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Fibrosis autotaxin

Matthew G K Benesch, Iain T K MacIntyre, Todd P W McMullen, David N Brindley
A quarter-century after the discovery of autotaxin in cell culture, the autotaxin-lysophosphatidate (LPA)-lipid phosphate phosphatase axis is now a promising clinical target for treating chronic inflammatory conditions, mitigating fibrosis progression, and improving the efficacy of existing cancer chemotherapies and radiotherapy. Nearly half of the literature on this axis has been published during the last five years. In cancer biology, LPA signaling is increasingly being recognized as a central mediator of the progression of chronic inflammation in the establishment of a tumor microenvironment which promotes cancer growth, immune evasion, metastasis, and treatment resistance...
March 15, 2018: Cancers
Christian A Kuttruff, Marco Ferrara, Tom Bretschneider, Stefan Hoerer, Sandra Handschuh, Bernd Nosse, Helmut Romig, Paul Nicklin, Gerald J Roth
In an effort to find new therapeutic interventions addressing the unmet medical need of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, we initiated a program to identify new autotaxin (ATX) inhibitors. Starting from a recently published compound (PF-8380), we identified several highly potent ATX inhibitors with improved pharmacokinetic and safety profiles. Further optimization efforts resulted in the identification of a single-digit nanomolar lead compound (BI-2545) that shows substantial lowering of LPA in vivo and is therefore considered a valuable tool for further studies...
December 14, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Manuel Baader, Tom Bretschneider, Andre Broermann, Joerg F Rippmann, Birgit Stierstorfer, Christian A Kuttruff, Michael Mark
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted phospholipase which hydrolyses lysophosphatidylcholine to generate lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). The extracellular signalling molecule LPA exerts its biological actions through activation of six GPCRs expressed in various cell types including fibroblasts. Multiple preclinical studies using knockout animals, LPA receptor antagonists or ATX inhibitors have provided evidence for a potential role of the ATX/LPA axis in tissue fibrosis. Despite growing evidence for a correlation between ATX levels and the degree of fibrosis in chronic liver diseases, including viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, the role of ATX in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear...
February 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Mohamed A Lebda, Kadry M Sadek, Tarek K Abouzed, Hossam G Tohamy, Yasser S El-Sayed
AIMS: The potential antifibrotic effects of melatonin against induced hepatic fibrosis were explored. MAIN METHODS: Rats were allocated into four groups: placebo; thioacetamide (TAA) (200mg/kg bwt, i.p twice weekly for two months); melatonin (5mg/kgbwt, i.p daily for a week before TAA and continued for an additional two months); and melatonin plus TAA. Hepatic fibrotic changes were evaluated biochemically and histopathologically. Hepatic oxidative/antioxidative indices were assessed...
January 1, 2018: Life Sciences
Satoru Joshita, Yuki Ichikawa, Takeji Umemura, Yoko Usami, Ayumi Sugiura, Soichiro Shibata, Tomoo Yamazaki, Naoyuki Fujimori, Michiharu Komatsu, Akihiro Matsumoto, Koji Igarashi, Masao Ota, Eiji Tanaka
AIM: Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme that is considered to be associated with liver damage as well as fibrosis. This study assessed the ability of ATX to diagnose liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS: Serum ATX levels were retrospectively evaluated in 101 treatment-naïve patients with HBV-related chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis, all of whom had undergone liver biopsy at our hospital. RESULTS: Serum ATX concentration increased significantly according to liver fibrosis stage in overall (r = 0...
March 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Hitoshi Ikeda, Mariko Kobayashi, Hiromitsu Kumada, Kenichiro Enooku, Kazuhiko Koike, Makoto Kurano, Masaya Sato, Takahiro Nojiri, Tamaki Kobayashi, Ryunosuke Ohkawa, Satoshi Shimamoto, Koji Igarashi, Junken Aoki, Yutaka Yatomi
BACKGROUND: Because autotaxin (ATX) reportedly has a better performance than hyaluronic acid (HA) as a marker of liver fibrosis for the prediction of cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C, we aimed to further evaluate the role of ATX in liver fibrosis of other etiologies. METHODS: ATX antigen was measured in serum samples from 108 patients with chronic hepatitis B and 128 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who had undergone a liver biopsy as well as healthy subjects and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes mellitus (DM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and cardiac dysfunction (CD)...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Derek J Erstad, Andrew M Tager, Yujin Hoshida, Bryan C Fuchs
Using transcriptome meta-analysis, we recently identified the autotaxin (ATX)-lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) pathway as a regulator of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk in human cirrhosis patients. Pharmacological targeting of this pathway reduced fibrosis progression and HCC development in animals, identifying ATX-LPA signaling as a novel chemoprevention strategy for cirrhosis and HCC.
2017: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Aikaterini Nikolaou, Maroula G Kokotou, Dimitris Limnios, Anastasia Psarra, George Kokotos
Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme that hydrolyzes lysophosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and choline. The ATX/LPA axis has received increasing interest in recent years because both the enzyme ATX and the bioactive lipid LPA are involved in various pathological conditions such as tumor progression and metastasis, fibrotic diseases, autoimmune diseases, arthritis, chronic hepatitis, obesity and impaired glucose homeostasis. Thus, a great effort has been devotd in developing synthetic ATX inhibitors as new agents to treat various diseases including cancer and fibrotic diseases...
