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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526053/pre-hospital-triage-performance-after-standardized-trauma-courses
#1
Maria Lampi, Johan Junker, Peter Berggren, Carl-Oscar Jonson, Tore Vikström
BACKGROUND: The pre-hospital triage process aims at identifying and prioritizing patients in the need of prompt intervention and/or evacuation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate triage decision skills in a Mass Casualty Incident drill. The study compares two groups of participants in Advanced Trauma Life Support and Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support courses. METHODS: A questionnaire was used to deal with three components of triage of victims in a Mass Casualty Incident: decision-making; prioritization of 15 hypothetical casualties involved in a bus crash; and prioritization for evacuation...
May 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525590/sdm-a-server-for-predicting-effects-of-mutations-on-protein-stability
#2
Arun Prasad Pandurangan, Bernardo Ochoa-Montaño, David B Ascher, Tom L Blundell
Here, we report a webserver for the improved SDM, used for predicting the effects of mutations on protein stability. As a pioneering knowledge-based approach, SDM has been highlighted as the most appropriate method to use in combination with many other approaches. We have updated the environment-specific amino-acid substitution tables based on the current expanded PDB (a 5-fold increase in information), and introduced new residue-conformation and interaction parameters, including packing density and residue depth...
May 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525581/tutorial-speech-assessment-for-multilingual-children-who-do-not-speak-the-same-language-s-as-the-speech-language-pathologist
#3
Sharynne McLeod, Sarah Verdon
Purpose: The aim of this tutorial is to support speech-language pathologists (SLPs) undertaking assessments of multilingual children with suspected speech sound disorders, particularly children who speak languages that are not shared with their SLP. Method: The tutorial was written by the International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children's Speech, which comprises 46 researchers (SLPs, linguists, phoneticians, and speech scientists) who have worked in 43 countries and used 27 languages in professional practice...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524246/combined-pet-ct-and-axillary-lymph-node-marking-with-radioactive-iodine-seeds-mari-procedure-for-tailored-axillary-treatment-in-node-positive-breast-cancer-after-neoadjuvant-therapy
#4
B B Koolen, M Donker, M E Straver, M E M van der Noordaa, E J T Rutgers, R A Valdés Olmos, M J T F D Vrancken Peeters
BACKGROUND: The treatment of axillary lymph node metastases after neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NST) remains debatable and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is still the standard of care. Marking axillary lymph nodes with radioactive iodine seeds (MARI procedure) is accurate in restaging the axilla after NST (false-negative rate 7 per cent). Here, the potential of tailored axillary treatment, determined by combining the results of PET-CT before NST with those of the MARI procedure after NST, was analysed...
May 19, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524021/editorial-hypothetically-speaking
#5
Christopher H Knight
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523375/a-model-for-one-dimensional-morphoelasticity-and-its-application-to-fibroblast-populated-collagen-lattices
#6
Shakti N Menon, Cameron L Hall, Scott W McCue, D L Sean McElwain
The mechanical behaviour of solid biological tissues has long been described using models based on classical continuum mechanics. However, the classical continuum theories of elasticity and viscoelasticity cannot easily capture the continual remodelling and associated structural changes in biological tissues. Furthermore, models drawn from plasticity theory are difficult to apply and interpret in this context, where there is no equivalent of a yield stress or flow rule. In this work, we describe a novel one-dimensional mathematical model of tissue remodelling based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient...
May 18, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522655/choice-of-hemodialysis-access-in-older-adults-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#7
Rasheeda K Hall, Evan R Myers, Sylvia E Rosas, Ann M O'Hare, Cathleen S Colón-Emeric
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although arteriovenous fistulas have been found to be the most cost-effective form of hemodialysis access, the relative benefits of placing an arteriovenous fistula versus an arteriovenous graft seem to be least certain for older adults and when placed preemptively. However, older adults' life expectancy is heterogeneous, and most patients do not undergo permanent access creation until after dialysis initiation. We evaluated cost-effectiveness of arteriovenous fistula placement after dialysis initiation in older adults as a function of age and life expectancy...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520930/improved-power-for-tb-phase-iia-trials-using-a-model-based-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-approach-compared-with-commonly-used-analysis-methods
#8
Robin J Svensson, Stephen H Gillespie, Ulrika S H Simonsson
Background: The demand for new anti-TB drugs is high, but development programmes are long and costly. Consequently there is a need for new strategies capable of accelerating this process. Objectives: To explore the power to find statistically significant drug effects using a model-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach in comparison with the methods commonly used for analysing TB Phase IIa trials. Methods: Phase IIa studies of four hypothetical anti-TB drugs (labelled A, B, C and D), each with a different mechanism of action, were simulated using the multistate TB pharmacometric (MTP) model...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520925/the-ironclad-truth-how-in-vivo-transcriptomics-and-in-vitro-mechanistic-studies-shape-our-understanding-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-gene-regulation-during-mucosal-infection
#9
Matthew R Moreau, Paola Massari, Caroline A Genco
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections worldwide. This obligate human pathogen has been extensively studied in vitro, where bacterial factors that are known to contribute to gonococcal disease and their regulation are relatively well defined. However, these in vitro experimental conditions only loosely replicate the host specific environment encountered by the bacteria in vivo. We recently reported on the complete gonococcal transcriptome expressed during natural human mucosal infection using RNA-seq analysis...
