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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454590/understanding-how-prostate-cancer-patients-value-the-current-treatment-options-for-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#1
Tarik Benidir, Karen Hersey, Antonio Finelli, Rob Hamilton, Anthony M Joshua, Girish Kulkarni, Alexandre Zlotta, Neil Fleshner
Several new compounds are now available for castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Individual costs range between $40,000 and $93,000 with mean survival extensions from 2.4 to 4.8 months. Currently, it remains unclear how patients with prostate cancer (PCa) value the effect of these therapies in the setting of CRPC. OBJECTIVE: To assess patient understanding of core cancer concepts, opinions on the cost and overall benefit of CRPC drugs, whether out-of-pocket costs would change opinions and whether patients would ultimately opt out of CRPC drug treatment for an end-of-life (EOL) premium...
February 14, 2018: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454370/isolation-of-a-novel-rhabdovirus-from-an-insectivorous-bat-pipistrellus-kuhlii-in-italy
#2
Davide Lelli, Alice Prosperi, Ana Moreno, Chiara Chiapponi, Anna Maria Gibellini, Paola De Benedictis, Stefania Leopardi, Enrica Sozzi, Antonio Lavazza
BACKGROUND: Rhabdoviridae is one of the most ecologically diverse families of RNA viruses which can infect a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. Bats, among mammals, are pointed to harbor a significantly higher proportion of unknown or emerging viruses with zoonotic potential. Herein, we report the isolation of a novel rhabdovirus, detected in the framework of a virological survey on bats implemented in North Italy. METHODS: Virus isolation and identification were performed on samples of 635 bats by using cell cultures, negative staining electron microscopy and PCRs for different viruses...
February 17, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453575/regulation-of-blood-testis-barrier-btb-dynamics-role-of-actin-and-microtubule-based-cytoskeletons
#3
Qing Wen, Elizabeth I Tang, Nan Li, Dolores D Mruk, Will M Lee, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis that supports meiosis and postmeiotic spermatid development since a delay in the establishment of a functional Sertoli cell barrier during postnatal development in rats or mice by 17-20 day postpartum (dpp) would lead to a delay of the first wave of meiosis. Furthermore, irreversible disruption of the BTB by toxicants also induces infertility in rodents. Herein, we summarize recent findings that BTB dynamics (i.e., disassembly, reassembly, and stabilization) are supported by the concerted efforts of the actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453417/exome-sequencing-has-higher-diagnostic-yield-compared-to-simulated-disease-specific-panels-in-children-with-suspected-monogenic-disorders
#4
Oliver James Dillon, Sebastian Lunke, Zornitza Stark, Alison Yeung, Natalie Thorne, Clara Gaff, Susan M White, Tiong Yang Tan
As test costs decline, whole-exome sequencing (WES) has become increasingly used for clinical diagnosis, and now represents the primary alternative to gene panel testing for patients with a suspected genetic disorder. We sought to compare the diagnostic yield of singleton-WES with simulated application of commercial gene panels in children suspected of having a genetically heterogeneous condition. Recruitment, singleton-WES and phenotype-driven variant analysis was completed for 145 paediatric patients. At recruitment, clinicians were required to propose commercial gene panel tests as an alternative to WES and nominate a phenotype-driven candidate gene list...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452728/effects-of-advance-care-planning-on-confidence-in-surrogates-ability-to-make-healthcare-decisions-consistent-with-older-adults-wishes-findings-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Gina Bravo, Modou Sene, Marcel Arcand, Élodie Hérault
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how confidence in surrogates' ability to make consistent decisions in the future change over time, in the context of an ACP intervention that did not improve surrogates' ability to predict an older adult's hypothetical treatment preferences. METHODS: The study involved 235 older adults and surrogates, randomly allocated to an ACP or control intervention. At baseline, end of intervention, and six months later, participants were asked how confident they were in the surrogate making decisions in the future that would match the older adult's wishes...
