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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544995/intrauterine-exposure-to-tobacco-and-executive-functioning-in-high-school
#1
Ruth Rose-Jacobs, Mark A Richardson, Kathryn Buchanan-Howland, Clara A Chen, Howard Cabral, Timothy C Heeren, Jane Liebschutz, Leah Forman, Deborah A Frank
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning (EF), an umbrella construct encompassing gradual maturation of cognitive organization/management processes, is important to success in multiple settings including high school. Intrauterine tobacco exposure (IUTE) correlates with negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes, but little is known about its association with adolescent EF and information from real-life contexts is sparse. We evaluated the impact of IUTE on teacher-reported observations of EF in urban high school students controlling for covariates including other intrauterine and adolescent substance exposures...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543422/defending-opioid-treatment-agreements-disclosure-not-promises
#2
Joshua B Rager, Peter H Schwartz
In order to receive controlled pain medications for chronic non-oncologic pain, patients often must sign a "narcotic contract" or "opioid treatment agreement" in which they promise not to give pills to others, use illegal drugs, or seek controlled medications from health care providers. In addition, they must agree to use the medication as prescribed and to come to the clinic for drug testing and pill counts. Patients acknowledge that if they violate the opioid treatment agreement (OTA), they may no longer receive controlled medications...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543168/a-new-tool-to-tackle-the-opioid-epidemic-description-utility-and-results-from-the-maine-diversion-alert-program
#3
Brian J Piper, Clare E Desrosiers, Harriet C Fisher, Kenneth L McCall, Stephanie D Nichols
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The opioid epidemic continues to impact the United States, and new strategies are needed to combat this epidemic. The objective of this study was to analyze 2015 drug arrest data from Maine's Diversion Alert program (diversionalert. org), compare arrest data between the first quarters of 2015 and 2016, and provide an analysis of the sex differences in the arrests as well as information about DA use. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based, descriptive study using data from the Maine Diversion Alert Program...
May 19, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542185/protected-area-staff-and-local-community-viewpoints-a-qualitative-assessment-of-conservation-relationships-in-zimbabwe
#4
Chiedza Ngonidzashe Mutanga, Never Muboko, Edson Gandiwa
With the increase in illegal resource harvesting in most protected areas (PAs), the need to understand the determinants and relationships between PAs and local communities to enhance wildlife conservation is increasingly becoming important. Using focus group discussions and interviews, we established the determinants of PA staff-community relationship from both PA staff and local communities' viewpoints, and assessedperceptions of their relationship with each other. The study was guided by the following main research question, 'What is the nature of the relationship between PA staff and local communities and what are the main factors influencing the relationship?' Data were collected through focus group discussions and interviews from four PAs and their adjacent communities in Zimbabwe between July 2013 and February 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540608/ethics-and-medical-toxicology-research
#5
Jeremy Sugarman, Andrew Stolbach
Optimizing care in medical toxicology necessitates designing and conducting ethical research. Nevertheless, the context of medical toxicology can make clinical research ethically challenging for a variety of reasons: medical toxicology is typified by relative rare conditions; making precise and rapid diagnoses is often fraught with uncertainty; emergent and urgent clinical exigencies make consent difficult or impossible; and some exposures are stigmatized or related to illegal activities that can compromise collecting accurate data from patients...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540220/female-genital-mutilation-cutting-in-africa
#6
REVIEW
Akin-Tunde A Odukogbe, Bosede B Afolabi, Oluwasomidoyin O Bello, Ayodeji S Adeyanju
Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice in which the external female genitalia is partially or totally incised or excised for a non-therapeutic reason, usually without the consent of the individual. FGM/C is common in Africa with varying prevalence in different countries, though the incidence is reducing because it is considered a human rights issue with tremendous advocacy for its elimination by mainly nongovernmental organizations. It is mainly underreported in many countries in Africa especially where it has been declared illegal...
April 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538918/mental-health-care-for-brazilian-juvenile-offenders
#7
Nilson do Rosário Costa, Paulo Roberto Fagundes da Silva
This paper analyzes the use of psychoactive drugs by juvenile offenders in Brazil in socio-educational facilities (USEs). It describes the guidelines of the national public policy and the quality of mental healthcare coordination by subnational public governments. This work draws on the hypothesis that USEs vertical governance is associated with the use of psychoactive medication. This is comparative study of two cases in Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais. Data resulted from a sample of medical records and interviews with key informants...