July 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Tomoo Yamazaki, Satoru Joshita, Takeji Umemura, Yoko Usami, Ayumi Sugiura, Naoyuki Fujimori, Soichiro Shibata, Yuki Ichikawa, Michiharu Komatsu, Akihiro Matsumoto, Koji Igarashi, Eiji Tanaka
Metabolized by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme considered to be associated with liver damage. We sought to clarify the diagnostic ability of ATX for liver fibrosis in 593 biopsy-confirmed hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. The diagnostic accuracy of ATX was compared with clinical parameters and the established fibrosis biomarkers Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive Mac-2-binding protein, FIB-4 index, AST-to-platelet ratio, and Forn's index. Median ATX levels were consistently higher in female controls and patients than in their male counterparts (P < 0...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nicolas Desroy, Christopher Housseman, Xavier Bock, Agnès Joncour, Natacha Bienvenu, Laëtitia Cherel, Virginie Labeguere, Emilie Rondet, Christophe Peixoto, Jean-Marie Grassot, Olivier Picolet, Denis Annoot, Nicolas Triballeau, Alain Monjardet, Emanuelle Wakselman, Veronique Roncoroni, Sandrine Le Tallec, Roland Blanque, Celine Cottereaux, Nele Vandervoort, Thierry Christophe, Patrick Mollat, Marieke Lamers, Marielle Auberval, Boska Hrvacic, Jovica Ralic, Line Oste, Ellen van der Aar, Reginald Brys, Bertrand Heckmann
Autotaxin is a circulating enzyme with a major role in the production of lysophosphatic acid (LPA) species in blood. A role for the autotaxin/LPA axis has been suggested in many disease areas including pulmonary fibrosis. Structural modifications of the known autotaxin inhibitor lead compound 1, to attenuate hERG inhibition, remove CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition, and improve pharmacokinetic properties, led to the identification of clinical candidate GLPG1690 (11). Compound 11 was able to cause a sustained reduction of LPA levels in plasma in vivo and was shown to be efficacious in a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model in mice and in reducing extracellular matrix deposition in the lung while also reducing LPA 18:2 content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Tom Bretschneider, Andreas Harald Luippold, Helmut Romig, Daniel Bischoff, Klaus Klinder, Paul Nicklin, Wolfgang Rist
Autotaxin (ATX) is a promising drug target for the treatment of several diseases, such as cancer and fibrosis. ATX hydrolyzes lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC) into bioactive lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). The potency of ATX inhibitors can be readily determined by using fluorescence-based LPC derivatives. While such assays are ultra-high throughput, they are prone to false positives compared to assays based on natural LPC. Here we report the development of ultrafast mass spectrometry-based ATX assays enabling the measurement of data points within 13 s, which is 10 times faster than classic liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
April 2017: SLAS Discovery
Pengxiu Cao, Yoshiro Aoki, Linda Badri, Natalie M Walker, Casey M Manning, Amir Lagstein, Eric R Fearon, Vibha N Lama
Tissue fibrosis is the primary cause of long-term graft failure after organ transplantation. In lung allografts, progressive terminal airway fibrosis leads to an irreversible decline in lung function termed bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Here, we have identified an autocrine pathway linking nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 (NFAT1), autotaxin (ATX), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and β-catenin that contributes to progression of fibrosis in lung allografts. Mesenchymal cells (MCs) derived from fibrotic lung allografts (BOS MCs) demonstrated constitutive nuclear β-catenin expression that was dependent on autocrine ATX secretion and LPA signaling...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Michelle J Farquhar, Isla S Humphreys, Simon A Rudge, Garrick K Wilson, Bishnupriya Bhattacharya, Maria Ciaccia, Ke Hu, Qifeng Zhang, Laurent Mailly, Gary M Reynolds, Margaret Ashcroft, Peter Balfe, Thomas F Baumert, Stephanie Roessler, Michael J O Wakelam, Jane A McKeating
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic hepatitis C is a global health problem with an estimated 170 million hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals at risk of progressive liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Autotaxin (ATX, gene name: ENPP2) is a phospholipase with diverse roles in the physiological and pathological processes including inflammation and oncogenesis. Clinical studies have reported increased ATX expression in chronic hepatitis C, however, the pathways regulating ATX and its role in the viral life cycle are not well understood...
May 2017: Journal of Hepatology
Wanvisa Udomsinprasert, Nakarin Kitkumthorn, Apiwat Mutirangura, Voranush Chongsrisawat, Yong Poovorawan, Sittisak Honsawek
OBJECTIVE: Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive fibroinflammatory liver disease. Autotaxin (ATX) has a profibrotic effect resulting from lysophosphatidic acid activity. The purpose of this study was to examine ATX expression and ATX promoter methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes and liver tissues from BA patients and controls and investigate their associations with outcome parameters in BA patients. METHODS: A total of 130 subjects (65 BA patients and 65 age-matched controls) were enrolled...
