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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331396/autophagy-in-ischemic-stroke
#1
REVIEW
Pei Wang, Bo-Zong Shao, Zhiqiang Deng, Shi Chen, Zhenyu Yue, Chao-Yu Miao
Autophagy is a self-eating cellular catabolic pathway, through which long-lived proteins, damaged organelles and misfolded proteins are degraded and recycled for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and normal cellular functions. Autophagy plays an important homeostatic role in the regulation of cell survival. Accumulating evidence shows that autophagy is activated in various cell types in the brain such as neurons, glia cells, and brain microvascular cells upon ischemic stroke. However, the exact role and molecular mechanisms of autophagy process that is implicated in ischemic stroke have yet to be elucidated...
January 10, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331305/tigar-inhibits-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-inflammatory-response-of-astrocytes
#2
Jieyu Chen, Ding-Mei Zhang, Xing Feng, Jian Wang, Yuan-Yuan Qin, Tian Zhang, Qiao Huang, Rui Sheng, Zhong Chen, Mei Li, Zheng-Hong Qin
The inflammatory response of glial cells contributes to neuronal damage or repair after brain ischemia/reperfusion insult. We previously demonstrated a protective role of TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) in ischemic neuronal injury through increasing the flow of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The present study investigated the possible role of TIGAR in ischemia/reperfusion-induced inflammatory response of astrocytes. Male ICR mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by 24 h reperfusion and cultured primary astrocytes were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation for 9 h followed by 24 h reoxygenation (OGD/R)...
January 10, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328391/effects-of-thymosin-%C3%AE-4-on-oxygen%C3%A2-glucose-deprivation-and-reoxygenation%C3%A2-induced-injury
#3
Hua Ji, Linhao Xu, Zheng Wang, Xinli Fan, Lihui Wu
Cerebral ischemia causes severe brain injury and results in selective neuronal death through programmed cell death mechanisms, including apoptosis and autophagy. Minimizing neuronal injury has been considered a hot topic among clinicians. The present study elucidated the effect of thymosin β4 (Tβ4) on neuronal death induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in PC12 cells that were subjected to oxygen‑glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R). The survival, apoptotic and autophagy rates of PC12 cells were investigated...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328023/features-of-formation-of-collateral-circulation-in-patients-with-subclavian-steal-syndrome
#4
I Kopolovets, P Štefanič, V Rusyn, Š Tóth, V Mashura, P Berek
To date in patients with subclavian steal syndrome diagnosis is only grade of stenosis or localization of occlusion described. Authors recommend to take into account also type of a collateral compensation of cerebral circulation for selection of an optimal treatment The objective of the research was to study the features of formation of collateral circulation in patients with subclavian steal syndrome. The authors described changes in the direction of blood flow in the extracranial vessels of 42 patients with subclavian steal syndrome...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327228/postoperative-intermittent-fasting-prevents-hippocampal-oxidative-stress-and-memory-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#5
Yuan Hu, Miao Zhang, Yunyun Chen, Ying Yang, Jun-Jian Zhang
PURPOSE: Whether intermittent fasting (IF) treatment after stroke can prevent its long-term detrimental effects remains unknown. Here, we investigate the effects of postoperative IF on cognitive deficits and its underlying mechanisms in a permanent two-vessel occlusion (2VO) vascular dementia rat model. METHODS: Rats were subjected to either IF or ad libitum feeding 1 week after 2VO surgery. The cognition of rats was assessed using the novel object recognition (NOR) task and Morris water maze (MWM) 8 weeks after surgery...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324456/targeted-knockdown-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-signaling-within-neural-progenitors-protects-the-brain-and-improves-motor-function-following-postnatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#6
Robert W Dettman, Derin Birch, Augusta Fernando, John A Kessler, Maria L V Dizon
Hypoxic-ischemic injury (HI) to the neonatal human brain results in myelin loss that, in some children, can manifest as cerebral palsy. Previously, we had found that neuronal overexpression of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) inhibitor noggin during development increased oligodendroglia and improved motor function in an experimental model of HI utilizing unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia. As BMPs are known to negatively regulate oligodendroglial fate specification of neural stem cells and alter differentiation of committed oligodendroglia, BMP signaling is likely an important mechanism leading to myelin loss...
January 12, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323038/electroacupuncture-improves-neurovascular-unit-reconstruction-by-promoting-collateral-circulation-and-angiogenesis
#7
Lei Shi, Hong-Mei Cao, Ying Li, Shi-Xin Xu, Yan Zhang, Yang Zhang, Zhe-Feng Jin
Acupuncture at Shuigou (GV26) shows good clinical efficacy for treating stroke, but its mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, a cerebral infarction model of ischemia/reperfusion injury received electroacupuncture at GV26 (15 Hz and 1 mA, continuous wave [biphasic pulses], for 5 minutes). Electroacupuncture effectively promoted regional cerebral blood flow on the infarct and non-infarct sides, increased infarct lesions, lectin, and number of blood vessels, upregulated von Willebrand factor and cell proliferation marker Ki67 expression, and diminished neurological severity score...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322481/influence-of-thrombolysis-on-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-blocking-platelet-adhesion-or-secretory-activity-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#8
Michael K Schuhmann, Peter Kraft, Michael Bieber, Axel Haarmann, György A Homola, Mirko Pham, Bernhard Nieswandt, Guido Stoll
In acute ischemic stroke (AIS), there is an alarming discrepancy between recanalization rates of up to 70% by combined recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) therapy and mechanical thrombectomy, and no clinical benefit in at least every second stroke patient. This is partly due to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In a translational approach, we used mice lacking dense- (Unc13d -/- ) or α-granules (Nbeal2 -/- ) and mice after blocking of platelet glycoprotein receptor (GP) Ib conferring protection from I/R injury...
