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Qingwen Lin, Jiali Chang, Mengfan Gao, Hongzhu Ma
Epichlorohydrin cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose microspheres (ECH/CMC) obtained by inverse suspension method and magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles encasing the ECH/CMC microspheres (M-ECH/CMC) obtained by two different methods were successfully prepared and compared. Their structures and morphologies were analyzed using polarizing microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The adsorption behaviors of M1-ECH/CMC for methylene blue (MB) in the single cationic dye wastewater, the cationic/anionic dye mixture in the absence or presence of co-existed additives (salt and surfactant) wastewater, were also investigated with UV-vis spectrometer...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Asad Jan, Brandon Jansonius, Alberto Delaidelli, Syam Prakash Somasekharan, Forum Bhanshali, Milène Vandal, Gian Luca Negri, Don Moerman, Ian MacKenzie, Frédéric Calon, Michael R Hayden, Stefan Taubert, Poul H Sorensen
Soluble oligomers of amyloid-β (Aβ) impair synaptic plasticity, perturb neuronal energy homeostasis, and are implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Therefore, significant efforts in AD drug discovery research aim to prevent the formation of Aβ oligomers or block their neurotoxicity. The eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF2K) plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity, and couples neurotransmission to local dendritic mRNA translation. Recent evidence indicates that Aβ oligomers activate neuronal eEF2K, suggesting a potential link to Aβ induced synaptic dysfunction...
October 17, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Wei-Jun Wu, Wan-Wan Jia, Xin-Hua Liu, Li-Long Pan, Qiu-Yan Zhang, Di Yang, Xiao-Yan Shen, Liang Liu, Yi Zhun Zhu
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third physiological gasotransmitter, is well recognized as an anti-inflammatory mediator in various inflammatory conditions. Herein, we explored the protective effects of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC, also known as ZYZ-802), an endogenous H2S modulator, on RA and determined the underlying mechanisms. In the present study, SPRC concentration-dependently attenuated inflammatory mediator expression, reactive oxidase species generation, and the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 in interleukin (IL)-1β-induced human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes MH7A...
October 6, 2016: Redox Biology
Tatsuro Iso, Takafumi Suzuki, Liam Baird, Masayuki Yamamoto
The transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2-related-factor-2) is essential for the oxidative and electrophilic stress responses. Keap1 (Kelch-like-ECH-associated-protein-1), an adaptor for a Cullin-3 (Cul3)-based ubiquitin ligase, regulates Nrf2 activity through proteasomal degradation, and acts as a sensor for oxidative and electrophilic stresses. The Keap1-Cul3 complex is a critical regulator of the cellular Nrf2 level, yet quantitative information regarding their endogenous intracellular concentrations in homeostatic conditions and during stress responses is unknown...
October 3, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Zhengyu Jiang, Mengchen Lu, Qi-Dong You
The transcription factor Nrf2 is the primary regulator of the cellular defense system, and enhancing Nrf2 activity has potential usages in various diseases, especially chronic age-related and inflammatory diseases. Recently, directly targeting Keap1-Nrf2 protein-protein interaction (PPI) has been an emerging strategy to selectively and effectively activate Nrf2. This Perspective summarizes the progress in the discovery and development of Keap1-Nrf2 PPI inhibitors, including the Keap1-Nrf2 regulatory mechanisms, biochemical techniques for inhibitor identification, and approaches for identifying peptide and small-molecule inhibitors, as well as discusses privileged structures and future directions for further development of Keap1-Nrf2 PPI inhibitors...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Xiaohui Su, Qingchun Huang, Jianyu Chen, Maojie Wang, Hudan Pan, Rui Wang, Hua Zhou, Zhanqing Zhou, Juan Liu, Fen Yang, Ting Li, Liang Liu
The activation of synovial fibroblasts (SFs) and the subsequent production and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the current study, rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) isolated from the joint of the patients were used to evaluate the suppressive effects of calycosin (CAL), a compound derived from the Chinese medicinal herb Radix Astragali, on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RASFs. The results demonstrated that increased mRNA expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-25 (IL-25), interleukin-33(IL-33) were significantly inhibited by CAL...