2017: PloS One
Eleanna Kaffe, Aggeliki Katsifa, Nikos Xylourgidis, Ioanna Ninou, Markella Zannikou, Vaggelis Harokopos, Pelagia Foka, Alexios Dimitriadis, Kostas Evangelou, Anargyros N Moulas, Urania Georgopoulou, Vassilis G Gorgoulis, George N Dalekos, Vassilis Aidinis
Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted lysophospholipase D that catalyzes the production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a pleiotropic growth-factor-like lysophospholipid. Increased ATX expression has been detected in various chronic inflammatory disorders and different types of cancer; however, little is known about its role and mode of action in liver fibrosis and cancer. Here, increased ATX expression was detected in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients of different etiologies, associated with shorter overall survival...
April 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Pritom Shah, Anne Cheasty, Caroline Foxton, Tony Raynham, Muddasar Farooq, Irene Farre Gutierrez, Aurore Lejeune, Michelle Pritchard, Andrew Turnbull, Leon Pang, Paul Owen, Susan Boyd, Alexandra Stowell, Allan Jordan, Niall M Hamilton, James R Hitchin, Martin Stockley, Ellen MacDonald, Mar Jimenez Quesada, Elisabeth Trivier, Jana Skeete, Huib Ovaa, Wouter H Moolenaar, Hamish Ryder
The autotaxin-lysophosphatidic acid (ATX-LPA) axis has been implicated in several disease conditions including inflammation, fibrosis and cancer. This makes ATX an attractive drug target and its inhibition may lead to useful therapeutic agents. Through a high throughput screen (HTS) we identified a series of small molecule inhibitors of ATX which have subsequently been optimized for potency, selectivity and developability properties. This has delivered drug-like compounds such as 9v (CRT0273750) which modulate LPA levels in plasma and are suitable for in vivo studies...
November 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Gretchen Bain, Kristen E Shannon, Fei Huang, Janice Darlington, Lance Goulet, Patricia Prodanovich, Gina L Ma, Angelina M Santini, Adam J Stein, Dave Lonergan, Christopher D King, Imelda Calderon, Andiliy Lai, John H Hutchinson, Jilly F Evans
Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted glycoprotein that converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to the bioactive phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and is the major enzyme generating circulating LPA. Inhibition of LPA signaling has profound antifibrotic effects in multiple organ systems, including lung, kidney, skin, and peritoneum. However, other LPA-generating pathways exist, and the role of ATX in localized tissue LPA production and fibrosis remains unclear and controversial. In this study, we describe the preclinical pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of a novel small-molecule ATX inhibitor, PAT-505 [3-((6-chloro-2-cyclopropyl-1-(1-ethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-7-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl) thio)-2-fluorobenzoic acid sodium salt]...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Kenichiro Enooku, Baasanjav Uranbileg, Hitoshi Ikeda, Makoto Kurano, Masaya Sato, Hiroki Kudo, Harufumi Maki, Kazuhiko Koike, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Norihiro Kokudo, Yutaka Yatomi
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) commonly develops in patients with liver fibrosis; in these patients, the blood levels of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its generating enzyme autotaxin (ATX) increase with the liver fibrosis stage. We aimed to examine the potential relevance of ATX and LPA in HCC. Fifty-eight HCC patients who underwent surgical treatment were consecutively enrolled in the study. Among the LPA receptors in HCC, higher LPA2 mRNA levels correlated with poorer differentiation, and higher LPA6 mRNA levels correlated with microvascular invasion, which suggested a higher malignant potential of HCC with increased LPA2 and LPA6 expression...
2016: PloS One
Flavia V Castelino, Gretchen Bain, Veronica A Pace, Katharine E Black, Leaya George, Clemens K Probst, Lance Goulet, Robert Lafyatis, Andrew M Tager
OBJECTIVE: We previously implicated the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) as having a role in dermal fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of this study was to identify the role of the LPA-producing enzyme autotaxin (ATX), and to connect the ATX/LPA and interleukin-6 (IL-6) pathways in SSc. METHODS: We evaluated the effect of a novel ATX inhibitor, PAT-048, on fibrosis and IL-6 expression in the mouse model of bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis. We used dermal fibroblasts from SSc patients and control subjects to evaluate LPA-induced expression of IL-6, and IL-6-induced expression of ATX...
December 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Willem-Jan Keune, Jens Hausmann, Ruth Bolier, Dagmar Tolenaars, Andreas Kremer, Tatjana Heidebrecht, Robbie P Joosten, Manjula Sunkara, Andrew J Morris, Elisa Matas-Rico, Wouter H Moolenaar, Ronald P Oude Elferink, Anastassis Perrakis
Autotaxin (ATX) generates the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX-LPA signalling is involved in multiple biological and pathophysiological processes, including vasculogenesis, fibrosis, cholestatic pruritus and tumour progression. ATX has a tripartite active site, combining a hydrophilic groove, a hydrophobic lipid-binding pocket and a tunnel of unclear function. We present crystal structures of rat ATX bound to 7α-hydroxycholesterol and the bile salt tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), showing how the tunnel selectively binds steroids...
April 14, 2016: Nature Communications
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