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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684722/effect-of-age-at-exposure-on-chromosome-abnormalities-in-mic-exposed-bhopal-population-detected-30-years-post-disaster
#1
Bani Bandana Ganguly, Shouvik Mandal, Nalok Banerjee, Nitin N Kadam, Rita Abbi
Follow-up cytogenetic study was carried out on 145 individuals from areas stratified by Indian Council of Medical Research, for evaluation of the effect of age-at-exposure and its interaction with exposure status on chromosomal aberrations (CA) in blood-lymphocytes. CA was presented as abnormal cell (Abc), aberrations (Abn) and number of aberration/abnormal cell (Abn/Abc), and correlated with age-at-exposure (childhood: <1-10 years; young: 11-26 years; adult: >27 years). Age related increase in abnormalities (Abc, Abn, Abn/Abc) was observed in all exposure strata, except moderately exposed adult-group, which has exhibited lower Abn/Abc than similarly exposed childhood and young age-groups...
March 29, 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683641/efficient-capture-and-high-activity-release-of-circulating-tumor-cells-by-using-tio2-nanorod-arrays-coated-with-soluble-mno2-nanoparticles
#2
Rui Li, Fangfang Chen, Huiqin Liu, Zixiang Wang, Zitong Zhang, Yuan Wang, Heng Cui, Wei Liu, Xingzhong Zhao, Zhi-Jun Sun, Shi-Shang Guo
Effective capture and release of circulating tumor cells(CTCs) with high viability is still a challenge in medical research. We design a novel approach with efficient yield, high cell activity to capture and release of CTCs. Our platform is based on TiO2 nanorod arrays coated with transparent MnO2 nanoparticles. We use hydrothermal synthesis to prepare TiO2 nanorod arrays, the MnO2 nanoparticles are fabricated through in situ self-assembly on the substrate to form a monolayer and etched by oxalic acid with low concentration at room temperature...
April 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682806/biomarkers-for-heart-failure-small-molecules-with-high-clinical-relevance
#3
REVIEW
C Magnussen, S Blankenberg
Heart failure (HF) is a rising epidemic due to the ageing population and progress in all areas of medicine. Thus, research efforts are made to ensure a timely diagnosis, to improve prognosis and treatment of the disease and to facilitate risk prediction at the population level. Because of their noninvasive determination with mostly high sensitivity and accuracy, circulating blood biomarkers are becoming increasingly important for daily clinical practice. Natriuretic peptides, especially B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) and midregional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and cardiac troponins are established blood biomarkers in HF diagnosis and prognosis of HF-related outcomes...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681326/critical-life-functions-can-placebo-replace-oxygen
#4
Fabrizio Benedetti, Diletta Barbiani, Eleonora Camerone
A crucial question in placebo research is related to which conditions and physiological functions are affected by placebos. Here we present evidence that critical life functions, like ventilation, oxygenation, circulation, and perfusion, can be sensitive to placebo treatments in some circumstances. Indeed, we have investigated the role of placebo effects at an altitude of 3500m, where oxygen pressure is 64% compared to the sea level. In these extreme conditions, hypoxia triggers several compensatory responses, such as hyperventilation, increased cardiac output, and increased brain perfusion...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680691/from-the-lung-to-the-knee-joint-toxicity-evaluation-of-carbon-black-nanoparticles-on-macrophages-and-chondrocytes
#5
Juan Ma, Anyi Guo, Shunhao Wang, Siliang Man, Yunjian Zhang, Sijin Liu, Yajun Liu
Carbon black (CB), a core elemental carbon component of airborne particles, has been used as a model material to study environmental safety and health impacts of airborne particles. Although potential adverse effects of CB have been reported, limited knowledge is available regarding CB-induced metabolic disorders and secondary effects distant from primary target organs, such as the effects on joints. The knee cavity is a relatively closed space along the peripheral circulation route with a slow rate of interchange of nutrition with blood...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678582/reversion-of-aging-related-dheas-decline-in-mouse-plasma-alleviates-aging-related-glucose-tolerance-impairment-by-potentiation-of-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-of-acute-phase
#6
Junlei Ma, Jiang Yue, Rong Huang, Yu Liao, Shengxian Li, Wei Liu
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The latest research proposes mild age-related diabetes (MARD) as a subgroup of type 2 diabetes. While in human circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) decline with age is related to MARD, the role of circulating DHEAS in insulin secretion remains little known. METHODS: After intraperitoneal administration of glucose (2 g/kg) together with DHEAS (50 μg/kg) or equivalent DMSO to young (6-8 week old) or aging (12 month old) male C57BL/6 mice, plasma DHEAS and blood glucose were measured at indicated time point...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676587/a-potential-role-for-exosomal-tctp-export-in-vascular-remodeling-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#7
Elisabet Ferrer, Benjamin J Dunmore, Dhiya Hassan, Mark L Ormiston, Stephen Moore, John Deighton, Lu Long, Xu Dong Yang, Duncan J Stewart, Nicholas W Morrell