January 10, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321391/-prothymosin%C3%AE-as-a-neuroprotective-damps-alarmins-molecule
#9
Hiroshi Ueda, Shiori Maeda
Prothymosin alpha (ProTα) has been identified as an anti-necrotic factor from the conditioned medium of primary cultured of rat cortical neurons under the serum-free starving condition. ProTα is released in a non-vesicular manner from neurons or astrocytes by the help of cargo protein S100A13. Thus released ProTα is found to have robustness roles in the brain under the condition of neuronal necrosis or apoptosis. ProTα inhibits necrosis by plasma membrane-translocation of glucose transporters endocytosed by ischemia/starving stress, through an activation of unidentified G protein-coupled receptor and protein kinase Cβ...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321138/sensorimotor-functional-and-structural-networks-after-intracerebral-stem-cell-grafts-in-the-ischemic-mouse-brain
#10
Claudia Green, Anuka Minassian, Stefanie Vogel, Michael Diedenhofen, Andreas Beyrau, Dirk Wiedermann, Mathias Hoehn
Past investigations on stem cell mediated recovery after stroke have limited their focus on the extent and morphological development of the ischemic lesion itself over time or on the integration capacity of the stem cell graft ex vivo However, an assessment of the long-term functional and structural improvement in vivo is essential to reliably quantify the regenerative capacity of cell implantation after stroke.We induced ischemic stroke in nude mice and implanted human neural stem cells (H9 derived) into the ipsilateral cortex in the acute phase...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316662/recurrent-hemorrhagic-conversion-of-ischemic-stroke-in-a-patient-with-mechanical-heart-valve-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Micheal Jace Tarver, Tyler Schmidt, Michael T Koltz
The authors present a unique case of recurrent stroke, discovered to be secondary to hemorrhagic conversion of microemboli from a mechanical aortic valve despite anticoagulation with Coumadin. The complexity of this case was magnified by the patient's young age, a mechanical heart valve (MHV), and a need for anticoagulation to maintain MHV patency in a setting of potentially life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage. Anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy are risk factors for hemorrhagic conversion post-cerebral ischemia; however, the pathophysiology underlying endothelial cell dysfunction causing red blood cell extravasation is an active area of basic and clinical research...
January 7, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316542/microrna-9a-5p-alleviates-ischemia-injury-after-focal-cerebral-ischemia-of-the-rat-by-targeting-atg5-mediated-autophagy
#12
Ning Wang, Lei Yang, Huixue Zhang, Xiaoyu Lu, Jianjian Wang, Yuze Cao, Lixia Chen, Xiaokun Wang, Lin Cong, Jie Li, Na Wang, Zhaojun Liu, Lihua Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies have suggested that autophagy is activated in distinct cerebrovascular diseases, including stroke. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism of autophagy under stroke remained elusive. Accumulating evidence indicates that dysfunctions of microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the pathological process of stroke. Therefore, this study was taken to identify the effect of microRNA-9a-5p (miR-9a-5p) on autophagy in rats following stroke. METHODS: The rat model of focal cerebral ischemia was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery; The neurological outcomes were defined by neurological evaluation and infarct volume; The western blotting and immunofluorescence assays were used to detected the protein levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and autophagy related 5 (ATG5); The mRNA level of miR-9a-5p, LC3 and ATG5 were quantified by real-time RT-PCR; The luciferase activities of ATG5 and miR-9a-5p was detected by luciferase assay...
December 22, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315561/faim2-contributes-to-neuroprotection-by-erythropoietin-in-transient-brain-ischemia
#13
Daniel Komnig, Karen Gertz, Pardes Habib, Kay W Nolte, Tareq Meyer, Marc A Brockmann, Matthias Endres, Birgit Rathkolb, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Jörg B Schulz, Björn H Falkenburger, Arno Reich
Delayed cell death in the penumbra region of acute ischemic stroke occurs through apoptotic mechanisms, making it amenable to therapeutic interventions. Fas/CD95 mediates apoptotic cell death in response to external stimuli. In mature neurons, Fas/CD95 signaling is modulated by Fas-apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2 (Faim2), which reduces cell death in animal models of stroke, meningitis, and Parkinson disease. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been studied as a therapeutic strategy in ischemic stroke. Erythropoietin stimulates the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway, which regulates Faim2 expression...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313217/temporal-pattern-and-crosstalk-of-necroptosis-markers-with-autophagy-and-apoptosis-associated-proteins-in-ischemic-hippocampus
#14
Fari Ryan, Fariba Khodagholi, Leila Dargahi, Dariush Minai-Tehrani, Abolhassan Ahmadiani
Necroptosis, a novel type of programmed cell death, has been recently implicated as a possible mechanism for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We herein studied time-dependent changes of necroptosis markers along with apoptosis- and autophagy-associated proteins in rat hippocampus at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after global cerebral I/R injury. Furthermore, to determine the cross talk between autophagy and necroptosis, we examined the effects of pretreatment with bafilomycin-A1 (Baf-A1), as a late-stage autophagy inhibitor, on necroptosis...