September 24, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
S K Bajpai, Navin Chand, Seema Tiwari, Shweta Soni
In this study, dextran (Dex) has been cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (Ech) to yield cross-linked hydrogels. These gels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The water absorption behavior of gels was studied in simulating gastric fluid (SGF) and simulating intestinal fluid (SIF) at 37°C. The data was interpreted by various kinetic models. The swelling was found to be totally diffusion controlled...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jia-Lang Zheng, Shuang-Shuang Yuan, Chang-Wen Wu, Zhen-Ming Lv
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental contaminant that poses serious risks to aquatic organisms and their associated ecosystem. The mechanisms underlying Cd-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in fish remain largely unknown. In this study, adult female zebrafish were exposed to 0 (control), 1mgL(-1) Cd for 24h and 96h, and the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by Cd were evaluated in the brain, liver and ovary. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in a time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in the brain and liver...
September 14, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
T Draheim, A Liessem, M Scheld, F Wilms, M Weißflog, B Denecke, T W Kensler, A Zendedel, C Beyer, M Kipp, C J Wruck, A Fragoulis, T Clarner
Oxidative stress critically contributes to the pathogenesis of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Astrocytes are the main regulators of oxidative homeostasis in the brain and dysregulation of these cells likely contributes to the accumulation of oxidative damage. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the main transcriptional regulator of the anti-oxidant stress defense. In this study, we elucidate the effects of astrocytic Nrf2-activation on brain-intrinsic inflammation and lesion development...
September 19, 2016: Glia
Hui-Jun Xu, Wei-Dan Jiang, Lin Feng, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
This study explored the effects of vitamin C on the physical barriers and immune barriers, and relative mRNA levels of signaling molecules in the gill of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) under infection of Flavobacterium columnare. The results indicated that compared with optimal vitamin C supplementation, vitamin C deficiency (2.9 mg/kg diet) (1) increased reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl (PC) contents (P < 0.05), decreased the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and mRNA levels (P < 0...
September 15, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Da Hyun Lee, Dai Hoon Han, Ki Taek Nam, Jeong Su Park, Soo Hyun Kim, Milim Lee, Gyuri Kim, Byung Soh Min, Bong-Soo Cha, Yu Seol Lee, Su Haeng Sung, Haengdueng Jeong, Hye Won Ji, Moon Joo Lee, Jae Sung Lee, Hui-Young Lee, Yoomi Chun, Joungmok Kim, Masaaki Komatsu, Yong-Ho Lee, Soo Han Bae
Oxidative stress is important for the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a chronic disease that ranges from hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Nrf2-Keap1) pathway is essential for cytoprotection against oxidative stress. In this study, we found that oxidative stress or inflammatory biomarkers and TUNEL positive cells were markedly increased in NASH patients compared to normal or simple steatosis...
September 12, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Judy L Bolton, Tareisha L Dunlap
Quinones represent a class of toxicological intermediates, which can create a variety of hazardous effects in vivo including, acute cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenesis. In contrast, quinones can induce cytoprotection through induction of detoxification enzymes, anti-inflammatory activities, and modification of redox status. The mechanisms by which quinones cause these effects can be quite complex. The various biological targets of quinones depend on their rate and site of formation and their reactivity...
September 12, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Fang Zhu, Luwei Li, Junde Xing
Microwave-assisted inverse emulsion polymerization method was used to prepare Cd(II) imprinted polymer (IIP) by using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and acrylamide (AM) as functional monomer, epichlorohydrin (ECH) as crossing-linking agent, ammonium persulfate as initiator. The Cd(II) imprinted polymer was characterized by SEM, FTIR and TGA. The influences of initial concentration of Cd(II), pH values, temperature, time and competitive ions on adsorption capacity and recognition properties are investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the adsorption capacity could reach 107mg/g...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Yijun Tian, Kongming Wu, Qian Liu, Na Han, Li Zhang, Qian Chu, Yuan Chen
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of platinum-based drugs on nuclear-factor erythroid2 like 2 (NRF2) signaling in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines with or without Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) mutations and to determine the role of NRF2 and KEAP1 on platinum-based drug treatment. METHODS: We used real-time PCR to assess relative mRNA expression and used western blotting and immunofluorescence assays to assess protein expression...
