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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405129/effect-of-addition-of-fentanyl-and-clonidine-to-local-anesthetic-solution-in-peribulbar-block
#1
Poonam Nehra, Vrinda Oza, Vandana Parmar, Pooja Fumakiya
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of addition of fentanyl and clonidine as adjuvants to bupivacaine and lignocaine in peribulbar block. METHODS: The study was conducted on 105 adult patients of either sex, of ASA grade I and II undergoing ophthalmic surgeries. Patients were randomly divided into 3 groups of 35 each. All the patients were given peribulbuar block with 5ml lignocaine 2% +3 ml bupivacaine 0.5% +1 ml hyaluronidase (250 IU). In addition to this 1 ml normal saline was added to Group S, 25 μg fentanyl to Group F and 25 μg clonidine to Group C...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302178/laser-peripheral-iridotomy-versus-laser-peripheral-iridotomy-plus-laser-peripheral-iridoplasty-in-the-treatment-of-multi-mechanism-angle-closure-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Shida Chen, Jianhua Lv, Sujie Fan, Hong Zhang, Lin Xie, Ling Xu, Bing Jiang, Huipin Yuan, Yuanbo Liang, Shuning Li, Pingyan Chen, Xiulan Zhang, Ningli Wang
BACKGROUND: China has the largest burden of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) worldwide. The mechanism of the angle closure is complex and includes pupillary block and non-pupillary block. Currently, opinion is that laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) alone is not sufficient to prevent disease progression. Laser peripheral iridoplasty (LPIP) is an alternative and effective way of widening the angle recess in eyes that are affected by primary angle closure (PAC). However, it is not known if greater benefit would be achieved using LPI plus LPIP for PAC with multiple mechanisms (MAC)...
March 17, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288650/analysis-of-an-international-collaboration-for-capacity-building-of-human-resources-for-eye-care-case-study-of-the-college-college-vision-2020-link
#3
Nyawira Mwangi, Marcia Zondervan, Covadonga Bascaran
BACKGROUND: There is an extreme health workforce shortage in Eastern, Central, and Southern Africa. Shortage of eye care workers impedes effective implementation of prevention of blindness programs. The World Health Organization has identified education, partnership, leadership, financing, and policy as intertwined interventions that are critical to resolving this crisis on the long term. CASE PRESENTATION: The VISION 2020 LINK between the College of Ophthalmology of Eastern, Central, and Southern Africa and the Royal College of Ophthalmologists in the United Kingdom aims to increase the quantity and quality of eye care training in East, Central, and Southern Africa through a focus on five strategic areas: fellowship examination for ophthalmologists, training the trainers, curriculum development for residents in ophthalmology and ophthalmic clinical officers, continuous professional development (CPD), and mentoring program for young ophthalmologists...
March 14, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283852/short-term-general-anesthesia-for-retro-bulbar-block-in-ophthalmic-surgery-generates-no-significant-hypercapnia
#4
Werner Baulig, Monica Weber, Beatrice Beck-Schimmer, Oliver M Theusinger, Peter Biro
To assess the impact of short time hypnosis for retro-bulbar anesthesia on ventilation in patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery of the anterior eye chamber. In all patients, a combined continuous transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (PtcCO2) and partial oxygen saturation (SpO2) measurement was applied in addition to routine monitoring. To enable unconscious application of retro-bulbar anesthesia, intravenous thiopental was given in one to multiple bolus doses. Transient breathing support included chin lift, Esmarch maneuver and manual hand-bag ventilation via face mask...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237426/the-role-of-the-human-visual-cortex-in-assessment-of-the-long-term-durability-of-retinal-gene-therapy-in-follow-on-rpe65-clinical-trial-patients
#5
Manzar Ashtari, Elena S Nikonova, Kathleen A Marshall, Gloria J Young, Puya Aravand, Wei Pan, Gui-Shuang Ying, Aimee E Willett, Mani Mahmoudian, Albert M Maguire, Jean Bennett
PURPOSE: Gene therapy (GT) has offered immense hope to individuals who are visually impaired because of RPE65 mutations. Although GT has shown great success in clinical trials enrolling these individuals, evidence for stability and durability of this treatment over time is still unknown. Herein we explored the value of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as an objective measure to assess independently the longevity of retinal GT. DESIGN: Individuals with RPE65 mutations who underwent GT in their worse-seeing eye in a phase 1 clinical trial received a second subretinal injection in their contralateral eye in a follow-on clinical trial...
