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cerebral ischemia mechanism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106731/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-promotes-endogenous-adaptive-response-in-rat-model-of-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#1
Ying Yang, Jieyang Ju, Min Deng, Jing Wang, Hui Liu, Li Xiong, Junjian Zhang
Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), a pivotal regulator of gene expression in response to hypoxia and ischemia, is now considered to regulate both pro-survival and pro-death responses depending on the duration and severity of the stress. We previously showed that chronic global cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) triggered long-lasting accumulation of HIF-1α protein in the hippocampus of rats. However, the role of the stabilized HIF-1α in CCH is obscure. Here, we knock down endogenous HIF-1α to determine whether and how HIF-1α affects the disease processes and phenotypes of CCH...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103118/park2-dependent-mitophagy-induced-by-acidic-postconditioning-protects-against-focal-cerebral-ischemia-and-extends-the-reperfusion-window
#2
Zhe Shen, Yanrong Zheng, Jiaying Wu, Ying Chen, Xiaoli Wu, Yiting Zhou, Yang Yuan, Shousheng Lu, Lei Jiang, Zhenghong Qin, Zhong Chen, Weiwei Hu, Xiangnan Zhang
Prompt reperfusion after cerebral ischemia is critical for neuronal survival. Any strategies that extend the limited reperfusion window will be of great importance. Acidic postconditioning (APC) is a mild acidosis treatment that involves inhaling CO2 during reperfusion following ischemia. APC attenuates ischemic brain injury although the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here we report that APC reinforces ischemia-reperfusion-induced mitophagy in middle cortical artery occlusion (MCAO)-treated mice, and in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated brain slices and neurons...
January 19, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102082/characterization-of-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-chronic-phase-of-stroke-in-a-cynomolgus-monkey-model-of-induced-cerebral-ischemia
#3
Henry C H Law, Samuel S W Szeto, Quan Quan, Yun Zhao, Zaijun Zhang, Olga Krakovska, Leong Ting Lui, Chengyou Zheng, Simon Ming Yuen Lee, K W Michael Siu, Yuqiang Wang, Ivan K Chu
Stroke is one of the main causes of mortality and long-term disability worldwide. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease are not well understood, particularly in the chronic phase after the initial ischemic episode. In this study, a Macaca fascicularis stroke model consisting of two sample groups, as determined by MRI-quantified infarct volumes as a measure of the stroke severity 28 days after the ischemic episode, was evaluated using qualitative and quantitative proteomics analyses. By using multiple online multidimensional liquid chromatography platforms, 8790 non-redundant proteins that condensed to 5223 protein groups at 1% global false discovery rate (FDR)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096971/carthamus-tinctorius-l-ameliorates-brain-injury-followed-by-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats-by-antioxidative-and-anti-inflammatory-mechanisms
#4
Pin-Kuei Fu, Tai-Long Pan, Chi-Yu Yang, Kee-Ching Jeng, Nou-Ying Tang, Ching-Liang Hsieh
OBJECTIVES: Carthamus tinctorius L. (CT) or safflower is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. This study investigated the effects of CT extract (CTE) on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) brain injury and elucidated the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The I/R model was conducted by occlusion of both common carotid arteries and right middle cerebral artery for 90 min followed by 24 hr reperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. CTE (0.2-0.6 g/kg) was administered intraperitoneally before and during ischemia, and during reperfusion period...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093678/changes-in-serum-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-and-endostatin-concentrations-associated-with-circulating-endothelial-progenitor-cells-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#5
Lixia Xue, Hao Chen, Ting Zhang, Jingjiong Chen, Zhi Geng, Yuwu Zhao
Angiogenesis is an important pathophysiological response to cerebral ischemia, and can be modulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endostatin. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) also play an important role as an endogenous repair mechanism for ischemic injury. We sought to investigate early changes in the expression of VEGF and endostatin in serum and the circulating EPCs in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and analyzed the relations between them. The peripheral blood and serum samples were obtained from 30 patients at 1, 3, 5 and 7 d after AIS...
January 16, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091829/inhibition-of-dpp-4-activity-and-neuronal-atrophy-with-genistein-attenuates-neurological-deficits-induced-by-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-and-reperfusion-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#6
Mithun Singh Rajput, Purnima Dey Sarkar, Nilesh Prakash Nirmal
Genistein, an isoflavonoid phytoestrogen, has been known for its potential pharmacological properties especially for neuroprotection and treating diabetes. The present study aims to determine the neuroprotective efficacy of genistein against global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced neuronal injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and explore the underlying mechanisms. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were subjected to transient cerebral ischemia by occluding both common carotid arteries for 30 min followed by 24 h reperfusion to induce neuronal injury...
