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cerebral ischemia mechanism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320180/mitochondrial-dysfunction-silent-killer-in-cerebral-ischemia
#1
REVIEW
Pramila Bakthavachalam, Prakash Srinivasan Timiri Shanmugam
Mitochondrial dysfunction aggravates ischemic neuronal injury through activation of various pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms. Ischemic neuronal injury is particularly intensified during reperfusion due to impairment of mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial mutilation instigates alterations in calcium homeostasis in neurons, which plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of normal neuronal function. Increase in intracellular calcium level in mitochondria triggers the opening of mitochondrial transition pore and over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320085/down-regulation-of-microrna-142-5p-attenuates-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-reoxygenation-induced-neuron-injury-through-up-regulating-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway
#2
Ning Wang, Lingmin Zhang, Yang Lu, Mingxin Zhang, Zhenni Zhang, Kui Wang, Jianrui Lv
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in regulating neuron survival during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. miR-142-5p is reported to be an important regulator of cellular survival. However, little is known about the role of miR-142-5p in regulating neuron survival during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. In this study, we aimed to investigate the precise function and mechanism of miR-142-5p in the regulation of neuron ischemia/reperfusion injury using a cellular model of oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced injury in hippocampal neurons in vitro...
March 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319240/two-paradigms-for-endovascular-thrombectomy-after-intravenous-thrombolysis-for-acute-ischemic-stroke
#3
Gaspard Gerschenfeld, Ioan-Paul Muresan, Raphael Blanc, Michael Obadia, Marie Abrivard, Michel Piotin, Sonia Alamowitch
Importance: Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) followed by mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is recommended to treat acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with a large vessel occlusion (LVO). Most hospitals do not have on-site MT facilities, and most patients need to be transferred secondarily after IVT (drip and ship), which may have an effect on the neurologic outcome. Objective: To compare the functional independence at 3 months between patients treated under the drip-and-ship paradigm and those treated on site (mothership)...
March 20, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315758/tat-pep-a-novel-blocker-of-pirb-enhances-the-recovery-of-cognitive-function-in-mice-after-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia
#4
Liya Li, Bin Deng, Shuang Li, Tao Jiang, Zhaoyang Xiao, Qiang Wang
Neuronal damage and axonal regeneration inhibition are the main reasons to poor functional recovery after ischemia. Nogo-A signals inhibit axon outgrowth through the PirB receptor after ischemic reperfusion injury in central nervous system. We use TAT-PEP, a novel protein which could pass through the blood brain barrier, to block the function of PirB and identify the long-term neurological and behavioral recovery after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in mice. We observed that TAT-PEP promoted neuron survival and inhibited neuronal apoptosis...
March 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314594/brain-ischemia-suppresses-immunity-in-the-periphery-and-brain-via-different-neurogenic-innervations
#5
Qiang Liu, Wei-Na Jin, Yaou Liu, Kaibin Shi, Haoran Sun, Fang Zhang, Chao Zhang, Rayna J Gonzales, Kevin N Sheth, Antonio La Cava, Fu-Dong Shi
Brain ischemia inhibits immune function systemically, with resulting infectious complications. Whether in stroke different immune alterations occur in brain and periphery and whether analogous mechanisms operate in these compartments remains unclear. Here we show that in patients with ischemic stroke and in mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion, natural killer (NK) cells display remarkably distinct temporal and transcriptome profiles in the brain as compared to the periphery. The activation of catecholaminergic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leads to splenic atrophy and contraction of NK cell numbers in the periphery through a modulated expression of SOCS3, whereas cholinergic innervation-mediated suppression of NK cell responses in the brain involves RUNX3...
March 8, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314243/parthenolide-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-pathway-in-pc12-cells
#6
Jun-Feng Zhang, Li Zhang, Li-Li Shi, Zhao-Hua Zhao, Hao Xu, Fei Liang, Hong-Bo Li, Yan Zhao, Xi Xu, Ke Yang, Ying-Fang Tian
Parthenolide (PN), a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the herbal medicine feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), was reported to possess neuroprotective activity. However, the neuroprotective effect of PN against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the neuroprotective effects of PN against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and the underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that PN ameliorated OGD/R-evoked neuronal injury and oxidative stress in PC12 cells...
March 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303501/isoflurane-postconditioning-inhibits-tpa-induced-matrix-metalloproteinases-activation-after-hypoxic-injury-via-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-pathway
#7
So Yeon Kim, So Yeong Cheon, Eun Jung Kim, Jae Hoon Lee, Eun Hee Kam, Jeong Min Kim, Miran Park, Bon-Nyeo Koo
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only recommended pharmacological treatment for acute ischemic stroke. However, tPA can induce intracerebral hemorrhage by blood-brain barrier breakdown through an increase in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Previously, we showed that isoflurane postconditioning reduced intracranial hemorrhage following tPA treatment after cerebral ischemia. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which isoflurane postconditioning reduces tPA-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activation following hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in brain endothelial cells...