February 22, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208898/to-study-the-efficacy-of-difluprednate-ophthalmic-emulsion-and-prednisolone-acetate-ophthalmic-suspension-on-post-operative-inflammation-in-cataract-surgery
#6
Punita Garg, Nupur Tuteja, Shazia Qayum
INTRODUCTION: Senile cataract is the most common cause of visual impairment. Removal of cataract and implantation of intraocular lens implantation (IOL) is the main surgical approach for cataract. The major block in quick visual rehabilitation of the patient is post-operative inflammation. To limit post-operative inflammation corticosteroids drugs are used in routine prophylactically. Topical prednisolone acetate 1% and betamethasone 0.1% remain gold standard to control post-operative inflammation but newer drugs like difluprednate, loteprednol are also effective in controlling inflammation...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163936/surdity-in-the-or-an-unusual-case-of-brainstem-anesthesia
#7
Howard D Palte, Don P Hoa, Aldo Pavon Canseco
Brainstem anesthesia is a potentially life-threatening complication of regional ophthalmic anesthesia. This case report chronicles an unusual presentation of brainstem anesthesia following an eye block. The unique features of this case were the presenting symptoms of deafness and slurred speech in the absence of loss of consciousness, respiratory depression, or contralateral ophthalmoplegia. This report underscores two key points: first, the importance of ongoing patient monitoring after performance of an eye block; second, the exigency of supportive therapy in suspected cases of brainstem anesthesia...
2017: Case Reports in Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146368/roles-of-il-6-in-ocular-inflammation-a-review
#8
Hassan Ghasemi
PURPOSE: This review represents the current in vitro, in vivo animal and human researches on the roles of IL-6 in inflammatory ocular disorders. Data sources were literature reviewed using PubMed, Medline, and ISI Databases (since 1981 to late 2016). Search items included interleukine-6 (IL-6); chemokine; cytokine, alone or in combination with serum, aqueous, vitreous, eye, ocular, ophthalmic, and review. RESULTS: IL-6 is found to be involved in ocular inflammation...
February 1, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074638/clinical-management-of-candida-albicans-keratomycosis-in-a-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus
#9
Claire A Simeone, John P Traversi, Jenny M Meegan, Carolina LeBert, Carmen M H Colitz, Eric D Jensen
OBJECTIVE: Corneal ulceration secondary to trauma commonly affects marine mammals, often with opportunistic secondary bacterial or fungal infections. This report characterizes the combined use of auriculopalpebral and ophthalmic nerve blocks, adipose-derived stem cells, and subconjunctival injections for successful treatment of corneal trauma and infection in dolphins. ANIMAL STUDIED: An 11-year-old, female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) presented with bilateral diffuse corneal opacities, which progressed to keratomycosis caused by Candida albicans...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058622/lifitegrast-ophthalmic-solution-5-a-review-in-dry-eye-disease
#10
REVIEW
Gillian M Keating
Lifitegrast is a novel small molecule integrin antagonist that blocks the binding of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) to lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1). Lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5% (Xiidra™) was recently approved in the USA for the treatment of dry eye disease. The efficacy of lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5% was compared with vehicle in a 12-week phase 2 study and three 12-week phase 3 studies (OPUS-1, OPUS-2 and OPUS-3) in patients with dry eye disease. Taken as a whole, results of these trials support the treatment effect of lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5% in improving a symptom of dry eye disease (i...
February 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058167/isolated-microspherophakia-presenting-with-angle-closure-glaucoma
#11
Tülay Şimşek, Emrullah Beyazyıldız, Enver Şimşek, Faruk Öztürk
We report a case of 13-year-old girl presenting to our clinic with blurred vision in both eyes. Ophthalmic examination revealed high myopia and angle-closure glaucoma due to pupillary block caused by small, spherical crystalline lenses. Treatment approaches to glaucoma in patients with microspherophakia are discussed in this case report.
October 2016: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996187/gasserian-ganglion-and-retrobulbar-nerve-block-in-the-treatment-of-ophthalmic-postherpetic-neuralgia-a-case-report
#12
Jie Huang, Zhongge Ni, Philip Finch
OBJECTIVES: Varicella zoster virus reactivation can cause permanent histological changes in the central and peripheral nervous system. Neural inflammatory changes or damage to the dorsal root ganglia sensory nerve fibers during reactivation can lead to postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). For PHN of the first division of the fifth cranial nerve (ophthalmic division of the trigeminal ganglion), there is evidence of inflammatory change in the ganglion and adjacent ocular neural structures. First division trigeminal nerve PHN can prove to be difficult and sometimes even impossible to manage despite the use of a wide range of conservative measures, including anticonvulsant and antidepressant medication...
December 20, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994394/comparison-of-olive-tipped-and-conventional-steven-s-cannula-for-sub-tenon-ophthalmic-anesthesia
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Saeed Al-Motowa, Nauman Ahmad, Rajiv Khandekar, Abdul Zahoor
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of the olive tipped (OT) cannula to the conventional Steven's cannula for sub-Tenon block (STB) before cataract surgery. METHODS: This prospective, randomized, double-masked compared STB delivered in cataract surgery patients with an OT cannula or a conventional Steven's cannula (ST). Outcome variables included the akinesia score and lid movement scores at 5 and 10 min. The patient perception of pain during delivery of the STB and surgery were also compared between groups...
