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Leonard H Epstein, Rocco A Paluch, Katelyn A Carr, Jennifer L Temple, Warren K Bickel, James MacKillop
Food is a primary reinforcer, and food reinforcement is related to obesity. The reinforcing value of food can be measured by establishing how hard someone will work to get food on progressive-ratio schedules. An alternative way to measure food reinforcement is a hypothetical purchase task which creates behavioral economic demand curves. This paper studies whether reinforcing value and hypothetical behavioral demand approaches are assessing the same or unique aspects of food reinforcement for low (LED) and high (HED) energy density foods using a combination of analytic approaches in females of varying BMI...
April 3, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Claudio Agostinelli, Agnese Agostinelli, Marco Berardini, Paolo Trisi
PURPOSE: The aim of the present radiological study was to analyze the alveolar bone morphology of the lower molars in physiological conditions. The main goal is to describe the bone anatomy of a hypothetically postextractive site in lower molar area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Computed tomography scans of 100 patients were examined. Axial, paraxial, and Panorex sections were analyzed using a dedicated software. Precise reference points were encoded to make the bone measurements clear and repeatable...
April 12, 2018: Implant Dentistry
Dominic Mitchell, Jason R Guertin, Anick Dubois, Marie-Pierre Dubé, Jean-Claude Tardif, Ange Christelle Iliza, Fiorella Fanton-Aita, Alexis Matteau, Jacques LeLorier
BACKGROUND: Statin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) therapy is the mainstay dyslipidemia treatment and reduces the risk of a cardiovascular (CV) event (CVE) by up to 35%. However, adherence to statin therapy is poor. One reason patients discontinue statin therapy is musculoskeletal pain and the associated risk of rhabdomyolysis. Research is ongoing to develop a pharmacogenomics (PGx) test for statin-induced myopathy as an alternative to the current diagnosis method, which relies on creatine kinase levels...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Suqing Zheng, Mengying Jiang, Chengwei Zhao, Rui Zhu, Zhicheng Hu, Yong Xu, Fu Lin
In-silico bitterant prediction received the considerable attention due to the expensive and laborious experimental-screening of the bitterant. In this work, we collect the fully experimental dataset containing 707 bitterants and 592 non-bitterants, which is distinct from the fully or partially hypothetical non-bitterant dataset used in the previous works. Based on this experimental dataset, we harness the consensus votes from the multiple machine-learning methods (e.g., deep learning etc.) combined with the molecular fingerprint to build the bitter/bitterless classification models with five-fold cross-validation, which are further inspected by the Y-randomization test and applicability domain analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Yosuke Ishihara, Kei Naito, Koji Miyagawa, Satoshi Kataoka, Nobuaki Fuji
A case of attempted laparoscopic cholecystectomy for elevated lesion which was clearly early biliary cancer. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become popular as a minimally invasive surgical method, and is the primary choice for benign diseases. However for cases of suspected biliary cancer, open cholecystectomy, rather than laparoscopic, is recommended according to medical guidelines. The reason for this is that in cases of damage to the gallbladder, bile spillage to the abdominal cavity may occur, leading to port site recurrence and peritoneal recurrence...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Andrea Parriott, Mohsen Malekinejad, Amanda P Miller, Suzanne M Marks, Hacsi Horvath, James G Kahn
BACKGROUND: Homelessness increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease and latent TB infection (LTBI), but persons experiencing homelessness often lack access to testing and treatment. We assessed the yield of TB testing and linkage to care for programs targeting homeless populations in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature, adapting Cochrane systematic review methods. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and abstracted key data on the testing to care cascade: number of persons reached, recruited for testing, tested for LTBI, with valid test results, referred to follow-up care, and initiating care...
April 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
Carlo Lallo, Michele Raitano
BACKGROUND: Life expectancy considerably increased in most developed countries during the twentieth century. However, the increase in longevity is neither uniform nor random across individuals belonging to various socioeconomic groups. From an economic policy perspective, the difference in mortality by socioeconomic conditions challenges the fairness of the social security systems. We focus on the case of Italy and aim at measuring differences in longevity at older ages by individuals belonging to different socioeconomic groups, also in order to assess the effective fairness of the Italian public pension system, which is based on a notional defined contribution (NDC) benefit computation formula, whose rules do not take into account individual heterogeneity in expected longevity...