2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Stephen D Silberstein, Laszlo L Mechtler, David B Kudrow, Anne H Calhoun, Candace McClure, Joel R Saper, Eric J Liebler, Emily Rubenstein Engel, Stewart J Tepper
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) as an acute cluster headache (CH) treatment. BACKGROUND: Many patients with CH experience excruciating attacks at a frequency that is not sufficiently addressed by current symptomatic treatments. METHODS: One hundred fifty subjects were enrolled and randomized (1:1) to receive nVNS or sham treatment for ≤1 month during a double-blind phase; completers could enter a 3-month nVNS open-label phase...
September 2016: Headache
Debkumar Chakraborty, Gaganjot Gupta, Baljinder Kaur
Metabolic engineering and construction of recombinant Escherichia coli strains carrying feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase genes for the bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin offers an alternative way to produce vanillin. Isolation and designing of fcs and ech genes was carried out using computer assisted protocol and the designed vanillin biosynthetic gene cassette was cloned in pCCIBAC expression vector for introduction in E. coli top 10. Recombinant strain was implemented for the statistical optimization of process parameters influencing F A to vanillin biotransformation...
December 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
Venkatachalam Sukumaran, Se Chang Park, Sib Sankar Giri
This study evaluated the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) as a feeding supplement on the growth, skin mucus immune parameters, and cytokine-related gene expression of Labeo rohita, and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Diets containing six different concentrations of dried ginger (0% [basal diet], 0.2% [G2], 0.4% [G4], 0.6% [G6], 0.8% [G8], and 1.0% [G10] were fed to fish (average weight: 12.3 g) for 60 days. Growth parameters were examined at 30 and 60 days post-feeding. Skin mucosal immune responses and gene expression were examined 60 days post-feeding...
October 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xiaoxia Sun, Hong Zuo, Chunmei Liu, Yafeng Yang
The kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling axis plays an important role in regulating oxidative stress in ischemic cardiomyocytes. Targeting Keap1 in order to promote Nrf2 activation is considered a potential method for protecting cardiomyocytes against ischemic injury. In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have emerged as powerful tools for controlling gene expression. The present study aimed to determine whether Keap1-Nrf2 was regulated by specific miRNAs in cardiomyocytes under hypoxic conditions...
October 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Ying Guan, Xian-Ming Qi, Ge-Gu Chen, Feng Peng, Run-Cang Sun
This study introduces a facile and green route to fabricate film from bio-based polymers. The film has been prepared by the cross-linking reaction of quaternized hemicelluloses (QH) and chitosan (CHO) with epichlorohydrin (ECH) as crosslinker. It exhibits an excellently mechanical performance as a result of its high tensile strength (up to 37MPa). Importantly, the roughness of film was 2-5nm in the area of 400nm, and smooth surface with pores were presented on the film based on the results of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM)...
November 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Anju Singh, Sreedhar Venkannagari, Kyu H Oh, Ya-Qin Zhang, Jason M Rohde, Li Liu, Sridhar Nimmagadda, Kuladeep Sudini, Kyle R Brimacombe, Sachin Gajghate, Jinfang Ma, Amy Wang, Xin Xu, Sampada A Shahane, Menghang Xia, Juhyung Woo, George A Mensah, Zhibin Wang, Marc Ferrer, Edward Gabrielson, Zhuyin Li, Fraydoon Rastinejad, Min Shen, Matthew B Boxer, Shyam Biswal
Loss of function mutations in Kelch-like ECH Associated Protein 1 (KEAP1), or gain-of-function mutations in nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), are common in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and associated with therapeutic resistance. To discover novel NRF2 inhibitors for targeted therapy, we conducted a quantitative high-throughput screen using a diverse set of ∼400 000 small molecules (Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository Library, MLSMR) at the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences...
October 17, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
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