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cerebral ischemia mechanism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812113/-pathophysiology-of-intracranial-injuries
#1
REVIEW
D Lahner, G Fritsch
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a heterogeneous condition that affects the most complex organ of the human body. It is commonly classified by its location as focal injury (e.g. epidural hematoma) and diffuse injury (e.g. diffuse axonal shearing injury) as well as by primary and secondary tissue injury. Accordingly, direct mechanical force causes the primary insult. The tissue damage occurring afterwards is subsumed under the term secondary brain damage. Some of these processes are overlapping and include in the early phase local cerebral ischemia resulting in excitotoxicity, which together with the triggered neuroinflammatory cascade causes the formation of cerebral edema and ultimately increased intracranial pressure once the intracranial compliance is exhausted...
August 15, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810574/tissue-kallikrein-protects-against-ischemic-stroke-by-suppressing-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-activating-nrf2-signaling-pathway-in-rats
#2
Jiawei Yang, Jianhua Su, Fen Wan, Nan Yang, Haibo Jiang, Mingming Fang, Hang Xiao, Jun Wang, Jinrong Tang
Brain damage following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a complicated pathophysiological course, in which inflammation and oxidative stress have been suggested to serve an important role. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been suggested to be involved in secondary inflammatory process in cerebral ischemia. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), an important regulator of the antioxidant host defense, maintains the cellular redox homeostasis. Tissue kallikrein (TK) has been proven to elicit a variety of biological effects in ischemic stroke through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810545/electroacupuncture-attenuates-learning-and-memory-impairment-via-activation-of-%C3%AE-7nachr-mediated-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injured-rats
#3
Jiao Liu, Chunyan Li, Hongwei Peng, Kunqiang Yu, Jing Tao, Ruhui Lin, Lidian Chen
Studies have reported that electroacupuncture (EA) may reduce learning and memory impairment following cerebral ischemic injury. However, the precise mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, the attenuation of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by EA in rats was investigated. EA at the Baihui (DU 20) and Shenting (DU 24) acupoints was demonstrated to significantly improve performance in the Morris water maze task, with shortened latency time and increased frequency of passing the platform...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810542/electroacupuncture-promotes-axonal-regeneration-in-rats-with-focal-cerebral-ischemia-through-the-downregulation-of-nogo-a-ngr-rhoa-rock-signaling
#4
Saie Huang, Danxia Huang, Jiapei Zhao, Lidian Chen
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the axonal regeneration environment following cerebral ischemia injury and to investigate whether it was associated with Nogo-A/Nogo receptor (NgR)/RhoA/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) signaling. Using a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, the effects of EA at the Quchi (LI11) and Zusanli (ST36) acupoints on axonal growth inhibitory protein and axonal growth factors were assessed and the underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810528/neuroprotection-of-bradykinin-bradykinin-b2-receptor-system-in-cerebral-ischemia
#5
REVIEW
Bingyuan Ji, Baohua Cheng, Yanyou Pan, Chunmei Wang, Jing Chen, Bo Bai
Bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) activated by its endogenous ligand bradykinin participates in various physiological processes including neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, and control of inflammation and blood pressure. Besides these effects, B2R has been demonstrated to protect neurons from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, we highlight the mechanisms of BK/B2R-mediated neuroprotective effects in the peripheral and central nervous systems. Moreover, this review article summarizes some of the signaling pathways of B2R in cerebral ischemia, leading to a better understanding of its neuroprotection...
August 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808420/inhibition-of-mtor-signaling-confers-protection-against-cerebral-ischemic-injury-in-acute-hyperglycemic-rats
#6
Changchun Hei, Ping Liu, Xiao Yang, Jianguo Niu, P Andy Li
Hyperglycemia is known to exacerbate neuronal death resulted from cerebral ischemia. The mechanisms are not fully understood. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway regulates cell growth, division and apoptosis. Recent studies suggest that activation of mTOR may mediate ischemic brain damage. The objective of the present experiment is to explore whether mTOR mediates ischemic brain damage in acute hyperglycemic animals. Rats were subjected to 10 min of forebrain ischemia under euglycemic, hyperglycemic and rapamycin-treated hyperglycemic conditions...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808202/-borneol-is-neuroprotective-against-permanent-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats-by-suppressing-production-of-proinflammatory-cytokines
#7
Lei Chang, Chun-Yu Yin, Hai-Yin Wu, Bin-Bin Tian, Yan Zhu, Chun-Xia Luo, Dong-Ya Zhu
Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and death globally. It occurs when a major artery is occluded in the brain and leads to death of cells within the injured tissue. (+)-Borneol, a simple bicyclic monoterpene extracted from traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used in various types of diseases. However, no study has proved the effects of (+)-borneol on functional recovery from permanent ischemic stroke and the mechanism is still unknown. Here, we report that in the rat model of permanent cerebral ischemia, we found that (+)-borneol (1...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807664/social-interaction-modulates-the-neuroinflammatory-response-to-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-male-mice
#8
Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, Ning Zhang, Adam H Haines, Surbhi, Min Zhou, A Courtney DeVries
Social isolation is a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, although the underlying mechanisms remain underspecified. Considering the potential of microglia to become sensitized by stressors and their role in neuroinflammation, we hypothesized that social isolation primes microglia, resulting in an exaggerated neuroimmune response to experimental cerebral ischemia. First, major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) gene expression, an indicator of microglial priming, was compared between mice that were socially isolated or pair-housed...