January 16, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087473/salvianolic-acids-for-injection-safi-suppresses-inflammatory-responses-in-activated-microglia-to-attenuate-brain-damage-in-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#7
Pengwei Zhuang, Yanjun Wan, Shihan Geng, Ying He, Bo Feng, Zhengliang Ye, Dazheng Zhou, Dekun Li, Hongjun Wei, Hongyan Li, Yanjun Zhang, Aichun Ju
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory reactions induced by microglia in the brain play crucial roles in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) cerebral injuries. Microglia activation has been shown to be closely related to TLR4/NF-κB signal pathways. Salvianolic acids for injection (SAFI) have been used in clinical practice to treat ischemic stroke with reported neuroprotective effects; however, the underlying mechanisms are still uncertain. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: First, we studied the effect of SAFI on inflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087430/ryanodine-receptor-1-polymorphism-is-not-associated-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-or-its-clinical-sequelae
#8
Philipp Hendrix, Paul M Foreman, Mark R Harrigan, Winfield S Fisher, Nilesh A Vyas, Robert H Lipsky, Minkuan Lin, Beverly C Walters, R Shane Tubbs, Mohammadali M Shoja, Jean-Francois Pittet, Mali Mathru, Christoph J Griessenauer
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) remain poorly understand. Ryanodine receptors (RYR) are intracellular calcium channels involved in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cells and cerebrovascular tone and diameter. Previous work reported an association between a RYR polymorphism and cerebral vasospasm. Here, we sought to assess the impact of that RYR polymorphism on aSAH and its clinical sequelae...
January 10, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087295/postconditioning-induced-neuroprotection-mechanisms-and-applications-in-cerebral-ischemia
#9
REVIEW
Yan-Ying Fan, Wei-Wei Hu, Fang Nan, Zhong Chen
Ischemic postconditioning (PostC) is defined as a series of rapid intermittent interruptions of blood flow at the phase of reperfusion, which produces neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via mobilizing the brain's own endogenous adaptive mechanisms. Now the concept of conventional ischemic PostC has been extended to limb remote ischemic PostC and chemical PostC with hypoxia, volatile anesthetic, CO2, etc. According to the different temporal profile of PostC, it is divided into rapid and delayed PostC...
January 10, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079313/postischemic-inflammation-in-acute-stroke
#10
REVIEW
Simone Vidale, Arturo Consoli, Marco Arnaboldi, Domenico Consoli
Cerebral ischemia is caused by arterial occlusion due to a thrombus or an embolus. Such occlusion induces multiple and concomitant pathophysiological processes that involve bioenergetic failure, acidosis, loss of cell homeostasis, excitotoxicity, and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. All of these mechanisms contribute to neuronal death, mainly via apoptosis or necrosis. The immune system is involved in this process in the early phases after brain injury, which contributes to potential enlargement of the infarct size and involves the penumbra area...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078859/role-of-vitacamphore-in-improving-central-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-following-transient-global-ischemia
#11
J Lin, L Pang, X L Liu, J Xing
Pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are responsive to ischemic stress. This process thereby modulates the responsiveness of many cell types under diseased conditions. The current study was to examine the role played by vitacamphore (VCP) in regulating the levels of PICs and protein expression of PIC receptors in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats after cardiac arrest (CA)-induced transient global ischemia. CA was induced by asphyxia followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in rats...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078626/time-course-investigation-of-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-and-tight-junction-protein-changes-in-a-rat-model-of-permanent-focal-ischemia
#12
Peng Liu, Rui Zhang, Danyang Liu, Jinling Wang, Chunling Yuan, Xuemei Zhao, Yinjie Li, Xuefei Ji, Tianyan Chi, Libo Zou
Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) is an animal model that is widely used to simulate human ischemic stroke. However, the timing of the changes in the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and synaptic proteins associated with pMCAO remain incompletely understood. Therefore, to further explore the characteristics and mechanisms of blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage during cerebral ischemic stroke, we used a pMCAO rat model to define dynamic changes in BBB permeability within 120 h after ischemia in order to examine the expression levels of the TJ proteins claudin-5 and occludin and the synaptic proteins synaptophysin (SYP) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077455/symptomatic-carotid-occlusion-is-frequently-associated-with-microembolization
#13
Ava L Liberman, Ali Zandieh, Caitlin Loomis, Jonathan M Raser-Schramm, Christina A Wilson, Jose Torres, Koto Ishida, Swaroop Pawar, Rebecca Davis, Michael T Mullen, Steven R Messé, Scott E Kasner, Brett L Cucchiara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Symptomatic carotid artery disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of cerebral ischemia among patients with carotid occlusion remain underexplored. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of patients hospitalized within 7 days of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack because of ≥50% carotid artery stenosis or occlusion. Transcranial Doppler emboli detection was performed in the middle cerebral artery ipsilateral to the symptomatic carotid...