May 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537688/prevalence-of-alcohol-and-other-drugs-in-injured-drivers-and-their-association-with-clinical-outcomes
#8
F Cittadini, N De Giovanni, L Caradonna, G Vetrugno, A Oliva, N Fucci, C Zuppi, V L Pascali, M Covino
OBJECTIVE: Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs is a risk factor for motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). This issue has become an increasing concern for the governments of many European and North American countries, thereby encouraging the adoption of preventive policies. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between major clinical outcomes and alcohol or drug abuse among drivers involved in MVAs who were referred to an Italian Emergency Department. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of consecutive injured drivers who were admitted to the Emergency Department following an MVA during a period of one year...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535878/newest-applications-of-molecularly-imprinted-polymers-for-extraction-of-contaminants-from-environmental-and-food-matrices-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Andrea Speltini, Andrea Scalabrini, Federica Maraschi, Michela Sturini, Antonella Profumo
This paper presents an overview of the recent applications of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) to sample preparation. The review is thought to cover analytical procedures for extraction of contaminants (mainly illegal/noxious organic compounds) from food and environmental matrices, with a particular focus on the various pre-concentration/cleanup techniques, that is offline and online solid-phase extraction (SPE), dispersive SPE (d-SPE), magnetic SPE (MSPE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), applied before instrumental quantification...
June 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533341/former-guyanese-health-minister-sentenced-in-us-for-illegal-prescribing
#10
Owen Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530587/trace-elements-in-raw-milk-of-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis-from-campania-italy
#11
Mauro Esposito, Oto Miedico, Stefania Cavallo, Roberta Pellicanò, Guido Rosato, Loredana Baldi, A Eugenio Chiaravalle
The profile of 18 trace elements was traced in 68 milk samples collected from buffalo farms in the territory known as the "Land of Fires" in the Campania region (Italy). This area has been polluted by the illegal dumping in fields of industrial or domestic waste, wich is sometimes then burned spreading toxic contaminants. Milk from buffaloes raised on rural farms might be a good indicator of environmental contamination risk in the human food chain. Trace element analysis in milk was performed using mass spectrometry...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530314/-presentation-of-ocular-problems-among-displaced-persons-from-sudan-and-eritrea-at-the-tel-aviv-medical-center
#12
Roy Schwartz, Michaella Goldstein, Anat Loewenstein, Adiel Barak
INTRODUCTION: Illegal immigration from Africa to Israel expanded in recent years, bringing illegal immigrants, mostly from Eritrea and Sudan. No data regarding the ophthalmic conditions of this population was previously published. AIMS: To delineate reasons for ophthalmologic emergency room visits and hospitalizations in the ophthalmology department at a tertiary center in Tel Aviv, Israel. METHODS: In this retrospective study we reviewed the records of patients of Eritrean and Sudanese origin arriving at the ophthalmic emergency room at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center between June 2012 and August 2012 and hospitalized in the ophthalmology ward between August 2011 and August 2012...
January 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530077/-the-illegal-synthetic-cannabinoid-drug-market-in-israel-evolution-and-new-challenges
#13
Barak Shapira, Alina Poperno, Ronny Berkovitz
This article represents a short review of the current knowledge on the abuse of synthetic cannabinoids from the perspective of the Division of Enforcement and Inspection of the Israeli Ministry of Health - a body in charge of providing professional assistance to law enforcement bodies in the fields of drug abuse. We describe the principal changes observed in the synthetic cannabinoid market and the Israeli legislators' and enforcement bodies' attempts to cope with these phenomena. These changes relate to the types of synthetic cannabinoids being trafficked, with many structural variations between substances, and a new legal framework which allows for the rapid, temporary scheduling of synthetic cannabinoids using both individual and generic definitions...