April 12, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Jonneke S Kuperus, Lima Samsour, Constantinus F Buckens, F Cumhur Oner, Pim A de Jong, Jorrit-Jan Verlaan
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is an increasingly prevalent ankylosing condition. Patients with DISH have an increased risk of spinal fractures, hypothetically the result of biomechanical changes in the spine. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of biomechanical stress shielding in patients with DISH. To do this, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured longitudinally in the vertebral bodies of subjects with and without DISH and in the newly formed bone of subjects with DISH...
April 9, 2018: Bone
Paul K J Han, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher, Christine W Duarte, Megan Knaus, Adam Black, Aaron M Scherer, Angela Fagerlin
Communicating scientific uncertainty about public health threats is ethically desirable but challenging due to its tendency to promote avoidance of choice options with unknown probabilities-a phenomenon known as "ambiguity aversion." This study examined this phenomenon's potential magnitude, its responses to different communication strategies, and its mechanisms. In a factorial experiment, 2701 adult laypersons in Spain read one of three versions of a hypothetical newspaper article describing a pandemic vaccine-preventable disease (VPD), but varying in scientific uncertainty about VPD risk and vaccine effectiveness: No-Uncertainty, Uncertainty, and Normalized-Uncertainty (emphasizing its expected nature)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
Aleea L Devitt, Daniel L Schacter
People frequently engage in future thinking in everyday life, but it is unknown how simulating an event in advance changes how that event is remembered once it takes place. To initiate study of this important topic, we conducted two experiments in which participants simulated emotional events before learning the hypothetical outcome of each event via narratives. Memory was assessed for emotional details contained in those narratives. Positive simulation resulted in a liberal response bias for positive information and a conservative bias for negative information...
April 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Jeffery C Ward, Laura A Levit, Ray D Page, John E Hennessy, John V Cox, Deborah Y Kamin, Suanna S Bruinooge, Ya-Chen Tina Shih, Blase N Polite
INTRODUCTION: This analysis evaluates the impact of bundling drug costs into a hypothetic bundled payment. METHODS: An economic model was created for patient vignettes from: advanced-stage III colon cancer and metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. First quarter 2016 Medicare reimbursement rates were used to calculate the average fee-for-service (FFS) reimbursement for these vignettes. The probabilistic risk faced by practices was captured by the type of patients seen in practices and randomly assigned in a Monte Carlo simulation on the basis of the given distribution of patient types within each cancer...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
Dharmela Sellvam, Nyok Sean Lau, Yahya Mat Arip
Malaysia is one of the countries that are loaded with mega biodiversity which includes microbial communities. Phages constitute the major component in the microbial communities and yet the numbers of discovered phages are just a minute fraction of its population in the biosphere. Taking into account of a huge numbers of waiting to be discovered phages, a new bacteriophage designated as Escherichia phage YD-2008.s was successfully isolated using Escherichia coli ATCC 11303 as the host. Phage YD-2008.s poses icosahedral head measured at 57nm in diameter with a long non-contractile flexible tail measured at 107nm; proving the phage as one of the members of Siphoviridae family under the order of Caudovirales ...
March 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Maaike Fobelets, Katrien Beeckman, Gilles Faron, Déirdre Daly, Cecily Begley, Koen Putman
BACKGROUND: The OptiBIRTH study incorporates a multicentre cluster randomised trial in 15 hospital sites across three European countries. The trial was designed to test a complex intervention aimed at improving vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) rates through increasing women's involvement in their care. Prior to developing a robust standardised model to conduct the health economic analysis, an analysis of a hypothetical cohort was performed to estimate the costs and health effects of VBAC compared to elective repeat caesarean delivery (ERCD) for low-risk women in four European countries...
