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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208210/heterogeneous-costs-of-alcohol-and-drug-problems-across-cities-and-counties-in-california
#1
Ted R Miller, Peter Nygaard, Andrew Gaidus, Joel W Grube, William R Ponicki, Bruce A Lawrence, Paul J Gruenewald
BACKGROUND: Estimates of economic and social costs related to alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and abuse are usually made at state and national levels. Ecological analyses demonstrate, however, that substantial variations exist in the incidence and prevalence of AOD use and problems including impaired driving, violence, and chronic disease between smaller geopolitical units like counties and cities. This study examines the ranges of these costs across counties and cities in California...
February 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205005/a-selective-group-authentication-scheme-for-iot-based-medical-information-system
#2
YoHan Park, YoungHo Park
The technology of IoT combined with medical systems is expected to support advanced medical services. However, unsolved security problems, such as misuse of medical devices, illegal access to the medical server and so on, make IoT-based medical systems not be applied widely. In addition, users have a high burden of computation to access Things for the explosive growth of IoT devices. Because medical information is critical and important, but users have a restricted computing power, IoT-based medical systems are required to provide secure and efficient authentication for users...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201925/interdependent-group-contingencies-decrease-adolescents-disruptive-behaviors-during-group-therapy
#3
Kristen M Brogan, John Michael Falligant, John T Rapp
Adolescents who have been adjudicated for illegal sexual behavior may receive treatment that requires attending group therapy sessions and classes. For some adolescents, nonsexual problem behavior (e.g., verbal outbursts, noncompliance) interferes with their ability to participate in group treatment. Researchers used a multiple-baseline across groups design with an embedded changing criterion design to evaluate the effects of an interdependent group contingency for decreasing disruptive behavior in adolescents across two therapy groups...
February 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199917/desomorphine-krokodil-an-overview-of-its-chemistry-pharmacology-metabolism-toxicology-and-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Diego Hernando Ângulo Florez, Ana Maria Dos Santos Moreira, Pedro Rafael da Silva, Ricardo Brandão, Marcella Matos Cordeiro Borges, Fernando José Malagueño de Santana, Keyller Bastos Borges
BACKGROUND: "Krokodil" or "Crocodile" is an illegal homemade desomorphine drug obtained from chemical reactions of commercial codeine drugs with several other powerful and highly toxic chemical agents increasing its addiction and hallucinogenic effects when compared with other morphine analogues. METHODS: This paper summarizes a complete review about an old drug called desomorphine (Krokodil), presenting its chemistry, pharmacology, metabolism, toxicology and analysis...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198636/gambling-disorder-related-illegal-acts-regression-model-of-associated-factors
#5
Mohamed Ali Gorsane, Michel Reynaud, Jean-Luc Vénisse, Cindy Legauffre, Marc Valleur, David Magalon, Mélina Fatséas, Isabelle Chéreau-Boudet, Alice Guilleux, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju, Marie Grall-Bronnec
Background and aims Gambling disorder-related illegal acts (GDRIA) are often crucial events for gamblers and/or their entourage. This study was designed to determine the predictive factors of GDRIA. Methods Participants were 372 gamblers reporting at least three DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria. They were assessed on the basis of sociodemographic characteristics, gambling-related characteristics, their personality profile, and psychiatric comorbidities. A multiple logistic regression was performed to identify the relevant predictors of GDRIA and their relative contribution to the prediction of the presence of GDRIA...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193714/contributors-to-pedestrian-distraction-and-risky-behaviours-during-road-crossings-in-romania
#6
Cara Hamann, Diana Dulf, Erika Baragan-Andrada, Morgan Price, Corinne Peek-Asa
OBJECTIVE: Pedestrian fatalities due to collisions with motor vehicles are a large public health problem in Romania, ranking them among the highest in Eastern Europe. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of crash factors by examining how roadway and environmental characteristics contribute to pedestrian distraction and risky behaviours at pedestrian MVC (PMVC) locations in Cluj County, Romania. METHODS: A sample of PMVC locations was selected from the 2010 Cluj County police reported crash database for on-site examination...
February 13, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193713/firearm-carrying-and-concurrent-substance-use-behaviours-in-a-community-based-sample-of-emerging-adults
#7
Robert N Buschmann, John D Prochaska, Jacques G Baillargeon, Jeff R Temple
INTRODUCTION: This paper examines associations between high-risk gun carrying and substance use in emerging adults (ages 18-22). The coexistence of these high-risk behaviours in a general population of emerging adults can have disastrous consequences. METHODS: Dating it Safe is an ongoing longitudinal (2010-2016) survey of emerging adults recruited from seven high schools in five south-east Texas-area school districts (current sample n=684). Multiple logistic regression modelling was used to examine the association between past-year use of legal and illegal substances and past-year firearm carrying for a reason other than sport or hunting...