January 11, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069373/memantine-attenuates-cell-apoptosis-by-suppressing-the-calpain-caspase-3-pathway-in-an-experimental-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#14
Bin Chen, Guoxiang Wang, Weiwei Li, Weilin Liu, Ruhui Lin, Jing Tao, Min Jiang, Lidian Chen, Yun Wang
Ischemic stroke, the second leading cause of death worldwide, leads to excessive glutamate release, over-activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), and massive influx of calcium (Ca(2+)), which may activate calpain and caspase-3, resulting in cellular damage and death. Memantine is an uncompetitive NMDAR antagonist with low-affinity/fast off-rate. We investigated the potential mechanisms through which memantine protects against ischemic stroke in vitro and in vivo. Middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO) was performed to establish an experimental model of ischemic stroke...
January 6, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065778/protective-effects-of-tongxinluo-on-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-related-to-connexin-43-calpain-ii-bax-caspase-3-pathway-in-rat
#15
Xiao Cheng, Zijun Hou, Jingbo Sun, Yan Huang, Lixin Wang, Ziyi Zhou, Li-Hua Zhou, Yefeng Cai
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tongxinluo (TXL) is a multifunctional traditional Chinese medicine and has been widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Numerous studies demonstrate that TXL is a novel neuroprotective drug, however, the mechanisms are largely unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: we aimed to demonstrate the protective effect of TXL on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and provide the evidence for the involvement of Connexin 43/Calpain II/ Bax/Caspase-3 pathway in TXL-mediated neuroprotection...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064357/ischemic-stroke-experimental-models-and-reality
#16
REVIEW
Clemens J Sommer
The vast majority of cerebral stroke cases are caused by transient or permanent occlusion of a cerebral blood vessel ("ischemic stroke") eventually leading to brain infarction. The final infarct size and the neurological outcome depend on a multitude of factors such as the duration and severity of ischemia, the existence of collateral systems and an adequate systemic blood pressure, etiology and localization of the infarct, but also on age, sex, comorbidities with the respective multimedication and genetic background...
January 7, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063215/hypoxia-independent-mechanisms-of-hif-1%C3%AE-expression-in-astrocytes-after-ischemic-preconditioning
#17
Yuri Hirayama, Schuichi Koizumi
We recently demonstrated that ischemic tolerance was dependent on astrocytes, for which HIF-1α had an essential role. The mild ischemia (preconditioning; PC) increased HIF-1α in a biphasic pattern, that is, a quick and transient increase in neurons, followed by a slow and sustained increase in astrocytes. However, mechanisms underlying such temporal difference in HIF-1α increase remain totally unknown. Here, we show that unlike a hypoxia-dependent mechanism in neurons, astrocytes increase HIF-1α via a novel hypoxia-independent but P2X7-dependent mechanism...
January 7, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062175/intranasal-c3a-treatment-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#18
Javier Morán, Anna Stokowska, Frederik R Walker, Carina Mallard, Henrik Hagberg, Marcela Pekna
Perinatal asphyxia-induced brain injury is often associated with irreversible neurological complications such as intellectual disability and cerebral palsy but available therapies are limited. Novel neuroprotective therapies as well as approaches stimulating neural plasticity mechanism that can compensate for cell death after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are urgently needed. We previously reported that single i.c.v. injection of complement-derived peptide C3a 1h after HI induction prevented HI-induced cognitive impairment when mice were tested as adults...
January 4, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056927/kudiezi-injection-mitigates-myocardial-injury-induced-by-acute-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#19
Xuemei Liu, Ye Tao, Fengli Wang, Ting Yao, Chen Fu, Hong Zheng, Yan Yan, Xiao Liang, Xiangning Jiang, Yunling Zhang
BACKGROUND: Kudiezi (KDZ) injection is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine as treatment for cerebral infarction and angina pectoris. The present study investigated the therapeutic effects of KDZ injection on myocardial injury induced by acute cerebral ischemia and the possibly protective mechanisms. METHODS: Rats were divided into three groups: sham, 6h-ischemia, and KDZ treatment (KDZ). The neurological deficits were determined by the Garcia score. The cerebral infarct volume was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and brain water content was also evaluated...
January 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056920/huatuo-zaizao-pill-promotes-functional-recovery-and-neurogenesis-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats
#20
Sijin Duan, Tian Wang, Jianqiao Zhang, Minmin Li, Chengwen Lu, Lijie Wang, Yan Zou, Fenghua Fu
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death in adults worldwide and is the first leading cause of long-term disability. Neurogenesis plays an important role in promoting behavioral recovery after stroke. Huatuo Zaizao pill (HT), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used clinically in China to promote the rehabilitation after stroke, but the underlying mechanism of action was still unclear. This study is to investigate the effects of HT on the functional recovery in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, and the potential molecular mechanisms...
January 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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