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by increased proliferation and resistance to apoptosis of pulmonary vascular cells. Increased expression of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), a pro-survival and anti-apoptotic mediator, has recently been demonstrated in patients with hereditary PAH (HPAH) although its role in the pathobiology of PAH remains unclear. Silencing of TCTP in blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) isolated from control subjects led to significant changes in morphology, cytoskeletal organization, increased apoptosis and decreased directionality during migration...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673643/use-of-gasotransmitters-for-the-controlled-release-of-polymer-based-nitric-oxide-carriers-in-medical-applications
#8
REVIEW
Chungmo Yang, Soohyun Jeong, Seul Ku, Kangwon Lee, Min Hee Park
Nitric Oxide (NO) is a small molecule gasotransmitter synthesized by nitric oxide synthase in almost all types of mammalian cells. NO is synthesized by NO synthase by conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline in the human body. NO then stimulates soluble guanylate cyclase, from which various physiological functions are mediated in a concentration-dependent manner. High concentrations of NO induce apoptosis or antibacterial responses whereas low NO circulation leads to angiogenesis. The bidirectional effect of NO has attracted considerable attention, and efforts to deliver NO in a controlled manner, especially through polymeric carriers, has been the topic of much research...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671912/a-surface-plasmon-resonance-assay-for-characterisation-and-epitope-mapping-of-anti-glp-1-antibodies
#9
Lasse Thomsen, Leonid Gurevich
The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been subject to substantial pharmaceutical research regarding the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, quantification of GLP-1 levels remains complicated due to the low circulation concentration and concurrent existence of numerous metabolites, homologous peptides, and potentially introduced GLP-1 receptor agonists. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) facilitates real-time monitoring allowing a more detailed characterisation of the interaction compared with conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670770/genetic-variants-associated-with-hyperandrogenemia-in-pcos-pathophysiology
#10
REVIEW
Roshan Dadachanji, Nuzhat Shaikh, Srabani Mukherjee
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a multifactorial endocrine disorder whose pathophysiology baffles many researchers till today. This syndrome is typically characterized by anovulatory cycles and infertility, altered gonadotropin levels, obesity, and bulky multifollicular ovaries on ultrasound. Hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance are hallmark features of its complex pathophysiology. Hyperandrogenemia is a salient feature of PCOS and a major contributor to cosmetic anomalies including hirsutism, acne, and male pattern alopecia in affected women...
2018: Genetics Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670576/neural-androgen-synthesis-and-aggression-insights-from-a-seasonally-breeding-rodent
#11
REVIEW
Kathleen M Munley, Nikki M Rendon, Gregory E Demas
Aggression is an essential social behavior that promotes survival and reproductive fitness across animal systems. While research on the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying this complex behavior has traditionally focused on the classic neuroendocrine model, in which circulating gonadal steroids are transported to the brain and directly mediate neural circuits relevant to aggression, recent studies have suggested that this paradigm is oversimplified. Work on seasonal mammals that exhibit territorial aggression outside of the breeding season, such as Siberian hamsters ( Phodopus sungorus ), has been particularly useful in elucidating alternate mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668922/circulating-and-fecal-micrornas-as-biomarkers-for-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#12
Katharina Schönauen, Nha Le, Ulrike von Arnim, Christian Schulz, Peter Malfertheiner, Alexander Link
Background: Assessment of the disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is essential for adequate treatment management and reliable noninvasive biomarkers for verification of mucosal healing are still needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are differentially expressed in IBD and cancer. We aimed to evaluate the potential of circulating and fecal miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for IBD. Methods: In this proof-of-principle study we used 2 independent patient cohorts...
April 12, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668342/sequencing-the-next-generation-of-glioblastomas
#13
Ivana Jovčevska
The most aggressive brain malignancy, glioblastoma, accounts for 60-70% of all gliomas and is uniformly fatal. According to the molecular signature, glioblastoma is divided into four subtypes (proneural, neural, classical, and mesenchymal), each with its own genetic background. The Cancer Genome Atlas project provides information about the most common genetic changes in glioblastoma. They involve mutations in TP53, TERT, and PTEN, and amplifications in EFGR, PDGFRA, CDK4, CDK6, MDM2, and MDM4. Recently, epigenetics was used to demonstrate the oncogenic roles of miR-124, miR-137, and miR-128...
