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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036663/metabolomic-and-biochemical-approaches-link-salicylic-acid-biosynthesis-to-cyanogenesis-in-peach-plants
#1
Pedro Diaz-Vivancos, Agustina Bernal-Vicente, Daniel Cantabella, Cesar Petri, José Antonio Hernández
Despite the long-established importance of salicylic acid (SA) in plant stress responses and other biological processes, its biosynthetic pathways have not been fully characterized. The proposed SA synthesis originates from chorismate by two distinct pathways: isochorismate and phenylalanine (Phe) ammonia-lyase (PAL) pathways. Cyanogenesis is the process related to the release of hydrogen cyanide from endogenous cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs), and it has been linked to plant plasticity improvement. To date, however, no relationship has been suggested between both pathways...
September 25, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036196/understanding-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-selected-disinfectants-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#2
Ebrahim Aboualizadeh, Violet V Bumah, Daniela S Masson-Meyers, Janis T Eells, Carol J Hirschmugl, Chukuka S Enwemeka
Disinfectants and biocidal products have been widely used to combat Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in homes and healthcare environments. Although disruption of cytoplasmic membrane integrity has been documented as the main bactericidal effect of biocides, little is known about the biochemical alterations induced by these chemical agents. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and chemometric tools as an alternative non-destructive technique to determine the bactericidal effects of commonly used disinfectants against MRSA USA-300...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036170/quantifying-the-effects-of-temperature-on-mosquito-and-parasite-traits-that-determine-the-transmission-potential-of-human-malaria
#3
Lillian L M Shapiro, Shelley A Whitehead, Matthew B Thomas
Malaria transmission is known to be strongly impacted by temperature. The current understanding of how temperature affects mosquito and parasite life history traits derives from a limited number of empirical studies. These studies, some dating back to the early part of last century, are often poorly controlled, have limited replication, explore a narrow range of temperatures, and use a mixture of parasite and mosquito species. Here, we use a single pairing of the Asian mosquito vector, An. stephensi and the human malaria parasite, P...
October 16, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034747/long-term-supplementation-of-rhodiola-kirilowii-extracts-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-does-not-affect-mother-health-status
#4
Sławomir Lewicki, Ewa Skopińska-Różewska, Aneta Lewicka, Robert Zdanowski
Antibiotics treatment during pregnancy and lactation is problematic. The alternative to the antibiotic treatment is the use of plant-derived supplements, which stimulate immune system to prevent and eliminate bacterial infection. Here we evaluated the effect of long-term use of Rhodiola kirilowii on the health of mouse mothers. Pregnant mice were fed daily, for whole pregnancy and for 28 days after giving birth, with Rhodiola kirilowii water (RKW) or hydroalcoholic extract (RKW-A) (at 20 mg of extracts/kg)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033946/exploitation-of-scavenger-receptor-macrophage-receptor-with-collagenous-structure-by-cryptococcus-neoformans-promotes-alternative-activation-of-pulmonary-lymph-node-cd11b-conventional-dendritic-cells-and-non-protective-th2-bias
#5
Jintao Xu, Adam Flaczyk, Lori M Neal, Zhenzong Fa, Daphne Cheng, Mike Ivey, Bethany B Moore, Jeffrey L Curtis, John J Osterholzer, Michal A Olszewski
Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) contributes to fungal containment during the early/innate phase of cryptococcal infection; however, its role in adaptive antifungal immunity remains unknown. Using a murine model of cryptococcosis, we compared host adaptive immune responses in wild-type and MARCO(-/-) mice throughout an extended time course post-infection. Unlike in early infection, MARCO deficiency resulted in improved pulmonary fungal clearance and diminished cryptococcal dissemination during the efferent phase...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029346/botanical-compound-p-anisaldehyde-repels-larval-lone-star-tick-acari-ixodidae-and-halts-reproduction-by-gravid-adults
#6
Allan T Showler, Jessica L Harlien
The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), widely distributed across eastern, southeastern, and midwestern regions of the United States and south into Mexico, is an obligate blood feeder that attaches to three hosts during the larval, nymphal, and adult stages. White-tailed deer and wild turkey are common hosts, as well as a wide variety of other avian and mammalian hosts. Amblyomma americanum is the most frequently reported species of tick to bite humans in the southeastern and southcentral United States, and it can transmit diseases that include erhlichiosis, rickettsiosis, tularemia, and protozoan infections...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025325/versatility-of-targeted-antibiotic-loaded-gold-nanoconstructs-for-the-treatment-of-biofilm-associated-bacterial-infections
#7
Daniel G Meeker, Tengjiao Wang, Walter N Harrington, Vladimir P Zharov, Sarah A Johnson, Samir V Jenkins, Stephanie E Oyibo, Christopher M Walker, Weston B Mills, Mark E Shirtliff, Karen E Beenken, Jingyi Chen, Mark S Smeltzer
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that a photoactivatable therapeutic approach employing antibiotic-loaded, antibody-conjugated, polydopamine (PDA)-coated gold nanocages (AuNCs) could be used for the synergistic killing of bacterial cells within a biofilm. The approach was validated with a focus on Staphylococcus aureus using an antibody specific for staphylococcal protein A (Spa) and an antibiotic (daptomycin) active against Gram-positive cocci including methicillin-resistant S...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025320/efficacy-of-itraconazole-oral-solution-using-an-alternating-week-pulse-therapy-regimen-for-treatment-of-cats-with-experimental-microsporum-canis-infection