September 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529831/source-identification-of-western-oregon-douglas-fir-wood-cores-using-mass-spectrometry-and-random-forest-classification
#14
Kristen Finch, Edgard Espinoza, F Andrew Jones, Richard Cronn
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We investigated whether wood metabolite profiles from direct analysis in real time (time-of-flight) mass spectrometry (DART-TOFMS) could be used to determine the geographic origin of Douglas-fir wood cores originating from two regions in western Oregon, USA. METHODS: Three annual ring mass spectra were obtained from 188 adult Douglas-fir trees, and these were analyzed using random forest models to determine whether samples could be classified to geographic origin, growth year, or growth year and geographic origin...
May 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529712/looking-into-pandora-s-box-the-content-of-sci-hub-and-its-usage
#15
Bastian Greshake
Despite the growth of Open Access, potentially illegally circumventing paywalls to access scholarly publications is becoming a more mainstream phenomenon. The web service Sci-Hub is amongst the biggest facilitators of this, offering free access to around 62 million publications. So far it is not well studied how and why its users are accessing publications through Sci-Hub. By utilizing the recently released corpus of Sci-Hub and comparing it to the data of  ~28 million downloads done through the service, this study tries to address some of these questions...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529359/the-journey-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-in-india-achievements-and-challenges
#16
Ravindra Rao
Opioids are one of the most problematic illegal substances globally. Opioid abuse is associated with complications in various spheres of the user's life, his/her family, and the society. Injecting drug use (IDU) is also linked to public health problems such as HIV infection and viral hepatitis. Medications form an important cornerstone in the treatment of opioid dependence. Treatment strategies such as "detoxification" alone or long-term treatment with opioid antagonist have limited acceptability and retention rates...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523939/prevalence-of-psychological-distress-how-do-australia-and-canada-compare
#17
Joanne C Enticott, Elizabeth Lin, Frances Shawyer, Grant Russell, Brett Inder, Scott Patten, Graham Meadows
OBJECTIVE: To compare equivalent population-level mental health indicators in Canada and Australia, and articulate recommendations to support equitable mental health services. These are two somewhat similar resource-rich countries characterized by extensive non-metropolitan and rural regions as well as significant areas of socioeconomic deprivation. METHODS: A cross-national epidemiology and equity study: primary outcome was Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) in recent national surveys...
May 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521663/towards-a-generic-procedure-for-the-detection-of-relevant-contaminants-from-waste-electric-and-electronic-equipment-weee-in-plastic-food-contact-materials-review-and-selection-of-key-parameters
#18
Franky Puype, Jiří Samsonek, Věra Vilímková, Šárka Kopečková, Andrea Ratiborská, Jan Knoop, Marion Egelkraut-Holtus, Markus Ortlieb, Uwe Oppermann
Recently, traces of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been detected in black plastic food contact materials (FCMs) indicating the presence of recycled plastics, mainly coming from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) as BFRs are one of the main additives in electric applications. In order to evaluate efficiently and preliminary in situ the presence of WEEE in plastic FCMs, a generic procedure for evaluation of WEEE presence in plastic FCMs by using defined parameters having each an associated importance level has been proposed...
May 18, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516232/-cns-metabolism-in-high-risk-drug-abuse-german-version-insights-gained-from-1-h-and-31-p-mrs-and-pet
#19
REVIEW
S V Bodea
BACKGROUND: High-risk drug consumption is a considerable problem for public health actors in industrialised countries. The latest trends show a market tendency towards diversification and increasing demand for high-purity synthetic drugs. Whilst most consumers seek medical help after cannabis use, it is high-risk drugs like cocaine, heroin and amphetamines that account for most of the 1000 drug-related deaths that occur in Germany every year. PURPOSE: This article presents the most prominent in vivo cerebral metabolic information in cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine users provided by MRI spectroscopy and PET imaging...
May 17, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515768/effect-of-acute-and-long-term-potassium-bromide-administration-on-spatial-working-memory-in-rat
#20
Faezeh Safdari, Mohammad Rabbani, Ali Hosseini-Sharifabad
Potassium bromide (KBr), an old antiepileptic agent, is illegally used in pharmaceutical or food industries to improve the product appearance. KBr has been proven to influence several pathways which are important in memory formation. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of KBr on spatial working memory using object recognition task (ORT). Rats received a single dose of KBr (50, 100 or 150 mg/kg), per oral, in acute treatment. KBr long term effects were also studied in animals receiving 50 mg/kg/day of KBr for 28 consecutive days...
April 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
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