August 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805763/-angiogenesis-mechanisms-in-the-formation-of-structural-changes-of-brain-tissue-in-patients-with-progressive-cerebrovascular-disease
#9
O N Voskresenskaya, N B Zaharova, Yu S Tarasova, N E Tereshkina, V A Perepelov, E M Perepelova
AIM: To study the correlation between expressiveness of focal changes of brain tissue and VEGF and MCP-1 levels in plasma and blood serum of patients with chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Markers of inflammation (MCP-1, CRP) and angiogenesis (VEGF) in serum and blood plasma of 35 patients with CCI depending on expressiveness of structural changes of brain substance according to MRI were investigated. RESULTS: The increase in MCP-1 and CRP content in blood serum and simultaneous decrease in VEGF level in serum and blood plasma were correlated with the increase in the number of focal changes of substance of the brain in patients with CCI...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804736/urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-upa-and-its-receptor-upar-promote-neurorepair-in-the-ischemic-brain
#10
Paola Merino, Ariel Diaz, Manuel Yepes
Despite the fact that ischemic stroke has been considered a leading cause of mortality in the world, recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the ischemic injury and the treatment of acute ischemic stroke patients have led to a sharp decrease in the number of stroke deaths. However, this decrease in stroke mortality has also led to an increase in the number of patients that survive the acute ischemic injury with different degrees of disability. Unfortunately, to this date we do not have an effective therapeutic strategy to promote neurological recovery in these growing population of stroke survivors...
2017: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804561/upregulation-of-mir-130b-protects-against-cerebral-ischemic-injury-by-targeting-water-channel-protein-aquaporin-4-aqp4
#11
Yueying Zheng, Liqing Wang, Manli Chen, Aijie Pei, Liwei Xie, Shengmei Zhu
Altered microRNA regulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various disorders, including cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/RI). However, the regulatory mechanism of miR-130b in cerebral ischemia injury has not been reported. In this study, we explored the role of miR-130b in cerebral ischemia injury and investigated its potential mechanism. Levels of miR-130b were quantified by real-time PCR, and the protein level of AQP4 was detected by Western blotting. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803158/balasubramide-derivative-3c-modulates-microglia-activation-via-camkk%C3%AE-dependent-ampk-pgc-1%C3%AE-pathway-in-neuroinflammatory-conditions
#12
Yunjie Wang, Wenchen Ruan, Junru Mi, Jingzi Xu, Haojie Wang, Zhengyu Cao, Juan M Saavedra, Luyong Zhang, Hansen Lin, Tao Pang
Neuroinflammation plays a vital role in the pathological process of cerebral ischemic stroke, but currently there is no effective treatment. After ischemia, microglia-produced proinflammatory mediator expression contributes to the aggravation of neuroinflammation, while anti-inflammatory activation of microglia develops an anti-neuroinflammatory effect via secretion of anti-inflammatory factor. Promoting the anti-inflammatory activation of microglia might be an effective treatment of stroke. Previously, we discovered one derivative of the natural product (+)-balasubramide, compound 3C, that exhibits a remarkably anti-neuroinflammatory effect in vitro with unknown mechanisms...
August 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803128/tetrahydrobiopterin-in-antenatal-brain-hypoxia-ischemia-induced-motor-impairments-and-cerebral-palsy
#13
REVIEW
Jeannette Vasquez-Vivar, Zhongjie Shi, Kehuan Luo, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Sidhartha Tan
Antenatal brain hypoxia-ischemia, which occurs in cerebral palsy, is considered a significant cause of motor impairments in children. The mechanisms by which antenatal hypoxia-ischemia causes brain injury and motor deficits still need to be elucidated. Tetrahydrobiopterin is an important enzyme cofactor that is necessary to produce neurotransmitters and to maintain the redox status of the brain. A genetic deficiency of this cofactor from mutations of biosynthetic or recycling enzymes is a well-recognized factor in the development of childhood neurological disorders characterized by motor impairments, developmental delay, and encephalopathy...
August 3, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801284/-yiqihuoxue-prescription-promotes-nerve-regeneration-by-mir-124-mediated-regulation-of-wnt-signaling-in-rats
#14
Hui Tan, Jian Wang, Ting-Ting Yin, Ling He, Yong Deng, Feng Li, Yu-Feng Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Yiqihuoxue prescription (NLXT) on nerve regeneration in MCAO-R rat models of qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome and explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: The rats were randomized into 4 groups, namely the control group, model group, NLXT group and TXL group. The rats in NLXT group and TXL group were treated with gavage of NLXT and TXL solutions, respectively. The NFDS, QDSS and BSSS of the rats were evaluated. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were dynamically monitored with laser Doppler scanning, and the volume of cerebral infarction was detected with TTC-dye; the expression levels of nestin and BrdU were assayed with immunohistochemistry and mmunofluorescent staining...