#8
Christopher Puls, Aaron Johnson, Karrie Young, Jonathan Hare, Kelly Rosenkrans, Lisa Young, Karen Moriello
Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate itraconazole 10 mg/ml oral solution for the treatment of Microsporum canis infection using an alternating-week pulse therapy regimen in a controlled laboratory setting. Methods Eighty cats with experimentally induced infections were randomly assigned to treatment (itraconazole vs control [sterile water]), administered 5 mg/kg orally once daily for 1 week on alternate weeks for 5 weeks, followed by a 4 week follow-up period. Topical therapeutic treatment was not administered...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023522/microencapsulation-of-clostridium-difficile-specific-bacteriophages-using-microfluidic-glass-capillary-devices-for-colon-delivery-using-ph-triggered-release
#9
Gurinder K Vinner, Goran T Vladisavljević, Martha R J Clokie, Danish J Malik
The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria acquiring multidrug antibiotic resistance is a global health threat to mankind. This has motivated a renewed interest in developing alternatives to conventional antibiotics including bacteriophages (viruses) as therapeutic agents. The bacterium Clostridium difficile causes colon infection and is particularly difficult to treat with existing antibiotics; phage therapy may offer a viable alternative. The punitive environment within the gastrointestinal tract can inactivate orally delivered phages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023193/distinct-transcriptional-and-processing-regulations-control-mir167a-level-in-tomato-during-stress
#10
Jayanti Jodder, Rohit Das, Deepti Sarkar, Payel Bhattacharjee, Pallob Kundu
Besides their definite role in plant developmental processes miR167 also serve as mediator of stress response. Although differential expression of miR167 occurs during stresses, the regulatory-mechanism of biogenesis remained elusive. Therefore, using tomato as the model plant we have explored the mechanism of regulation of miR167a expression during stresses. Fungus or virus infections and exposure to cold stress raised the level of miR167a expression. Whereas, salt, drought and heat treatments resulted in the downregulation, indicating different stresses activated alternative mechanisms for miR167a regulation...
October 12, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022867/response-to-photo-oxidative-stress-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1-mutants-impaired-in-different-functions
#11
Viviana Teresa Orlandi, Fabrizio Bolognese, Eleonora Martegani, Vincenzo Cantaluppi, Claudio Medana, Paola Barbieri
Clinicians often have to deal with infections that are difficult to control because they are caused by superbugs resistant to many antibiotics. Alternatives to antibiotic treatment include antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). The photodynamic process causes bacterial death, inducing oxidative stress through the photoactivation of photosensitizer molecules in the presence of oxygen. No PDT-resistant bacteria have been selected to date, thus the response to photo-oxidative stress in non-phototrophic bacteria needs further investigation...
October 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021784/synthetic-peptides-to-target-stringent-response-controlled-virulence-in-a-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-murine-cutaneous-infection-model
#12
Daniel Pletzer, Heidi Wolfmeier, Manjeet Bains, Robert E W Hancock
Microorganisms continuously monitor their surroundings and adaptively respond to environmental cues. One way to cope with various stress-related situations is through the activation of the stringent stress response pathway. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa this pathway is controlled and coordinated by the activity of the RelA and SpoT enzymes that metabolize the small nucleotide secondary messenger molecule (p)ppGpp. Intracellular ppGpp concentrations are crucial in mediating adaptive responses and virulence. Targeting this cellular stress response has recently been the focus of an alternative approach to fight antibiotic resistant bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020404/colistin-vs-ceftazidime-avibactam-in-the-treatment-of-infections-due-to-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#13
David van Duin, Judith J Lok, Michelle Earley, Eric Cober, Sandra S Richter, Federico Perez, Robert A Salata, Robert C Kalayjian, Richard R Watkins, Yohei Doi, Keith S Kaye, Vance G Fowler, David L Paterson, Robert A Bonomo, Scott Evans
Background: The efficacy of ceftazidime-avibactam - a cephalosporin-β-lactamase inhibitor combination with in vitro activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) - as compared to colistin remains unknown. Methods: Patients initially treated with either ceftazidime-avibactam or colistin for CRE infections were selected from the Consortium on resistance against carbapenems in Klebsiella and other Enterobacteriaceae (CRACKLE), a prospective, multicenter, observational study...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019351/hot-news-exosomes-as-new-players-in-hiv-pathogenesis-new-data-from-the-ias-2017
#14
Eva Poveda, Michael L Freeman
Exosomes are nanovesicles that can be released into the extracellular medium by different cell types and are considered an important system of intercellular communication. In some instances, on secretion, exosomes break down and release their content into the extracellular space. Alternatively, intact exosomes can interact with other cells and discharge their content directly into the target cell cytoplasm. Exosomes are rich in endosome-associated proteins (i.e., the tetraspanin family) but also carry different molecules in their lumen including proteins, RNAs (i...
