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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081528/rapid-decrease-in-populations-of-wild-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta-in-madagascar
#1
Marni LaFleur, Tara A Clarke, Kim Reuter, Toby Schaeffer
Lemurs are the most threatened group of mammals on earth. Lemur catta (ring-tailed lemur) represents one of the most iconic lemur species and faces numerous anthropogenic threats in the wild. In this study, we present population estimates from 32 sites across the range of L. catta, collected from primary and secondary data sources, to assess the number of ring-tailed lemurs left in the wild. We estimate that there are approximately 2,220 individual L. catta remaining in the 32 sites considered. We note local extinctions of populations of L...
January 13, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081482/following-lives-undergoing-change-flux-study-implementation-and-baseline-prevalence-of-drug-use-in-an-online-cohort-study-of-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-australia
#2
Mohamed A Hammoud, Fengyi Jin, Louisa Degenhardt, Toby Lea, Lisa Maher, Jeffrey Grierson, Brent Mackie, Marcus Pastorelli, Colin Batrouney, Nicky Bath, Jack Bradley, Garrett P Prestage
BACKGROUND: Drug use among gay and bisexual men (GBM) is higher than most populations. The use of crystal methamphetamine, erectile dysfunction medication (EDM), and amyl nitrite have been associated with sexual risk behaviour and HIV infection among gay and bisexual men (GBM). OBJECTIVE: This paper describes an online prospective observational study of licit and illicit drug use among GBM and explores baseline prevalence of drug use in this sample. Capturing these data poses challenges as participants are required to disclose potentially illegal behaviours in a geographically dispersed country...
January 9, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079085/endangered-species-illegal-lemur-trade-grows-in-madagascar
#3
Kim E Reuter, Marni LaFleur, Tara A Clarke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071639/the-ban-on-smokeless-tobacco-products-is-systematically-violated-in-chennai-india
#4
E Vidhubala, C Pisinger, B Basumallik, D S Prabhakar
BACKGROUND: India is the world's third largest consumer of tobacco. There are twice as many users of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) as cigarette smokers. The Government of Tamil Nadu has banned the sale of gutkha and pan masala in 2013. Our aim was to identify the varieties of illegal STP available in Chennai, India. METHODS: In systematically chosen zones and regions of Chennai city, we randomly identified three kinds of kiosks (n = 18) and asked for "gutkha" and "pan masala," one of each product available...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064241/associations-between-racial-discrimination-smoking-during-pregnancy-and-low-birthweight-among-roma
#5
Teresa Janevic, Theresa Osypuk, Kristefer Stojanovski, Janko Jankovic, Daniel Gundersen, Maggie Rogers
BACKGROUND: Racial discrimination may increase the risk of low birthweight (LBW), but has not been studied among Roma, the largest minority population in Europe. Moreover, few studies test both institutional and interpersonal forms of racial discrimination on health. Our objective was to examine associations between institutional and interpersonal racial discrimination with LBW, and to test potential mediation by smoking during pregnancy. METHODS: In 2012-2013, Romani women interviewers surveyed 410 Romani women in Serbia and Macedonia...
January 7, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063587/indirect-chiral-separation-of-8-novel-amphetamine-derivatives-as-potential-new-psychoactive-compounds-by-gc-ms-and-hplc
#6
Jennifer A Weiß, Kian Kadkhodaei, Martin G Schmid
Amphetamine and its derivatives gained high popularity on the illegal drug market. In the last few years, a lot of new psychoactive compounds structurally related to amphetamine, such as 4-fluoroamphetamine and 4-fluoromethamphetamine swamped the drug market. They were designed to circumvent prohibition of amphetamine and N-methylamphetamine and are distributed via the Internet. Often, a halogen atom is introduced into the phenyl ring of amphetamine to turn the illegal amphetamine legal. Since amphetamines possess a chiral centre, two enantiomers are available, which might differ in activity...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060817/high-levels-of-post-abortion-complication-in-a-setting-where-abortion-service-is-not-legalized
#7
Tadele Melese, Dereje Habte, Billy M Tsima, Keitshokile Dintle Mogobe, Kesegofetse Chabaesele, Goabaone Rankgoane, Tshiamo R Keakabetse, Mabole Masweu, Mosidi Mokotedi, Mpho Motana, Badani Moreri-Ntshabele
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications. METHODS: A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients' records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059616/challenges-health-implications-and-advocacy-opportunities-for-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-global-health-providers
#8
Jason M Nagata
In this commentary, I reflect on challenges with conducting global health research internationally as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) person, grapple with decisions related to coming out in regions with anti-LGBT laws, and outline the risks and benefits of different advocacy options related to the promotion of LGBT health globally. Despite significant advances in LGBT rights in many countries, homosexuality remains illegal in many others. Using a critical medical anthropology framework, I argue that anti-LGBT laws constitute structural violence and have many detrimental consequences including discrimination and violence; poorer mental and physical health outcomes; and risky sexual behaviors...