May 17, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520598/imaging-plus-x-multimodal-models-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#10
Neil P Oxtoby, Daniel C Alexander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article argues that the time is approaching for data-driven disease modelling to take centre stage in the study and management of neurodegenerative disease. The snowstorm of data now available to the clinician defies qualitative evaluation; the heterogeneity of data types complicates integration through traditional statistical methods; and the large datasets becoming available remain far from the big-data sizes necessary for fully data-driven machine-learning approaches...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518054/comparison-of-three-estimators-for-determining-cyclosporine-dosing-in-infants-after-liver-transplantation%C3%A2
#11
Dzhem Farandzha, Veneta Dimitrova, Ivanka Atanasova, Lubomir Spassov, Dimiter Terziivanov
OBJECTIVE: To compare and analyze how allometrically- and linearly-scaled daily doses of cyclosporine could affect the therapeutic drug monitoring concentrations when applied to 8 infants with liver transplants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight infants who underwent liver transplantations were put on twice-daily oral cyclosporine immunosuppressive regimens. After starting therapy, the adjustments of individual daily doses were determined by using therapeutic monitoring of plasma cyclosporine levels by measuring trough concentrations (C0) and concentrations at 2 hours after drug administration (C2)...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515812/cost-effectiveness-of-mirabegron-compared-to-tolterodine-er-4-mg-for-overactive-bladder-in-canada
#12
Sender Herschorn, Jameel Nazir, Barbara Ramos, Zalmai Hakimi
INTRODUCTION: This analysis compared the cost-effectiveness of once-daily regimens of mirabegron 50 mg and generic tolterodine ER 4 mg in a hypothetical cohort of previously treated patients with overactive bladder (OAB) in Canada. METHODS: A Markov model was developed to represent different health states according to OAB symptoms (frequency, incontinence), presence/absence of adverse events (AEs; dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision), and treatment status (on-treatment, discontinue treatment, restart previous treatment)...
March 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515183/modeling-lifetime-costs-and-health-outcomes-attributable-to-secondhand-smoke-exposure-at-home-among-korean-adult-women
#13
Jiyae Lee, Ah Ram Han, Dalwoong Choi, Kyung-Min Lim, SeungJin Bae
PURPOSE: The aim of this research is to estimate lifetime costs and health consequences for Korean adult women who were exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home. METHODS: A Markov model was developed to project the lifetime healthcare costs and health outcomes of a hypothetical cohort of Korean women who are 40 years old and were married to current smokers. The Korean epidemiological data were used to reflect the natural history of SHS-exposed and non-exposed women...
May 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514962/revisiting-annual-screening-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-healthcare-workers-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#14
Guillaume A Mullie, Kevin Schwartzman, Alice Zwerling, Dieynaba S N'Diaye
BACKGROUND: In North America, tuberculosis incidence is now very low and risk to healthcare workers has fallen. Indeed, recent cohort data question routine annual tuberculosis screening in this context. We compared the cost-effectiveness of three potential strategies for ongoing screening of North American healthcare workers at risk of exposure. The analysis did not evaluate the cost-effectiveness of screening at hiring, and considered only workers with negative baseline tests. METHODS: A decision analysis model simulated a hypothetical cohort of 1000 workers following negative baseline tests, considering duties, tuberculosis exposure, testing and treatment...
