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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777946/screening-method-for-rapid-classification-of-psychoactive-substances-in-illicit-tablets-using-mid-infrared-spectroscopy-and-pls-da
#1
Leandro S A Pereira, Fernanda L C Lisboa, José Coelho Neto, Frederico N Valladão, Marcelo M Sena
Several new psychoactive substances (NPS) have reached the illegal drug market in recent years, and ecstasy-like tablets are one of the forms affected by this change. Cathinones and tryptamines have increasingly been found in ecstasy-like seized samples as well as other amphetamine type stimulants. A presumptive method for identifying different drugs in seized ecstasy tablets (n=92) using ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis) was developed...
May 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777078/reporting-illegal-ear-cropping-in-dogs
#2
Samantha Gaines
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776453/dye-residue-analysis-in-raw-and-processed-aquaculture-products-matrix-extension-of-aoac-international-official-method-%C3%A2-2012-25
#3
Wendy C Andersen, Christine R Casey, Tara J Nickel, Susan L Young, Sherri B Turnipseed
Background : Triphenylmethane dyes and metabolites are known or suspected mutagens and areprohibited in animals intended for human consumption. Despite toxicity, triphenylmethane dyes are used illegally as inexpensive treatments for fungal and parasite infections in aquatic animals. Objective: AOAC INTERNTIONAL Official Method ℠ 2012.25 for the LC-MS/MS determination of malachite green, crystal violet, brilliant green, and metabolites leucomalachite green and leucocrystal violet in seafood products was previously validated for finfish (trout, salmon, catfish, and tilapia) and shrimp, but had not been fully validated for other types of aquacultured products such as eel, molluscan shellfish, or frog or for processed seafoods...
May 18, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776320/gis-based-planning-system-for-managing-the-flow-of-construction-and-demolition-waste-in-brazil
#4
Diogo Henrique Fernandes da Paz, Kalinny Patrícia Vaz Lafayette, Maria do Carmo Sobral
The objective of this article was to plan a network for municipal management of construction and demolition waste in Brazil with the assistance of a geographic information system, using the city of Recife as a case study. The methodology was carried out in three stages. The first was to map the illegal construction and demolition of waste disposal points across Recife and classify the waste according to its recyclability. In sequence, a method for indicating suitable areas for installation of voluntary delivery points, for small waste generators, are presented...
May 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771622/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-shandong-illegal-vaccine-sales-incident-on-immunizations-in-china
#5
Lei Cao, Jingshan Zheng, Lingsheng Cao, Jian Cui, Qiyou Xiao
A case of illegal vaccine sales in Shandong province, China, (hereinafter, the incident), which caused a lack of confidence among vaccination recipients and public panic, was uncovered in March 2016. We conducted a study comprising two cross-sectional surveys: at two months (May 2016) and seven months (October 2016) after the incident. The study aimed to evaluate the impact on immunizations; investigate the variation of the immunization coverage of the National Immunization Program Vaccines (NIPV) and the sales volume growth rate of Category II vaccines; and understand the reasons for non-vaccination and perspectives on immunization...
May 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770947/when-marijuana-is-used-before-cigarettes-or-alcohol-demographic-predictors-and-associations-with-heavy-use-cannabis-use-disorder-and-other-drug-related-outcomes
#6
Brian J Fairman, C Debra Furr-Holden, Renee M Johnson
Recent loosening of state and federal policy restrictions on marijuana, along with changes in social norms regarding marijuana use and decreases in prevalence of other types of substance use, may lead to increases in youth initiating marijuana before other types of substances such as alcohol and tobacco. We investigated predictors and potential consequences of initiating marijuana before other drugs for youth aged 12-21-years in the USA. Nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health supplied self-reported age of first marijuana, cigarettes, alcohol, other tobacco, and other illegal drug use among 12-21-year-old samples from 2004 to 2014 (n = 275,559)...