February 13, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188582/attitudes-toward-jaguars-and-pumas-and-the-acceptability-of-killing-big-cats-in-the-brazilian-atlantic-forest-an-application-of-the-potential-for-conflict-index2
#8
Monica T Engel, Jerry J Vaske, Alistair J Bath, Silvio Marchini
We explored the overall acceptability of killing jaguars and pumas in different scenarios of people-big cat interactions, the influence of attitudes toward big cats on acceptability, and the level of consensus on the responses. Data were obtained from 326 self-administered questionnaires in areas adjacent to Intervales State Park and Alto Ribeira State Park. Overall, people held slightly positive attitudes toward jaguars and pumas and viewed the killing of big cats as unacceptable. However, individuals that held negative attitudes were more accepting of killing...
February 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185683/suicidal-behaviours-in-male-and-female-users-of-illicit-drugs-recruited-in-drug-treatment-facilities
#9
Elisabet Arribas-Ibar, Josep Maria Suelves, Albert Sanchez-Niubò, Antònia Domingo-Salvany, M T Brugal
OBJECTIVE: We assessed prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans among illicit drug users and their association with contextual factors, by gender. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. In a sample of 511 illicit drug users recruited during spring 2012 in drug treatment and prevention facilities in Catalonia (Spain), the prevalence of suicidal ideation/plans in the last 12 months was assessed. Poisson regression was used to examine associations between suicidal ideation/plans and various factors (socio-demographic, psychological, illegal drug market activities and marginal income generation activities, which included any reported sex work, stealing, peddling, begging or borrowing on credit from a dealer)...
February 6, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177847/the-forensic-application-of-dna-barcoding-for-identification-of-illegally-traded-african-pangolin-scales
#10
Monica Mwale, Desire Lee Dalton, Raymond Jansen, Marli Roelofse, Darren William Pietersen, Prudent Sankwetea Mokgokong, Antoinette Kotze
The escalating growth in illegal wildlife trade (IWT) and anthropogenic habitat changes threaten the survival of pangolin species globally. All eight extant species have experienced drastic population size reductions globally with high extinction risk in Asia. Consequently, forensic services have become critical for law enforcement of IWT, with a need for standardised and validated genetic identification methods. The seizure of three tonnes of pangolin scales, originating from Africa, by the Hong Kong Customs Authority provided an opportunity for the forensic application of DNA barcoding for identification...
October 27, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176029/summarizing-us-wildlife-trade-with-an-eye-toward-assessing-the-risk-of-infectious-disease-introduction
#11
K M Smith, C Zambrana-Torrelio, A White, M Asmussen, C Machalaba, S Kennedy, K Lopez, T M Wolf, P Daszak, D A Travis, W B Karesh
The aim of this study was to characterize the role of the USA in the global exchange of wildlife and describe high volume trade with an eye toward prioritizing health risk assessment questions for further analysis. Here we summarize nearly 14 years (2000-2013) of the most comprehensive data available (USFWS LEMIS system), involving 11 billion individual specimens and an additional 977 million kilograms of wildlife. The majority of shipments contained mammals (27%), while the majority of specimens imported were shells (57%) and tropical fish (25%)...
February 7, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170052/illicit-drug-policy-in-spain-the-opinion-of-health-and-legal-professionals
#12
Paola Rossi, Ester Blay, Víctor Costela, Marta Torrens
The high frequency of criminal behaviour and related legal problems associated with substance addiction generates a field of interaction between legal and healthcare systems. This study was developed as a multicentre project to investigate the opinions of professionals from legal and healthcare systems about policies on illegal drugs and their implementation in practice. A multiple choice questionnaire designed ad hoc was administered to a sample of 230 professionals from legal and healthcare fields working in the cities of Barcelona, Granada and Bilbao...
January 12, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170051/factors-associated-with-substance-use-among-spanish-military-personnel-involved-in-bosnia-herzegovina
#13
Cristina Vargas Pecino, Enrique Castellano, Humberto Trujillo
The use of both legal and illegal drugs has rarely been investigated among the Spanish military population involved in multinational military operations. The aim of the current study was to examine the consumption of drugs by Spanish military personnel in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and the variables associated with such substance use. A total of 605 military personnel participated in the cross-sectional study. The participants' mean age was 25.9 years (SD = 5.9), and 93.9% of the sample was male. The majority of the participants were enlisted personnel (83...
