cross the intestinal barrier, causing systemic infection. For successful establishment of infection, L. monocytogenes must survive the low pH environment of the stomach. L. monocytogenes encodes a functional ArgR, a transcriptional regulator belonging to the ArgR/AhrC arginine repressor family. We aimed at clarifying the specific functions of ArgR in arginine metabolism regulation, and more importantly, in acid tolerance of L...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215185/nutritive-value-and-anthelmintic-effect-of-sainfoin-pellets-fed-to-experimentally-infected-growing-rabbits
#12
H Legendre, H Hoste, T Gidenne
Alternative strategies to synthetic chemical drugs are needed in livestock and are a key issue in organic farming today. This study aimed at examining the potentialities of sainfoin, a legume rich in condensed tannins, as a nutraceutical that combines nutritive and antiparasitic effects in rabbits. To test the effect of infection with a helminth (I: infected groups; NI: not infected groups) and the effect of substituting 40% of the alfalfa in a control diet (C) with sainfoin (diet S), four groups of 16 weaned rabbits were arranged according to a 2×2 bifactorial design...
February 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211996/alternating-current-electrophoretic-deposition-for-the-immobilization-of-antimicrobial-agents-on-titanium-implant-surfaces
#13
Annabel Braem, Katrijn De Brucker, Nicolas Delattin, Manuela Sonja Killian, Maarten B J Roeffaers, Tomohiko Yoshioka, Satoshi Hayakawa, Patrik Schmuki, Bruno P A Cammue, Sannakaisa Virtanen, Karin Thevissen, Bram Neirinck
One prominent cause of implant failure is infection, therefore research is focusing on developing surface coatings that render the surface resistant to colonization by micro-organisms. Permanently attached coatings of antimicrobial molecules are of particular interest because of the reduced cytoxicity and lower risk of developing resistance compared to controlled release coatings. In this study, we focus on the chemical grafting of bioactive molecules on titanium. To concentrate the molecules at the metallic implant surface, we propose electrophoretic deposition (EPD) applying alternating current (AC) signals with an asymmetrical wave shape...
February 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211339/phytoextraction-of-contaminated-urban-soils-by-panicum-virgatum-l-enhanced-with-application-of-a-plant-growth-regulator-bap-and-citric-acid
#14
Matthew Aderholt, Dale L Vogelien, Marina Koether, Sigurdur Greipsson
Lead (Pb) contamination in soil represents a threat to human health. Phytoextraction has gained attention as a potential alternative to traditional remediation methods because of lower cost and minimal soil disruption. The North American native switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was targeted due to its ability to produce high biomass and grow across a variety of ecozones. In this study switchgrass was chemically enhanced with applications of the soil-fungicide benomyl, chelates (EDTA and citric acid), and PGR to optimize phytoextraction of Pb and zinc (Zn) from contaminated urban soils in Atlanta, GA...
February 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208770/splicing-and-polyadenylation-of-human-papillomavirus-type-16-mrnas
#15
REVIEW
Chengjun Wu, Naoko Kajitani, Stefan Schwartz
The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) life cycle can be divided into an early stage in which the HPV16 genomic DNA is replicated, and a late stage in which the HPV16 structural proteins are synthesized and virions are produced. A strong coupling between the viral life cycle and the differentiation state of the infected cell is highly characteristic of all HPVs. The switch from the HPV16 early gene expression program to the late requires a promoter switch, a polyadenylation signal switch and a shift in alternative splicing...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202329/efficacy-of-sulbactam-for-the-treatment-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-complex-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Haojun Chen, Qianqian Liu, Zhanguo Chen, Congrong Li
Meta-analyses that ignore the full programme of clinical trials may lead to a misleading interpretation. We did a comprehensive meta-analysis to explore the efficacy of sulbactam for the treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii complex infection. We searched electronic databases, including Pubmed and Embase up to April 24, 2016, to identify relevant published trials. Clinical trial registries were likewise searched to identify completed unpublished studies. Primary outcomes of interest were the clinical and microbiological efficacy and in-hospital mortality...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199446/translational-control-in-plant-antiviral-immunity
#17
João Paulo B Machado, Iara P Calil, Anésia A Santos, Elizabeth P B Fontes
Due to the limited coding capacity of viral genomes, plant viruses depend extensively on the host cell machinery to support the viral life cycle and, thereby, interact with a large number of host proteins during infection. Within this context, as plant viruses do not harbor translation-required components, they have developed several strategies to subvert the host protein synthesis machinery to produce rapidly and efficiently the viral proteins. As a countermeasure against infection, plants have evolved defense mechanisms that impair viral infections...
February 13, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198085/the-alternative-sigma-factor-%C3%AF-b-plays-a-crucial-role-in-adaptive-strategies-of-clostridium-difficile-during-gut-infection
#18
Nicolas Kint, Claire Janoir, Marc Monot, Sandra Hoys, Olga Soutourina, Bruno Dupuy, Isabelle Martin-Verstraete
Clostridium difficile is a major cause of diarrhoea associated with antibiotherapy. Exposed to stresses in the gut, C. difficile can survive by inducing protection, detoxification, and repair systems. In several firmicutes, most of these systems are controlled by the general stress response involving σ(B) . In this work, we studied the role of σ(B) in the physiopathology of C. difficile. We showed that the survival of the sigB mutant during the stationary phase was reduced. Using a transcriptome analysis, we showed that σ(B) controls the expression of ∼25% of genes including genes involved in sporulation, metabolism, cell surface biogenesis, and the management of stresses...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195032/ph-responsive-carriers-for-oral-drug-delivery-challenges-and-opportunities-of-current-platforms
#19
REVIEW
Lin Liu, WenDong Yao, YueFeng Rao, XiaoYang Lu, JianQing Gao
Oral administration is a desirable alternative of parenteral administration due to the convenience and increased compliance to patients, especially for chronic diseases that require frequent administration. The oral drug delivery is a dynamic research field despite the numerous challenges limiting their effective delivery, such as enzyme degradation, hydrolysis and low permeability of intestinal epithelium in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. pH-Responsive carriers offer excellent potential as oral therapeutic systems due to enhancing the stability of drug delivery in stomach and achieving controlled release in intestines...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194260/anti-bacterial-effects-of-enzymatically-isolated-sialic-acid-from-glycomacropeptide-in-a-helicobacter-pylori-infected-murine-model
#20
Hye-Ji Noh, Hong Bum Koh, Hee-Kyoung Kim, Hyang Hyun Cho, Jeongmin Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization of the stomach mucosa and duodenum is the major cause of acute and chronic gastroduodenal pathology in humans. Efforts to find effective anti-bacterial strategies against H. pylori for the non-antibiotic control of H. pylori infection are urgently required. In this study, we used whey to prepare glycomacropeptide (GMP), from which sialic acid (G-SA) was enzymatically isolated. We investigated the anti-bacterial effects of G-SA against H...
February 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
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