January 1, 2017: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055064/association-of-drug-and-alcohol-use-with-adolescent-firearm-homicide-at-individual-family-and-neighborhood-levels
#9
Bernadette C Hohl, Shari Wiley, Douglas J Wiebe, Alison J Culyba, Rebecca Drake, Charles C Branas
Importance: Homicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States and the leading cause of death for adolescents who are African American. Large cities have disproportionate homicide rates. Objective: To determine the relationships between exposures to drugs and alcohol at the individual, family, and neighborhood levels and adolescent firearm homicide and to inform new approaches to preventing firearm violence. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based case-control study from January 2010 to December 2012 of all 13- to 20-year-olds who were homicide victims in Philadelphia during the study period matched to randomly selected 13- to 20-year-old controls from the general population...
January 3, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052721/the-practice-of-terminal-discharge
#10
Lalit Kumar Radha Krishna, Vengadasalam Murugam, Daniel Song Chiek Quah
'Terminal discharges' are carried out in Singapore for patients who wish to die at home. However, if due diligence is not exercised, parallels may be drawn with euthanasia. We present a theoretical discussion beginning with the definition of terminal discharges and the reasons why they are carried out in Singapore. By considering the intention behind terminal discharges and utilising a multidisciplinary team to deliberate on the clinical, social and ethical intricacies with a patient- and context-specific approach, euthanasia is avoided...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052295/in-vitro-dermal-absorption-of-hydroquinone-protocol-validation-and-applicability-on-illegal-skin-whitening-cosmetics
#11
Bart Desmedt, Gamze Ates, Patricia Courselle, Jacques O De Beer, Vera Rogiers, Benoit Hendrickx, Eric Deconinck, Kristien De Paepe
In Europe, hydroquinone is a forbidden cosmetic ingredient. It is, however, still abundantly used because of its effective skin-whitening properties. The question arises as to whether the quantities of hydroquinone used become systemically available and may cause damage to human health. Dermal absorption studies can provide this information. In the EU, dermal absorption has to be assessed in vitro since the Cosmetic Regulation 1223/2009/EC forbids the use of animals. To obtain human-relevant data, a Franz diffusion cell protocol was validated using human skin...
January 5, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050118/environmental-and-health-impacts-of-using-food-waste-as-animal-feed-a-comparative-analysis-of-food-waste-management-options
#12
Ramy Salemdeeb, Erasmus K H J Zu Ermgassen, Mi Hyung Kim, Andrew Balmford, Abir Al-Tabbaa
The disposal of food waste is a large environmental problem. In the United Kingdom (UK), approximately 15 million tonnes of food are wasted each year, mostly disposed of in landfill, via composting, or anaerobic digestion (AD). European Union (EU) guidelines state that food waste should preferentially be used as animal feed though for most food waste this practice is currently illegal, because of disease control concerns. Interest in the potential diversion of food waste for animal feed is however growing, with a number of East Asian states offering working examples of safe food waste recycling - based on tight regulation and rendering food waste safe through heat treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cleaner Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049481/expanding-access-to-parasite-based-malaria-diagnosis-through-retail-drug-shops-in-tanzania-evidence-from-a-randomized-trial-and-implications-for-treatment
#13
Kathleen Maloney, Abigail Ward, Bonnie Krenz, Nora Petty, Lindsay Bryson, Caitlin Dolkart, Theodoor Visser, Arnaud Le Menach, Valerie K Scott, Justin M Cohen, Esther Mtumbuka, Sigsbert Mkude
BACKGROUND: Tanzania has seen a reduction in the fraction of fevers caused by malaria, likely due in part to scale-up of control measures. While national guidelines require parasite-based diagnosis prior to treatment, it is estimated that more than half of suspected malaria treatment-seeking in Tanzania initiates in the private retail sector, where diagnosis by malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) or microscopy is illegal. This pilot study investigated whether the introduction of RDTs into Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) under realistic market conditions would improve case management practices...