January 8, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306595/hyperglycemia-alters-expression-of-cerebral-metabolic-genes-after-cardiac-arrest
#15
Rickard Per Fredrik Lindblom, Maria Molnar, Charlotte Israelsson, Belinda Röjsäter, Lars Wiklund, Fredrik Lennmyr
BACKGROUND: Survivors of cardiac arrest often experience neurologic deficits. To date, treatment options are limited. Associated hyperglycemia is believed to further worsen the neurologic outcome. The aim with this study was to characterize expression pathways induced by hyperglycemia in conjunction with global brain ischemia. METHODS: Pigs were randomized to high or normal glucose levels, as regulated by glucose and insulin infusions with target levels of 8.5-10 mM and 4-5...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306408/resveratrol-protects-hippocampal-neurons-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-modulating-jak-erk-stat-signaling-pathway-in-rats
#16
Cheng Chang, Yanzheng Zhao, Guozhi Song, Kun She
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R injury) can cause neuronal deficits even death. Recent studies demonstrated that resveratrol (RSV) exerts neuroprotective effects in ischemia and several signaling pathways were involved in the process. However, it is still possible that other signaling pathway participates in the neuronal protective process. Our study examines the possible mechanism underlying RSV treatment. We randomly divided rats into four groups: the sham group, I/R group, I/R group, I/R+RSV group, I/R+vehicle group...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302205/endogenous-agmatine-induced-by-ischemic-preconditioning-regulates-ischemic-tolerance-following-cerebral-ischemia
#17
Jae Hwan Kim, Jae Young Kim, Jin Young Jung, Yong Woo Lee, Won Taek Lee, Seung Kon Huh, Jong Eun Lee
Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is one of the most important endogenous mechanisms that protect the cells against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the exact molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we showed that changes in the level of agmatine were correlated with ischemic tolerance. Changes in brain edema, infarct volume, level of agmatine, and expression of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and nitric oxide synthases (NOS; inducible NOS [iNOS] and neural NOS [nNOS]) were analyzed during I/R injury with or without IP in the rat brain...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299100/vascular-eagle-s-syndrome-two-cases-illustrating-distinct-mechanisms-of-cerebral-ischemia
#18
Abdulrahman Aldakkan, Marshall Dunn, Nebras M Warsi, Alireza Mansouri, Thomas R Marotta
We report two cases of Vascular Eagle's Syndrome, which demonstrate two distinct mechanisms of cerebral ischemia. In the first case, hemodynamic transient cerebral ischemia arose as a direct result of compression of the internal carotid artery (ICA). In the second, embolic large left middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction as a result of a thrombus from a pseudoaneurysmal dilatation of the left ICA.
August 2017: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295624/nad-deficiency-is-a-common-central-pathological-factor-of-a-number-of-diseases-and-aging-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-implications
#19
Mingchao Zhang, Weihai Ying
Increasing evidence has indicated critical roles of NAD+ in various biological functions. NAD+ deficiency has been found in models of a number of diseases such as cerebral ischemia, myocardial ischemia and diabetes, and in models of aging. Application of NAD+ or other approaches that can restore NAD+ levels are highly protective in these models of diseases and aging. NAD+ produces its beneficial effects by targeting at multiple pathological pathways, including attenuating mitochondrial alterations, DNA damage and oxidative stress by modulating such enzymes as sirtuins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and AP endonuclease...
January 2, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291404/ulinastatin-protects-brain-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-inhibiting-mmp-9-and-alleviating-loss-of-zo-1-and-occludin-proteins-in-mice
#20
Xiao-Fang Li, Xiang-Jian Zhang, Cong Zhang, Li-Na Wang, Yao-Ru Li, Ye Zhang, Ting-Ting He, Xing-Yuan Zhu, Li-Li Cui, Bu-Lang Gao
BACKGROUND: The effects of Ulinastatin (UTI) on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) are not clear. This study was to investigate the potential protective effects of UTI on the BBB and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Male CD-1 mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and randomly assigned to four groups: Sham (sham-operated), tMCAO (tMCAO+0.9% saline), UTI-L (tMCAO+UTI 1500U/100g) and UTI-H (tMCAO+UTI 3000U/100g) group...
December 29, 2017: Experimental Neurology
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