April 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666782/new-perspectives-on-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#14
REVIEW
Marika Rossini, Paola Rizzo, Ilaria Bononi, Anthony Clementz, Roberto Ferrari, Fernanda Martini, Mauro G Tognon
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, but severe form of cancer, with an incidence that varies significantly within and among different countries around the world. It develops in about one to two persons per million of the general population, leading to thousands of deaths every year worldwide. To date, the MPM is mostly associated with occupational asbestos exposure. Asbestos represents the predominant etiological factor, with approximately 70% of cases of MPM with well-documented occupational exposure to asbestos, with the exposure time, on average greater than 40 years...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666058/early-detection-sequencing-assays-prove-highly-specific
#15
(no author information available yet)
Ultrasensitive DNA-sequencing methods proved more than 99% specific, according to initial findings from GRAIL's Circulating Cell-Free Genome Atlas Study. The data, presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2018, demonstrate the feasibility of designing a blood test for early cancer detection.
April 17, 2018: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665988/mild-suppression-of-hyperinsulinemia-to-treat-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#16
REVIEW
Melissa M Page, James D Johnson
Insulin plays roles in lipid uptake, lipolysis, and lipogenesis, in addition to controlling blood glucose levels. Excessive circulating insulin is associated with adipose tissue expansion and obesity, yet a causal role for hyperinsulinemia in the development of mammalian obesity has proven controversial, with many researchers suggesting it as a consequence of insulin resistance. Recently, evidence that specifically reducing hyperinsulinemia can prevent and reverse obesity in animal models has been presented...
April 14, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665393/comparative-experimental-theoretical-studies-on-the-egfr-dimerization-under-the-effect-of-egf-egf-analogues-binding-highlighting-the-importance-of-egf-egfr-interactions-at-site-iii-interface
#17
Masomeh Mehrabi, Hamid Mahdiuni, Hassan Rasouli, Kamran Mansouri, Mohsen Shahlaie, Reza Khodarahmi
Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) and their cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases play significant roles in cell proliferation and signaling. All the members of the EGFR/ErbB family are primary goals for cancer therapy, particularly for tumors of breast, cervix, ovaries, kidney, esophagus, prostate and non-small-cell lung carcinoma and head and neck tumors. However, the therapeutic ability of accessible anti-ErbB agents is limited. Therefore, recognizing EGF analogues or small organic molecules with high affinity for the extracellular domain of the EGFR is a critical target on cancer research...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664561/the-function-and-dysfunction-of-memory-cd8-t-cells-in-tumor-immunity
#18
REVIEW
James L Reading, Felipe Gálvez-Cancino, Charles Swanton, Alvaro Lladser, Karl S Peggs, Sergio A Quezada
The generation and maintenance of CD8+ T cell memory is crucial to long-term host survival, yet the basic tenets of CD8+ T cell immunity are still being established. Recent work has led to the discovery of tissue-resident memory cells and refined our understanding of the transcriptional and epigenetic basis of CD8+ T cell differentiation and dysregulation. In parallel, the unprecedented clinical success of immunotherapy has galvanized an intense, global research effort to decipher and de-repress the anti-tumor response...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664549/evaluation-of-soluble-concentration-fas-and-fas-ligand-in-maternal-and-cord-blood-3rd-trimester-of-pregnancy
#19
Agata Karowicz-Bilińska, Urszula Kowalska-Koprek, Dorota Estemberg, Anita Sikora-Szubert
OBJECTIVES: The the study was to estimate the concentrations of antiapoptotic sFas and pro-apoptotic FasL in the serum of pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy and in the cord blood serum of neonates from vein and arteries separately. The correlation could be crucial for evaluation of apoptosis process intensity in placenta and the role of fetal blood circulation system on distribution of sFas and FasL. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 28 pregnant women in physiological pregnancy, between 38- 41 weeks...
2018: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663736/platelets-lymphocytes-and-erythrocytes-from-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-the-quest-for-blood-cell-based-biomarkers
#20
Ryszard Pluta, Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł, Sławomir Januszewski, Stanisław J Czuczwar
In elderly population, Alzheimer's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder and accounts for about 70% of all cases of dementia. The neurodegenerative processes of this disease start presumably 20 years ahead of the clinical beginning of the disorder. The postmortem histopathological examination, brains from Alzheimer's disease patients with characteristic features like amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, neuronal and synaptic disintegration confirm the final diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
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