May 17, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769809/managing-infants-born-to-mothers-who-have-used-opioids-during-pregnancy
#7
Thierry Lacaze-Masmonteil, Pat O'Flaherty
The incidence of infant opioid withdrawal has grown rapidly in many countries, including Canada, in the last decade, presenting significant health and early brain development concerns. Increased prenatal exposure to opioids reflects rising prescription opioid use as well as the presence of both illegal opiates and opioid-substitution therapies. Infants are at high risk for experiencing symptoms of abstinence or withdrawal that may require assessment and treatment. This practice point focuses specifically on the effect(s) of opioid withdrawal and current management strategies in the care of infants born to mothers with opioid dependency...
May 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765124/evidence-of-illegal-emissions-of-ozone-depleting-chemicals
#8
Michaela I Hegglin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763810/forensic-drug-intelligence-and-the-rise-of-cryptomarkets-part-ii-combination-of-data-from-the-physical-and-virtual-markets
#9
Marie Morelato, Julian Broséus, Adrian De Grazia, Mark Tahtouh, Pierre Esseiva, Claude Roux
Technology provides new ways to access customers and suppliers while enhancing the security of off-line criminal activity. Since the first cryptomarket, Silk Road, in 2011, cryptomarkets have transformed the traditional drug sale by facilitating the creation of a global network of vendors and buyers. Due to the fragmented nature of traces that result from illegal activities, combining the results of concurrent processes based on traces of different nature should provide supplementary benefit to understand the drug market...
May 8, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757740/learning-based-restoration-of-backlit-images
#10
Zhenhao Li, Xiaolin Wu
Backlighting is a commonly encountered ill illumination condition that can cause serious degradation of image quality. In this paper, we propose a learning-based spatially adaptive technique of optimal tone mapping to restore backlit images. Object surfaces illuminated from behind in a scene are detected by a soft binary classifier that is constructed via supervised learning. Two optimal tone mapping functions, one for backlit regions and the other for the remainder of the image, are used and their outputs are fused to restore illegible surface details in backlit regions and at the same time improve contrast in overexposed regions, if any...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755141/human-decisions-and-machine-predictions
#11
Jon Kleinberg, Himabindu Lakkaraju, Jure Leskovec, Jens Ludwig, Sendhil Mullainathan
Can machine learning improve human decision making? Bail decisions provide a good test case. Millions of times each year, judges make jail-or-release decisions that hinge on a prediction of what a defendant would do if released. The concreteness of the prediction task combined with the volume of data available makes this a promising machine-learning application. Yet comparing the algorithm to judges proves complicated. First, the available data are generated by prior judge decisions. We only observe crime outcomes for released defendants, not for those judges detained...
February 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754116/criminality-in-greece-during-the-years-of-financial-crisis-2008-2014
#12
G Tsouvelas, G Konstantakopoulos, A Vakirtzis, O Giotakos, T Papaslanis, V Kontaxakis
The link between poverty, unemployment and economic downturns and increases in crime rates has long been the subject of social science study. However, the relationships between these phenomena has not been studied sufficiently and through time in most European countries that suffered, or, like Greece, are still suffering the recent financial crisis. We examined if the recent financial crisis in Greece has coincided with an increase in crime, analyzing crime rates since the start of the financial crisis and over an extensive time period (7 years)...
January 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752832/examining-conservation-compliance-with-randomized-response-technique-analyses
#13
Charlotte H Chang, Maarten J L F Cruyff, Xingli Giam
Understanding conservation non-compliance-violations of laws or social norms designed to protect natural resources from overexploitation-is a priority for conservation research and management. As direct questioning about stigmatized behaviors can be biased, researchers have adopted more complex indirect questioning techniques. The randomized response technique (RRT) is one of the most powerful indirect survey methods, yet analyses of these data require sophisticated statistical models. To date, there has been limited user-friendly software to analyze RRT data, particularly so for models that combine information from multiple RRT questions...