January 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046816/su-f-p-24-radiological-disperse-device
#14
R Alam
PURPOSE: We are now living in a society of constant fear of terrorism. This topic is pertaining to give a general knowledge of what is a radiological dispersion device or RDD and in case of its detonation, what are the options open to public for a safe action in terms of reducing the exposure and knowing the proper steps. These RDD are also called dirty bombs. METHODS: Compared to nuclear weapons, dirty bombs are easy to make. In order for a terrorist organization to construct and detonate a dirty bomb, it must acquire radioactive material by stealing it or buying it through legal or illegal channels...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042525/gambling-disorder-in-the-dsm-5-opportunities-to-improve-diagnosis-and-treatment-especially-in-substance-use-and-homeless-populations
#15
Carla J Rash, Nancy M Petry
In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder (GD) underwent several changes. This paper reviews recent research related to the revisions, including the elimination of the illegal acts criterion and the newly lowered diagnostic threshold. These studies suggest the removal of the illegal acts criterion has little impact in terms of prevalence or loss of diagnostic status among gamblers, especially when considered in combination with the newly lowered diagnostic threshold...
September 2016: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033530/mini-snapshot-multiplex-assays-authenticate-elephant-ivory-and-simultaneously-identify-the-species-origin
#16
Thitika Kitpipit, Kantima Thongjued, Kitichaya Penchart, Kanita Ouithavon, Wilaiwan Chotigeat
Illegal trading of ivory is mainly responsible for the dramatic decline in elephant populations. Thailand is one of the largest laundering hotspots for African ivory, as the domestic Asian elephant ivory can be legally traded. So, to help combat ivory poaching and smuggling, an efficient method is needed to identify the elephant species from its ivory and ivory products. In this study, a mini-SNaPshot(®) multiplex assay was developed and fully validated for the identification of confiscated ivory and low DNA template ivory products...
December 21, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030570/an-assessment-of-the-population-of-cotton-top-tamarins-saguinus-oedipus-and-their-habitat-in-colombia
#17
Anne Savage, Len Thomas, Katie L Feilen, Darren Kidney, Luis H Soto, Mackenzie Pearson, Felix S Medina, German Emeris, Rosamira R Guillen
Numerous animals have declining populations due to habitat loss, illegal wildlife trade, and climate change. The cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) is a Critically Endangered primate species, endemic to northwest Colombia, threatened by deforestation and illegal trade. In order to assess the current state of this species, we analyzed changes in the population of cotton-top tamarins and its habitat from 2005 to 2012. We used a tailor-made "lure strip transect" method to survey 43 accessible forest parcels that represent 30% of the species' range...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029496/accuracy-of-the-estimation-of-dental-age-in-comparison-with-chronological-age-in-a-spanish-sample-of-2641-living-subjects-using-the-demirjian-and-nolla-methods
#18
María Melo, Javier Ata-Ali
Age estimation is an important procedure in forensic medicine and is carried out for a number of reasons. For living persons, age estimation is performed in order to assess whether a child has attained the age of criminal responsibility, in scenarios involving rape, kidnapping or marriage, in premature births, adoption procedures, illegal immigration, pediatric endocrine diseases and orthodontic malocclusion, as well as in circumstances in which the birth certificate is not available or the records are suspect...
October 12, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029482/a-chronic-toxicity-study-of-diphenylarsinic-acid-in-f344-rats-in-drinking-water-for-52-weeks
#19
Takashi Yamaguchi, Min Gi, Shotarou Yamano, Masaki Fujioka, Kumiko Tatsumi, Satoko Kawachi, Naomi Ishii, Kenichiro Doi, Anna Kakehashi, Hideki Wanibuchi
Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of DPAA when administered to rats in their drinking water for 52 weeks. DPAA was administered to groups 1-4 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, and 20ppm in their drinking water for 52 weeks. There were no significant differences in the final body weights between the control groups and the treatment groups in male or female rats...
October 28, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028062/cardiovascular-effects-of-performance-enhancing-drugs
#20
André La Gerche, Maria J Brosnan
Exercise and competitive sports should be associated with a wide range of health benefits with the potential to inspire a positive community health legacy. However, the reputation of sports is being threatened by an ever-expanding armamentarium of agents with real or perceived benefits in performance enhancement. In addition to the injustice of unfair advantage for dishonest athletes, significant potential health risks are associated with performance-enhancing drugs. Performance-enhancing drugs may have an effect on the cardiovascular system by means of directly altering the myocardium, vasculature, and metabolism...
January 3, 2017: Circulation
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