October 11, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018621/the-isolation-and-identification-of-pathogenic-fungi-from-tessaratoma-papillosa-drury-hemiptera-tessaratomidae
#15
Xiang Meng, Junjie Hu, Gecheng Ouyang
BACKGROUND: Litchi stink-bug, Tessaratoma papillosa Drury (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae), is one of the most widespread and destructive pest species on Litchi chinensis Sonn and Dimocarpus longan Lour in Southern China. Inappropriate use of chemical pesticides has resulted in serious environmental problems and food pollution. Generating an improved Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy for litchi stink-bug in orchard farming requires development of an effective biological control agent...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990696/modulation-of-th17-and-regulatory-t-cell-responses-during-murine-pregnancy-contributes-to-increased-maternal-susceptibility-to-salmonella-typhimurium-infection
#16
Gerard Agbayani, Kristina Wachholz, Anindita Chattopadhyay, Komal Gurnani, Shawn P Murphy, Lakshmi Krishnan
PROBLEM: Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Tm) infection in pregnant mice results in massive placental infection, fetal loss, and exacerbated systemic infection. The Th17 host response can aid control of S. Tm infection, whereas successful pregnancy correlates to a dampened inflammatory and enhanced regulatory T-cell (Treg) response. METHOD OF STUDY: Mice were infected systemically with S. Tm and tissue bacterial burden, splenic Th17 and Treg cell numbers, and serum cytokines were analyzed...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988939/susceptibility-of-wounded-and-intact-black-soldier-fly-hermetia-illucens-l-diptera-stratiomyidae-to-entomopathogenic-nematodes
#17
Joseph Tourtois, Jared Gregory Ali, Matthew Grieshop
Production costs and limited regional availability are two key factors limiting the widespread adoption of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) in biological control programs. We explore the potential of using black soldier fly larvae Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) as an alternative in vivo rearing host to the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). We injured black soldier fly larvae to test the hypothesis that the tough cuticle was preventing the penetration of founding infective juveniles (IJs) into the host and egress of offspring from the cadaver...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988087/irrigation-and-weed-control-alter-soil-microbiology-and-nutrient-availability-in-north-carolina-sandhill-peach-orchards
#18
Yi Zhang, Liangju Wang, Yongge Yuan, Jing Xu, Cong Tu, Connie Fisk, Weijian Zhang, Xin Chen, David Ritchie, Shuijin Hu
Orchard management practices such as weed control and irrigation are primarily aimed at maximizing fruit yields and economic profits. However, the impact of these practices on soil fertility and soil microbiology is often overlooked. We conducted a two-factor experimental manipulation of weed control by herbicide and trickle irrigation in a nutrient-poor peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Contender) orchard near Jackson Springs, North Carolina. After three and eight years of treatments, an array of soil fertility parameters were examined, including soil pH, soil N, P and cation nutrients, microbial biomass and respiration, N mineralization, and presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)...
October 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986378/using-endophytic-and-rhizospheric-actinobacteria-from-grapevine-plants-to-reduce-fungal-graft-infections-in-nurseries-that-lead-to-young-grapevine-decline
#19
José Manuel Álvarez-Pérez, Sandra González-García, Rebeca Cobos, Miguel Ángel Olego, Ana Ibañez, Alba Díez-Galán, Enrique Garzón-Jimeno, Juan José R Coque
Endophytic and rhizospheric actinobacteria isolated from the root system of one-year-old grafted Vitis vinifera plants were evaluated for their activities against fungi that cause grapevine trunk diseases. A total of 58 endophytic and 94 rhizospheric isolates were tested. Based on an in vitro bioassay, 15.5% of the endophytic isolates and 30.8% of the rhizospheric isolates exhibited antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen Diplodia seriata, whereas 13.8% of the endophytic isolates and 16.0% of the rhizospheric isolates showed antifungal activity against Dactylonectria macrodidyma (formerly Ilyonectria macrodidyma)...
October 6, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986301/sustained-antimicrobial-activity-and-reduced-toxicity-of-oxidative-biocides-through-biodegradable-microparticles
#20
Panagiotis Sofokleous, Shanom Ali, Peter Wilson, Asma Buanz, Simon Gaisford, Dharmit Mistry, Adrian Fellows, Richard M Day
The spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens requires new treatments. Small molecule precursor compounds that produce oxidative biocides with well-established antimicrobial properties could provide a range of new therapeutic products to combat resistant infections. The aim of this study was to investigate a novel biomaterials-based approach for the manufacture, targeted delivery and controlled release of a peroxygen donor (sodium percarbonate) combined with an acetyl donor (tetraacetylethylenediamine) to deliver local antimicrobial activity via a dynamic equilibrium mixture of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid...
October 3, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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