February 10, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452208/outcome-of-abo-incompatible-adult-living-donor-liver-transplantation-for-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Young-In Yoon, Gi-Won Song, Sung-Gyu Lee, Shin Hwang, Ki-Hun Kim, Seok-Hwan Kim, Woo-Hyoung Kang, Hwui-Dong Cho, Eun-Kyoung Jwa, Jae-Hyun Kwon, Eun-Young Tak, Varvara A Kirchner
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) can simultaneously cure hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and underlying liver cirrhosis, improving long-term results in patients with HCC. ABO-incompatible LDLT could expand the living-donor pool, reduce waiting times for deceased-donor liver transplantation, and improve long-term survival for some patients with HCC. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients undergoing LDLT for HCC from November 2008 to December 2015 at a single institution in Korea...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451923/to-what-extent-do-potential-conservation-donors-value-community-aspects-of-conservation-projects-in-low-income-countries
#7
Amy R Lewis, Richard P Young, James M Gibbons, Julia P G Jones
There is a major gap in funding required for conservation, especially in low income countries. Given the significant contribution of taxpayers in industrialized countries to funding conservation overseas, and donations from membership organisation, understanding the preferences of ordinary people in a high income country for different attributes of conservation projects is valuable for future marketing of conservation. We conducted a discrete choice experiment with visitors to a UK zoo, while simultaneously conducting a revealed preference study through a real donation campaign on the same sample...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451322/intuitive-probabilities-and-the-limitation-of-moral-imagination
#8
Arseny A Ryazanov, Jonathan Knutzen, Samuel C Rickless, Nicholas J S Christenfeld, Dana Kay Nelkin
There is a vast literature that seeks to uncover features underlying moral judgment by eliciting reactions to hypothetical scenarios such as trolley problems. These thought experiments assume that participants accept the outcomes stipulated in the scenarios. Across seven studies (N = 968), we demonstrate that intuition overrides stipulated outcomes even when participants are explicitly told that an action will result in a particular outcome. Participants instead substitute their own estimates of the probability of outcomes for stipulated outcomes, and these probability estimates in turn influence moral judgments...
February 16, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451078/oncologists-perceptions-of-drug-affordability-using-nccn-evidence-blocks-results-from-a-national-survey
#9
Bijal Shah-Manek, William Wong, Arliene Ravelo, Marco DiBonaventura
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of cancer coupled with approvals of new drugs and technologies used in therapy have brought increased scrutiny to the cost and value of treatments in oncology. To address the rising concern about oncology drug costs, several organizations have developed value frameworks to help assess the value of oncology regimens. The objective of this study was to assess oncologists' perceptions, awareness, and knowledge of all oncology value frameworks in the United States and to understand oncologists' perceptions of affordability in the context of National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Evidence Blocks...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449571/an-in-silico-argument-for-mitochondrial-microrna-as-a-determinant-of-primary-non-function-in-liver-transplantation
#10
Shirin Elizabeth Khorsandi, Siamak Salehi, Miriam Cortes, Hector Vilca-Melendez, Krishna Menon, Parthi Srinivasan, Andreas Prachalias, Wayel Jassem, Nigel Heaton
Mitochondria have their own genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic machinery but are unable to be autonomous, needing both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The aim of this work was to use computational biology to explore the involvement of Mitochondrial microRNAs (MitomiRs) and their interactions with the mitochondrial proteome in a clinical model of primary non function (PNF) of the donor after cardiac death (DCD) liver. Archival array data on the differential expression of miRNA in DCD PNF was re-analyzed using a number of publically available computational algorithms...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447936/inducing-hypertrophic-effects-of-type-i-skeletal-muscle-fibers-a-hypothetical-role-of-time-under-load-in-resistance-training-aimed-at-muscular-hypertrophy
#11
Jozo Grgic, Jan Homolak, Pavle Mikulic, Javier Botella, Brad J Schoenfeld
An emerging body of evidence is starting to suggest that the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibers might be load specific. In other words, it may be that resistance training with high loads (i.e., ≥60% of 1 repetition maximum [RM]) emphasizes a greater growth of type II muscle fibers, while resistance training with low loads (i.e., <60% of 1RM) might primarily augment hypertrophy of type I muscle fibers. Type I and type II muscle fibers possess certain distinct characteristics, with type II muscle fibers having faster calcium kinetics, faster shortening velocities, and ability to generate more power than type I muscle fibers...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447932/determining-the-venous-oxygen-reservoir-a-novel-hypothetical-approach-to-titration-of-supplemental-oxygen-in-preterm-newborns
#12
Chad C Andersen, Nicolette A Hodyl, Nina M Ziegler, Michael J Stark
While normal oxygen saturation is commonly thought to be a marker of normal oxygenation, cutaneous saturation does not account for the sufficiency of oxygen within each cell or that of the system overall. Rather, cutaneous oximetry simply defines the saturation of haemoglobin (Hb) with oxygen in a pulsatile vessel. Assessment of sufficiency is best determined by measurement of the amount of oxygen left over following aerobic respiration. This left over oxygen is 'stored' on Hb in the venous compartment and can be calculated as the venous oxygen content...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447588/psychotherapy-termination-practices-with-older-adults-impact-of-patient-and-therapist-characteristics
#13
Daniel J Sullivan, Patricia Zeff, Richard A Zweig
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to survey clinicians' opinions regarding psychotherapy practices in mutual termination with a specified population (depressed older adult outpatients) and to examine the patient and therapist characteristics that may influence such practices. METHODS: We surveyed psychologists' (N = 96) psychotherapy termination practices, using a hypothetical depressed older adult as a referent, to assess consensus on the appropriateness of various guidelines to termination and to examine whether these differ as a function of patient and therapist characteristics...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446210/lead-exposure-reduces-sperm-quality-and-dna-integrity-in-mice
#14
Cuiling Li, Kai Zhao, Huiping Zhang, Lili Liu, Fei Xiong, Kunyu Wang, Biao Chen
Toxicity of lead on male reproductive functions has raised wide public concern as environmental lead contamination remains common worldwide. Conflicting and controversial data are available regarding effects of lead on male fertility. More importantly, our knowledge on effects of lead on sperm DNA integrity is significantly limited. Thus, further studies should focus on this issue. In the current study, adult male mice were exposed to a series of lead acetate concentrations in drinking water for six weeks. Following administration, lead levels in blood, testicles, and epididymis were measured, and potential changes in morphology of testis and epididymis due to lead exposure were identified...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446055/which-costs-matter-costs-included-in-economic-evaluation-and-their-impact-on-decision-uncertainty-for-stable-coronary-artery-disease
#15
James Lomas, Miqdad Asaria, Laura Bojke, Chris P Gale, Gerry Richardson, Simon Walker
BACKGROUND: Variation exists in the resource categories included in economic evaluations, and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance suggests the inclusion only of costs related to the index condition or intervention. However, there is a growing consensus that all healthcare costs should be included in economic evaluations for Health Technology Assessments (HTAs), particularly those related to extended years of life. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We aimed to quantify the impact of a range of cost categories on the adoption decision about a hypothetical intervention, and uncertainty around that decision, for stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) based on a dataset comprising 94,966 patients...