January 12, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170027/snp-discovery-and-characterisation-in-white-rhino-ceratotherium-simum-with-application-to-parentage-assignment
#14
Christiaan Labuschagne, Desiré L Dalton, J Paul Grobler, Antoinette Kotzé
The white rhino is one of the great success stories of modern wildlife conservation, growing from as few as 50-100 animals in the 1880s, to approximately 20,000 white rhinoceros remaining today. However, illegal trade in conservational rhinoceros horns is adding constant pressure on remaining populations. Captive management of ex situ populations of endangered species using molecular methods can contribute to improving the management of the species. Here we compare for the first time the utility of 33 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and nine microsatellites (MS) in isolation and in combination for assigning parentage in captive White Rhinoceros...
February 6, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167229/population-pharmacokinetics-model-of-thc-used-by-pulmonary-route-in-occasional-cannabis-smokers
#15
A Marsot, C Audebert, L Attolini, B Lacarelle, J Micallef, O Blin
Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in the world. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main source of the pharmacological effect. Some studies have been carried out and showed significant variability in the described models as the values of the estimated pharmacokinetic parameters. The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for THC in occasional cannabis smokers. Twelve male volunteers (age: 20-28years, body weight: 62.5-91.0kg), tobacco (3-8 cigarette per day) and cannabis occasional smokers were recruited from the local community...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160350/do-we-all-agree-what-good-health-care-looks-like-views-from-those-who-are-seldom-heard-in-health-research-policy-and-service-improvement
#16
Sara Ryan, Jenny Hislop, Sue Ziebland
CONTEXT: The aim of this study was to ask whether there are shared ideas about what good health care looks like that apply across different populations and conditions. Do priorities among "seldom heard" groups differ from mainstream views and, if so, how might we understand these differences? DESIGN: Focus groups were recruited with the help of our study patient representatives. Participants discussed and prioritized a set of eight "core components" of good care...
February 3, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158882/missed-opportunities-for-preventing-perinatal-transmission-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-florida-2007-2014
#17
Mary Jo Trepka, Soumyadeep Mukherjee, Consuelo Beck-Sagué, Lorene M Maddox, Kristopher P Fennie, Diana M Sheehan, Maithri Prabhakar, Dan Thompson, Spencer Lieb
OBJECTIVES: Despite declining numbers of perinatally exposed infants, an increase in perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections from 2011 to 2013 prompted this study to identify missed perinatal HIV prevention opportunities. METHODS: Deidentified records of children born from 2007 through 2014, exposed to HIV perinatally, and reported to the Florida Department of Health were obtained. Crude relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with perinatal transmission, nondiagnosis of maternal HIV infection, and nonreceipt of antiretroviral medication were calculated...
February 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155286/wildlife-livestock-interactions-and-risk-areas-for-cross-species-spread-of-bovine-tuberculosis
#18
Natascha V Meunier, Peregrine Sebulime, Richard G White, Richard Kock
The transmission of diseases between livestock and wildlife can be a hindrance to effective disease control. Maintenance hosts and contact rates should be explored to further understand the transmission dynamics at the wildlife-livestock interface. Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been shown to have wildlife maintenance hosts and has been confirmed as present in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP) in Uganda since the 1960s. The first aim of this study was to explore the spatio-temporal spread of cattle illegally grazing within the QENP recorded by the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) rangers in a wildlife crime database...
January 23, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152391/prescription-drug-monitoring-programs-nonmedical-use-of-prescription-drugs-and-heroin-use-evidence-from-the-national-survey-of-drug-use-and-health
#19
Mir M Ali, William N Dowd, Timothy Classen, Ryan Mutter, Scott P Novak
In the United States, nonmedical prescription opioid use is a major public health concern. Various policy initiatives have been undertaken to tackle this crisis, including state prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). This study uses the 2004-2014 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and exploits state-level variation in the timing of PDMP implementation and PDMP characteristics to investigate whether PDMPs are associated with a reduction in prescription opioid misuse or whether they have the unintended consequence of increasing heroin use...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152355/what-risks-do-herbal-products-pose-to-the-australian-community
#20
Roger W Byard, Ian Musgrave, Garth Maker, Michael Bunce
Traditional herbal products are widely used in Australia to treat a broad range of conditions and diseases. It is popularly believed that these products are safer than prescribed drugs. While many may be safe, it is worrying that the specific effects and harmful interactions of a number of their components with prescription medications is not well understood. Some traditional herbal preparations contain heavy metals and toxic chemicals, as well as naturally occurring organic toxins. The effects of these substances can be dire, including acute hepatic and renal failure, exacerbation of pre-existing conditions and diseases, and even death...
February 6, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
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