March 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303172/astragaloside-iv-for-experimental-focal-cerebral-ischemia-preclinical-evidence-and-possible-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Hui-Lin Wang, Qi-Hui Zhou, Meng-Bei Xu, Xiao-Li Zhou, Guo-Qing Zheng
Astragaloside IV (AST-IV) is a principal component of Radix Astragali seu Hedysari (Huangqi) and exerts potential neuroprotection in experimental ischemic stroke. Here, we systematically assessed the effectiveness and possible mechanisms of AST-IV for experimental acute ischemic stroke. An electronic search in eight databases was conducted from inception to March 2016. The study quality score was evaluated using the CAMARADES. Rev Man 5.0 software was used for data analyses. Thirteen studies with 244 animals were identified...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300551/role-of-caveolin-1-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-pathway-in-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-induced-angiogenesis-and-neurogenesis-after-treadmill-training-following-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#9
Qiongyi Pang, Huimei Zhang, Zhenzhen Chen, Yudan Wu, Min Yidian Bai Liu, Yun Zhao, Fengxia Tu, Chan Liu, Xiang Chen
Exercise is known to aid functional recovery following ischemia, though the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of exercise on recovery from ischemic stroke are not fully understood. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) contributes to angiogenesis and promotes neurologic functional recovery after stroke. The present study aimed to investigate the possible mechanisms whereby treadmill exercise ameliorated impaired angiogenesis and neurogenesis following transient cerebral ischemia in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats...
March 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293050/cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-the-hyperthyroid-rat
#10
Somaye Keshavarz, Gholam Abbas Dehghani
BACKGROUND: Hyperthyroidism as a risk factor for stroke is not conclusive. There are no definite data on the relationship between ischemic cerebrovascular injury and hyperthyroidism. This study was designed to define whether the outcomes of post-ischemic stroke injury are influenced by chronic hyperthyroidism. METHODS: Two groups of hyperthyroid (HT) and control euthyroid rats of equal numbers (n=22) were included in the study. Hyperthyroidism was induced for 4 weeks by adding L-thyroxine (300 μg/kg) to drinking water...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290606/3-daidzein-sulfonate-sodium-inhibits-neuronal-apoptosis-induced-by-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion
#11
Ruizhen Liu, Xinming Zhong, Jing Zeng, Zhihua Huang, Xiao Li, Hai Xiao, Qin Chen, Dongliang Li
This study aimed to observe the effects of 3'-daidzein sulfonate sodium (DSS) on ischemia-reperfusion-induced brain injury and to analyze the mechanisms responsible for neuronal apoptosis. Focal ischemias were induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats using middle cerebral artery occlusion. The rats were divided into 5 groups based on sham surgery or real occlusion, and treatment with different doses of DSS (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) or normal saline (model group), injected preoperatively into the rats with cerebral occlusion...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288585/hypertonic-saline-attenuates-expression-of-notch-signaling-and-proinflammatory-mediators-in-activated-microglia-in-experimentally-induced-cerebral-ischemia-and-hypoxic-bv-2-microglia
#12
Wen-Xin Zeng, Yong-Li Han, Gao-Feng Zhu, Lin-Qiang Huang, Yi-Yu Deng, Qiao-Sheng Wang, Wen-Qiang Jiang, Miao-Yun Wen, Qian-Peng Han, Di Xie, Hong-Ke Zeng
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke is a major disease that threatens human health in ageing population. Increasing evidence has shown that neuroinflammatory mediators play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia injury. Notch signaling is recognized as the cell fate signaling but recent evidence indicates that it may be involved in the inflammatory response in activated microglia in cerebral ischemia. Previous report in our group demonstrated hypertonic saline (HS) could reduce the release of interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in activated microglia, but the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms have remained uncertain...
March 14, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284901/the-application-and-neuroprotective-mechanisms-of-cerebral-ischemic-post-conditioning-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Zhixing Li, Hanlin Chen, Jinglei Lv, Renliang Zhao
Ischemic stroke is a serious cerebrovascular disease that leads to death and/or severe disability, and extensive research has been directed in search of appropriate treatment measures. One such potential treatment is the use of cerebral ischemic post-conditioning (IPostC), and its neuroprotective effects and controllability have been widely confirmed and validated. Numerous studies have indicated that cerebral IPostC can suppress the inflammatory reaction in ischemia reperfusion injury, improve cerebral circulation, reduce infarct volume, and promote both neurogenesis and angiogenesis...