May 17, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511704/the-use-of-kdna-minicircle-subclass-relative-abundance-to-differentiate-between-leishmania-l-infantum-and-leishmania-l-amazonensis
#15
Marcello Ceccarelli, Luca Galluzzi, Aurora Diotallevi, Francesca Andreoni, Hailie Fowler, Christine Petersen, Fabrizio Vitale, Mauro Magnani
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease caused by many Leishmania species, belonging to subgenera Leishmania (Leishmania) and Leishmania (Viannia). Several qPCR-based molecular diagnostic approaches have been reported for detection and quantification of Leishmania species. Many of these approaches use the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircles as the target sequence. These assays had potential cross-species amplification, due to sequence similarity between Leishmania species. Previous works demonstrated discrimination between L...
May 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510184/footprint-of-the-eastern-euroasian-past-in-italian-populations-of-cryptotaenia-thomasii-ten-dc
#16
Anna Maria Palermo, Liliana Bernardo, Domenico Gargano, Giuseppe Pellegrino
BACKGROUND: The knowledge of the genetic architecture of closely related species and/or populations of a single species can be very useful to shed light on the processes that led to their current distributions. The present study provides a preliminary evaluation of the conservation status of the populations of Cryptotaenia thomasii, a very narrow endemic species occurring in southern Italy. Previous studies showed that C. thomasii was phylogenetically closely related to C. flahaultii, endemic species of Caucasus, and to evaluate its conservation status and the genetic variability of plant species the internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) of nuclear ribosomal DNA were sequenced and the SNPs were analyzed...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508930/assessing-psychological-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetes-a-critical-comparison-of-measures
#17
REVIEW
E Holmes-Truscott, F Pouwer, J Speight
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to examine the operationalisation of 'psychological insulin resistance' (PIR) among people with type 2 diabetes and to identify and critique relevant measures. RECENT FINDINGS: PIR has been operationalised as (1) the assessment of attitudes or beliefs about insulin therapy and (2) hypothetical or actual resistance, or unwillingness, to use to insulin. Five validated PIR questionnaires were identified. None was fully comprehensive of all aspects of PIR, and the rigour and reporting of questionnaire development and psychometric validation varied considerably between measures...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507921/sofosbuvir-based-regimens-with-task-shifting-is-cost-effective-in-expanding-hepatitis-c-treatment-access-in-the-united-states
#18
Channa R Jayasekera, Rachel Beckerman, Nathaniel Smith, Ryan B Perumpail, Robert J Wong, Zobair M Younossi, Aijaz Ahmed
Background and Aims: The current paradigm of specialist physician-managed treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is inefficient in absorbing the approximately 3 million patients awaiting treatment in the United States. Task shifting-whereby specialist physicians screen patients for treatment eligibility but on-treatment monitoring is devolved to more abundant non-physician clinicians-achieves non-inferior treatment outcomes with second generation direct-acting antivirals (2(nd) Gen DAAs), may increase treatment capacity, and may facilitate greater treatment access...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507285/multivariate-eeg-analyses-support-high-resolution-tracking-of-feature-based-attentional-selection
#19
Johannes Jacobus Fahrenfort, Anna Grubert, Christian N L Olivers, Martin Eimer
The primary electrophysiological marker of feature-based selection is the N2pc, a lateralized posterior negativity emerging around 180-200 ms. As it relies on hemispheric differences, its ability to discriminate the locus of focal attention is severely limited. Here we demonstrate that multivariate analyses of raw EEG data provide a much more fine-grained spatial profile of feature-based target selection. When training a pattern classifier to determine target position from EEG, we were able to decode target positions on the vertical midline, which cannot be achieved using standard N2pc methodology...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506838/phylogenomic-analysis-of-the-complete-sequence-of-a-gastroenteritis-associated-cetacean-adenovirus-bottlenose-dolphin-adenovirus-1-reveals-a-high-degree-of-genetic-divergence
#20
Maja Malmberg, Consuelo Rubio-Guerri, Juliette Hayer, Daniel García-Párraga, Elvira Nieto-Pelegrín, Mar Melero, Teresa Álvaro, Mónica Valls, Jose Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Sándor Belák, Fredrik Granberg
Adenoviruses are common pathogens in vertebrates, infecting a wide range of hosts, but only having rarely been detected and correlated with disease in cetaceans. This article describes the first complete genomic sequence of a cetacean adenovirus, bottlenose dolphin adenovirus 1 (BdAdV-1), detected in captive bottlenose dolphin population (Tursiops truncatus) suffering from self-limiting gastroenteritis. The complete genome sequence of BdAdV-1 was recovered from data generated by high-throughput sequencing and validated by Sanger sequencing...
May 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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