May 12, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751410/abatement-of-chlorinated-compounds-in-groundwater-contaminated-by-hch-wastes-using-isco-with-alkali-activated-persulfate
#14
A Santos, J Fernandez, S Rodriguez, C M Dominguez, M A Lominchar, D Lorenzo, A Romero
In this work, in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with alkali activated persulfate has been tested for the elimination of HCH isomers and other chlorinated compounds in groundwater from Sabiñanigo (Sardas landfill), which was contaminated by solid and liquid wastes illegally dumped in the area by a company producing lindane. Due to the site lithology and the type of pollutants found in groundwater (HCHs and chlorobenzenes) alkali (NaOH) activated persulfate (PS) was selected as oxidant. The influence of variables such as PS concentration (42-200mM) and NaOH:PS molar ratio (2:1 to 4:1) on chlorinated compound abatement has been studied and a kinetic model to predict the composition of all chlorinated organic compounds (COCs) in the aqueous phase with time was obtained...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749280/beyond-china-s-drug-century-yunnan-s-first-therapeutic-community-and-narratives-of-drug-treatment-and-mental-health-care
#15
Sandra Teresa Hyde
China is experiencing rapid cultural change and new forms of sociability that are accompanied by social problems and novel humanitarian interventions that have been formulated to address those problems. The pressure related to the rapid transformation of the countryside into mid-level cities has led to recreational drug-use as a means of escape. These illegal drugs have greased the wheels of what I call an affective biopolitics that has influenced Chinese citizens. Carlos Rojas argues that development in China results from the effects of discrete protocols, or practices that stem from tensions between capital and labor, governmentality and biopolitics, and nationalism and globalization...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746453/access-to-syringe-services-programs-kentucky-north-carolina-and-west-virginia-2013-2017
#16
Danae Bixler, Greg Corby-Lee, Scott Proescholdbell, Tina Ramirez, Michael E Kilkenny, Matt LaRocco, Robert Childs, Michael R Brumage, Angela D Settle, Eyasu H Teshale, Alice Asher
The Appalachian region of the United States is experiencing a large increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections related to injection drug use (IDU) (1). Syringe services programs (SSPs) providing sufficient access to safe injection equipment can reduce hepatitis C transmission by 56%; combined SSPs and medication-assisted treatment can reduce transmission by 74% (2). However, access to SSPs has been limited in the United States, especially in rural areas and southern and midwestern states (3). This report describes the expansion of SSPs in Kentucky, North Carolina, and West Virginia during 2013-August 1, 2017...
May 11, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746421/reducing-the-health-risks-derived-from-exposure-to-addictive-substances
#17
Peter Anderson, Antoni Gual, Jürgen Rehm
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the health risks due to exposure to alcohol, illegal drugs and nicotine and how these risks might be reduced. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2016, worldwide, alcohol, illegal drugs and nicotine were responsible for some 10 million deaths. There is evolutionary and biological evidence that humans are predisposed to consuming alcohol, illegal drugs and nicotine - present-day problems are caused by high levels of potency, exposure and drug delivery systems...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744717/closer-to-guns-the-role-of-street-gangs-in-facilitating-access-to-illegal-firearms
#18
Elizabeth Roberto, Anthony A Braga, Andrew V Papachristos
Criminal offenders often turn to social networks to gain access to firearms, yet we know little about how networks facilitate access to firearms. This study conducts a network analysis of a co-offending network for the City of Chicago to determine how close any offender may be to a firearm. We use arrest data to recreate the co-offending network of all individuals who were arrested with at least one other person over an eight-year period. We then use data on guns recovered by the police to measure potential network pathways of any individual to known firearms...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744107/csi-shark-edition-revealing-illegal-trade-with-dna
#19
Taryn D Laubenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736390/evaluation-of-risk-factors-affecting-substance-use-among-tenth-grade-students
#20
Dilek Öztaş, Aydan Kalyon, Ayşin Ertuğrul, Çetin Gündoğdu, Hüseyin Balcıoğlu, Yasemin Sağlan, Uğur Bilge, Sevilay Karahan
Aim: The aim of this study is to detect the prevalence of substance use among tenth-grade students; their thoughts, attitudes, behaviors, and tendencies towards substance use; and risk factors of substance use in tenth-grade students in general. Methods: This study is descriptive and cross-sectional conducted between April and May 2016. Research population consists of tenth-grade students in 2015-2016 school year in the city of Ordu. Since the study involved all tenth-grade students, no sampling was done...
2018: BioMed Research International
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