March 8, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284343/sphk1-mediates-neuroinflammation-and-neuronal-injury-via-traf2-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-in-activated-microglia-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion
#14
Danying Su, Yuefeng Cheng, Shi Li, Dawei Dai, Wei Zhang, Manhua Lv
Sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1), a key enzyme responsible for phosphorylating sphingosine into sphingosine1-phosphate (S1P), plays an important role in mediating post-stroke neuroinflammation. However, the pathway and mechanism of the Sphk1-mediated inflammatory response remains unknown. In this study, we found that suppression of Sphk1 decreased IL17 production and relieved neuronal damage induced by microglia in cerebral ischemia reperfusion (IR) or in an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation reperfusion (OGDR) system...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277456/resting-state-bold-mri-for-perfusion-and-ischemia
#15
Hannes Kroll, Greg Zaharchuk, Thomas Christen, Jeremy J Heit, Michael Iv
Advanced imaging techniques including computed tomography (CT) angiography, CT perfusion, magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, MR with diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging, and, more recently, resting-state BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) functional MRI (rs-fMRI) are increasingly used to evaluate patients with acute ischemic stroke. Advanced imaging allows for identification of patients with ischemic stroke and determination of the size of infarcted and potentially salvageable tissue, all of which yield crucial information for proper stroke management...
March 8, 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276488/task-channels-contribute-to-neuroprotective-action-of-inhalational-anesthetics
#16
Chengye Yao, Yu Li, Shaofang Shu, Shanglong Yao, Carl Lynch, Douglas A Bayliss, Xiangdong Chen
Postconditioning with inhalational anesthetics can reduce ischemia-reperfusion brain injury, although the cellular mechanisms for this effect have not been determined. The current study was designed to test if TASK channels contribute to their neuroprotective actions. Whole cell recordings were used to examine effects of volatile anesthetic on TASK currents in cortical neurons and to verify loss of anesthetic-activated TASK currents from TASK(-/-) mice. A transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model was used to establish brain ischemia-reperfusion injury...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273719/depletion-of-microglia-exacerbates-postischemic-inflammation-and-brain-injury
#17
Wei-Na Jin, Samuel Xiang-Yu Shi, Zhiguo Li, Minshu Li, Kristofer Wood, Rayna J Gonzales, Qiang Liu
Brain ischemia elicits microglial activation and microglia survival depend on signaling through colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R). Although depletion of microglia has been linked to worse stroke outcomes, it remains unclear to what extent and by what mechanisms activated microglia influence ischemia-induced inflammation and injury in the brain. Using a mouse model of transient focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion, we demonstrated that depletion of microglia via administration of the dual CSF1R/c-Kit inhibitor PLX3397 exacerbates neurodeficits and brain infarction...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273718/mechanisms-of-parkinson-s-disease-related-proteins-in-mediating-secondary-brain-damage-after-cerebral-ischemia
#18
TaeHee Kim, Raghu Vemuganti
Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and stroke are debilitating conditions that result in neuronal death and loss of neurological functions. These two conditions predominantly affect aging populations with the deterioration of the quality of life for the patients themselves and a tremendous burden to families. While the neurodegeneration and symptomology of PD develop chronically over the years, post-stroke neuronal death and dysfunction develop rapidly in days. Despite the discrepancy in the pathophysiological time frame and severity, both conditions share common molecular mechanisms that include oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and activation of various cell death pathways (apoptosis/necrosis/autophagy) that synergistically modulate the neuronal death...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271640/neuroprotective-effect-of-lacosamide-on-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-neonatal-rats
#19
Gun Ha Kim, Jung Hye Byeon, Baik Lin Eun
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lacosamide (LCM) is an antiepileptic drug that enhances the slow inactivation of sodium channels and modulates collapsin response mediator protein-2. LCM was recently demonstrated to exert a neuroprotective effect in a murine model of traumatic brain injury and status epilepticus. Assuming the same underlying excitotoxicity-related brain injury mechanism, we hypothesized that LCM would have a neuroprotective effect in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. METHODS: We divided rats into three groups at each testing session: pre- or postfed with LCM, fed with normal saline, and sham...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264448/paeoniflorin-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-induced-injury-by-regulating-ca-2-camkii-creb-signaling-pathway
#20
Yuqin Zhang, Lifei Qiao, Wen Xu, Xiaoying Wang, Huang Li, Wei Xu, Kedan Chu, Yu Lin
Paeoniflorin (PF) is an active ingredient of Paeoniae Radix which possesses the neuroprotective effect. However, so far, the neuroprotective mechanism of PF has still not been fully uncovered. The Ca(2+)/Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)/cAMP response element-binding (CREB) signaling pathway plays an important role in the intracellular signal transduction pathway involved in cell proliferation, cell survival, inflammation and metabolism. Herein, the neuroprotective roles of PF in the models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion in rats and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity in primary hippocampal neurons were investigated...
February 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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