April 11, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Farshad Amini-Behbahani, Jafar Ghafarzadeh
Traditional medicine scientists believed that sleeping under the stars and moonlight is not healthy because it brings about nose bleeds and respiratory problems. In Avicenna's view, the spirit and its tendency to the light are introduced as main etiology, which cannot explain star light as a proper etiology. In modern knowledge, it seems cosmic rays that reach our planet's atmosphere by electron cascade, play a key role. Internal organs' electrical charge distribution disturbance caused by these electrons can lead to irregular spasms in the muscular walls of arteries and other organs...
February 2018: Electronic Physician
R Okubo, C Chen, M Sekiguchi, K Hamazaki, Y J Matsuoka
The relationship of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and gut microbiota with brain function has been extensively reported. Here, we review how n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect fear memory processing. n-3 PUFAs may improve dysfunctional fear memory processing via immunomodulation/anti-inflammation, increased BDNF, upregulated adult neurogenesis, modulated signal transduction, and microbiota-gut-brain axis normalization. We emphasize how n-3 PUFAs affect this axis and also focus on the hypothetical effects of PUFAs in fear of cancer recurrence (FCR), the primary psychological unmet need of cancer survivors...
April 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Andrei G Pakhomov, Sergey Grigoryev, Iurii Semenov, Maura Casciola, Chunqi Jiang, Shu Xiao
Bipolar cancellation refers to a phenomenon when applying a second electric pulse reduces ("cancels") cell membrane damage by a preceding electric pulse of the opposite polarity. Bipolar cancellation is a reason why bipolar nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP) cause weaker electroporation than just a single unipolar phase of the same pulse. This study was undertaken to explore the dependence of bipolar cancellation on nsEP parameters, with emphasis on the amplitude ratio of two opposite polarity phases of a bipolar pulse...
March 29, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Jianzhen Li, Wenni Zhou, Yamei Wang, Caiyan Niu
The roles of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling in oocyte maturation attracts much attention in mammals, but its roles in fish are still largely unknown. Using zebrafish as a model, we demonstrated for the first time in fish that cGMP is involved in oocyte maturation, and its functional model in oocyte maturation is different from that of mammals. The intracellular cGMP could be regulated by nitric oxide (NO), we found that all three NO synthase enzymes and four soluble guanylyl cyclases (sGC) are expressed in the zebrafish ovary...
April 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Miranda R Blake, Emily Lancsar, Anna Peeters, Kathryn Backholer
There is a paucity of evidence regarding the impact of sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) price increases on beverage consumption, using individual-level data, for the population overall and for different socioeconomic groups. This study aimed to predict the impact of altered beverage prices and educational messages on consumer purchasing behavior. 2020 adults representative of the Australian population by age, gender and income completed a discrete choice experiment online in 2016. Each subject completed 20 choice scenarios in a hypothetical convenience store setting where subjects chose between seven SSB and non-SSB beverage options or a no beverage option...
April 5, 2018: Appetite
Bastian O Sabel, Jessica L Plum, Michael Czihal, Christian Lottspeich, Frank Schönleben, Gabor Gäbel, Regina Schinner, Franziska Schoeppe, Felix G Meinel
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the effect of structured reporting of computed tomography angiography (CTA) runoff studies on clarity, completeness, clinical relevance, usefulness of the radiology reports, further testing, and therapy in patients with known or suspected peripheral arterial disease. METHODS: Conventional reports (CRs) and structured reports (SRs) were generated for 52 patients who had been examined with a CTA runoff examination of the lower extremities...
April 4, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Anthony Febres, Oriana Vanegas, Michelle Giammarresi, Carlos Gomes, Emilia Díaz, Alicia Ponte-Sucre
The Calcitonin-Like Receptor (CLR) belongs to the classical seven-transmembrane segment molecules coupled to heterotrimeric G proteins. Its pharmacology depends on the simultaneous expression of the so-called Receptor Activity Modifier Proteins (RAMP-) -1, -2 and -3. RAMP-associated proteins modulate glycosylation and cellular traffic of CLR, therefore determining its pharmacodynamics. In higher eukaryotes, the complex formed by CLR and RAMP-1 is more akin to bind Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP), whereas those formed by CLR and RAMP-2 or RAMP-3, bind preferentially Adrenomedullin (AM)...
April 4, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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