February 14, 2018: PharmacoEconomics Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445623/bone-marrow-stem-cells-to-destroy-circulating-hiv-a-hypothetical-therapeutic-strategy
#16
Umesh Chandra Halder
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) still poses enigmatic threats to human life. This virus has mastered in bypassing anti retroviral therapy leading to patients' death. Circulating viruses are phenomenal for the disease outcome. This hypothesis proposes a therapeutic strategy utilizing receptor-integrated hematopoietic, erythroid and red blood cells. Here, HIV specific receptors trap circulating viruses that enter erythrocyte cytoplasm and form inactive integration complex. This model depicts easy, effective removal of circulating HIV without any adverse effect...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445541/multiple-dimensions-of-excessive-daytime-sleepiness
#17
Sasha Smith, Jennifer Rossdale, Yaseen Serry, Anisha Sekaran, Panagis Drakatos, Joerg Steier
Background: In this study we investigated subjective measures of sleepiness and related our findings to dimensions of affect, fatigue, emotion, mood and quality of life based on a hypothetical multidimensional model of sleepiness. Methods: Patients referred to a sleep clinic were assessed regarding their excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), sleep complaints, routine and symptoms. Age, gender and body mass index (BMI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), the Samn-Perelli fatigue Scale (SPS), the Global Vigor and Affect Scale (GVS and GAS, respectively), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D, respectively), and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PAS and NAS, respectively) scores were recorded...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444645/how-to-achieve-the-desired-outcomes-of-advance-care-planning-in-nursing-homes-a-theory-of-change
#18
J Gilissen, L Pivodic, C Gastmans, R Vander Stichele, L Deliens, E Breuer, L Van den Block
BACKGROUND: Advance care planning (ACP) has been identified as particularly relevant for nursing home residents, but it remains unclear how or under what circumstances ACP works and can best be implemented in such settings. We aimed to develop a theory that outlines the hypothetical causal pathway of ACP in nursing homes, i.e. what changes are expected, by means of which processes and under what circumstances. METHODS: The Theory of Change approach is a participatory method of programme design and evaluation whose underlying intention is to improve understanding of how and why a programme works...
February 14, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444337/social-network-analysis-presenting-an-underutilised-method-for-nursing-research
#19
James Michael Parnell, Jennifer C Robinson
AIM: This paper introduces social network analysis as a versatile method with many applications in nursing research. BACKGROUND: Social networks have been studied for years in many social science fields. The methods continue to advance but remain unknown to most nursing scholars. DESIGN: Discussion paper. DATA SOURCES: English language and interpreted literature was searched from Ovid Healthstar, CINAHL, PubMed Central, Scopus and hard copy texts from 1965-2017...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442303/economic-impact-of-mirabegron-versus-antimuscarinics-for-the-treatment-of-overactive-bladder-in-the-uk
#20
Jameel Nazir, Malin Berling, Charles McCrea, Francis Fatoye, Sally Bowditch, Zalmai Hakimi, Adrian Wagg
PURPOSE: Our objective was to estimate the economic outcomes of using mirabegron versus antimuscarinics in the treatment of patients with overactive bladder (OAB) from a societal perspective in the UK. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Markov model was developed using Microsoft Excel ® . The time horizon and cycle length are 12 and 1 months, respectively; and the hypothetical cohort size 100 patients. Antimuscarinic comparators are fesoterodine, oxybutynin extended release (ER) and immediate release (IR), solifenacin, tolterodine ER/IR, trospium ER/IR, darifenacin and flavoxate...
March 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
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