August 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800036/improved-outcomes-of-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-rats-treated-with-vagus-nerve-stimulation-and-its-potential-mechanism
#15
Peng Sun, Jiangang Wang, Shen Zhao, Zhengfei Yang, Ziren Tang, Navami Ravindra, Jennifer Bradley, Joseph P Ornato, Mary Ann Peberdy, Wanchun Tang
Studies have demonstrated that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) reduces ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of VNS in a rat model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We further investigated whether the beneficial effects of VNS were dependent on the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). Forty animals were randomized into 4 groups and all underwent CPR (n = 10 each): (1) CPR alone (control); (2) VNS during CPR; (3) α7nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine citrate (MLA) with VNS; (4) α7nAChR agonist 3-(2, 4-dimethoxybenzylidene) anabaseine (GTS-21) without VNS...
August 9, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782643/downregulation-of-trb3-protects-neurons-against-apoptosis-induced-by-global-cerebral-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#16
Kai Wei, Li Wan, Jin Liu, Bo Zhang, Xuan Li, Yue Zhang, Chuanhan Zhang, Wenlong Yao
Global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury (GCI/R) can lead to neuronal apoptosis and contributes to permanent neurological sequelae. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of GCI/R on the tribbles homolog 3 (TRB3) and to explore the role of TRB3 in GCI/R. The GCI/R model was developed in Sprague-Dawley male rats by four-vessel occlusion. Subsequently, the expressions of TRB3, endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, and apoptosis-associated proteins were examined by western blot at 1h, 6h, 12h, 24h, and 72h after GCI/R...
August 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771727/salvianolic-acids-enhance-cerebral-angiogenesis-and-neurological-recovery-by-activating-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathway-after-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#17
Yaoru Li, Xiangjian Zhang, Lili Cui, Rong Chen, Ye Zhang, Cong Zhang, Xingyuan Zhu, Tingting He, Zuyuan Shen, Lipeng Dong, Jingru Zhao, Ya Wen, Xiufen Zheng, Pan Li
Post-stroke angiogenesis facilitates neurovascular remodeling process and promotes neurological recovery. Proangiogenic effects of Salvianolic acids (Sals) have been reported in various ischemic disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Previous studies of our laboratory have demonstrated that activating Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) signaling pathway is involved in the protection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. In the present study, we investigated the impacts of Sals on angiogenesis and long-term neurological recovery after ischemic stroke as well as the potential mechanisms...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769792/danshen-chuanxiong-honghua-ameliorates-cerebral-impairment-and-improves-spatial-cognitive-deficits-after-transient-focal-ischemia-and-identification-of-active-compounds
#18
Xianhua Zhang, Wan Zheng, Tingrui Wang, Ping Ren, Fushun Wang, Xinliang Ma, Jian Wang, Xi Huang
Previously, we only apply a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Danshen-Chuanxiong-Honghua (DCH) for cardioprotection via anti-inflammation in rats of acute myocardial infarction by occluding coronary artery. Presently, we select not only DCH but also its main absorbed compound ferulic acid (FA) for cerebra protection via similar action of mechanism above in animals of the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). We investigated whether oral administration of DCH and FA could ameliorate MCAO-induced brain lesions in animals...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769765/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-ameliorates-hippocampal-synaptic-impairment-after-transient-global-ischemia
#19
Mingyang Deng, Han Xiao, Hainan Zhang, Hongling Peng, Huan Yuan, Yunxiao Xu, Guangsen Zhang, Zhiping Hu
Recent studies have found that administration of stem cells or extracellular vehicles (EVs) derived from stem cells exert neuroprotective effects after transient global ischemia. However, the underlying mechanisms of this effect remain unclear, especially at the level of synaptic functions. In this study, we compared the suppressive effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) upregulation by EVs derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC-EV), adipose tissue MSC (AdMSC-EV) and serum (serum-EV). Then we examined whether BMSC-EVs could restore functional integrity of synaptic transmission and plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768648/c-c-chemokine-receptor-type-5-ccr5-mediated-docking-of-transferred-tregs-protects-against-early-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-after-stroke
#20
Peiying Li, Long Wang, Yuxi Zhou, Yu Gan, Wen Zhu, Yuguo Xia, Xiaoyan Jiang, Simon Watkins, Alberto Vazquez, Angus W Thomson, Jun Chen, Weifeng Yu, Xiaoming Hu
BACKGROUND: Despite recent evidence demonstrating a potent protective effect of adoptively transferred regulatory T cells (Tregs) in ischemic stroke, the mechanism for Treg mobilization and activation in the ischemic brain is, remarkably, unknown. This study determines the role of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) in mediating the docking and activation of transferred Tregs in their protection of early blood-brain barrier disruption after stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adoptive transfer of CCR5(-/-) Tregs failed to reduce brain infarct or neurological deficits, indicating an indispensable role of CCR5 in Treg-afforded protection against cerebral ischemia...
August 2, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
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