October 2016: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966943/poly-vinyl-alcohol-hydrogels-reinforced-with-nanocellulose-for-ophthalmic-applications-general-characteristics-and-optical-properties
#14
Gopi Krishna Tummala, Ramiro Rojas, Albert Mihranyan
Globally, uncorrected refractive errors are one of the main causes of visual impairment, and contact lenses form an important part of modern day eye care and culture. Several hydrogels with varying physicochemical properties are in use to manufacture soft contact lenses. Hydrogels are generally too soft and reinforcement with appropriate materials is desirable to achieve high water content without compromising mechanical properties. In this study, we have developed a highly transparent macroporous hydrogel with water content >90%, by combining poly(vinyl alcohol) with nanocellulose...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847621/fusion-proteins-for-treatment-of-retinal-diseases-aflibercept-ziv-aflibercept-and-conbercept
#15
REVIEW
João Rafael de Oliveira Dias, Gabriel Costa de Andrade, Eduardo Amorim Novais, Michel Eid Farah, Eduardo Büchele Rodrigues
In the last few years, monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of retinal neovascular diseases. More recently, a different class of drugs, fusion proteins, has provided an alternative treatment strategy with pharmacological differences. In addition to commercially available aflibercept, two other drugs, ziv-aflibercept and conbercept, have been studied in antiangiogenic treatment of ocular diseases. In this scenario, a critical review of the currently available data regarding fusion proteins in ophthalmic diseases may be a timely and important contribution...
2016: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830199/qualitative-evaluation-of-anterior-segment-in-angle-closure-disease-using-anterior-segment-optical-coherence-tomography
#16
Sasan Moghimi, Rebecca Chen, Nikoo Hamzeh, Nassim Khatibi, Shan C Lin
PURPOSE: To evaluate different mechanisms of primary angle closure (PAC) and to quantify anterior chamber (AC) parameters in different subtypes of angle closure disease using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). METHODS: In this prospective study, 115 eyes of 115 patients with angle closure disease were included and categorized into three groups: 1) fellow eyes of acute angle closure (AAC; 40 eyes); 2) primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG; 39 eyes); and 3) primary angle closure suspect (PACS; 36 eyes)...
December 2016: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806381/integrin-alpha-9-blockade-suppresses-lymphatic-valve-formation-and-promotes-transplant-survival
#17
Gyeong Jin Kang, Tan Truong, Eric Huang, Valerie Su, Shaokui Ge, Lu Chen
Purpose: The lymphatic pathway mediates transplant rejection. We recently reported that lymphatic vessels develop luminal valves in the cornea during lymphangiogenesis, and these valves express integrin alpha 9 (Itga-9) and play a critical role in directing lymph flow. In this study, we used an allogeneic corneal transplantation model to investigate whether Itga-9 blockade could suppress valvulogenesis after transplantation, and how this effect would influence the outcomes of the transplants...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702506/a-novel-ph-induced-thermosensitive-hydrogel-composed-of-carboxymethyl-chitosan-and-poloxamer-cross-linked-by-glutaraldehyde-for-ophthalmic-drug-delivery
#18
Shihui Yu, Xiaoyu Zhang, Guoxin Tan, Lei Tian, Dandan Liu, Yaxuan Liu, Xinggang Yang, Weisan Pan
In this work, a stimuli-responsive three dimensional cross-linked hydrogel system containing carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and poloxamer composed of a poly (ethylene oxide)/poly (propylene oxide)/poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymer was constructed, and its aqueous solution was found to undergo a reversible sol-gel transition upon a temperature and/or pH change at a very low concentration. The hydrogels were synthesized via a cross-linking reaction using glutaraldehyde (GA) as the cross-linking agent...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662067/local-anesthetic-induced-myotoxicity-after-continuous-adductor-canal-block
#19
Joseph M Neal, Francis V Salinas, Daniel S Choi
OBJECTIVE: Local anesthetic-induced myotoxicity occurs consistently in animal models, yet is reported rarely in humans. Herein, we describe 3 sentinel cases of local anesthetic myotoxicity after continuous adductor canal block (ACB). CASE REPORT: Three patients underwent total knee arthroplasty that was managed with subarachnoid block plus ACB induced with 1.5% lidocaine or 1.5% mepivacaine bolus followed by 0.2% ropivacaine at 8 mL/h. Although initial postoperative recovery was normal, each patient on either postoperative day 1 or 2 developed progressive, profound weakness of the quadriceps muscles...
November 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493788/paradoxical-reactions-under-tnf-%C3%AE-blocking-agents-and-other-biological-agents-given-for-chronic-immune-mediated-diseases-an-analytical-and-comprehensive-overview
#20
REVIEW
Éric Toussirot, François Aubin
Paradoxical adverse events (PAEs) have been reported during biological treatment for chronic immune-mediated diseases. PAEs are defined as the occurrence during biological agent therapy of a pathological condition that usually responds to this class of drug. A wide range of PAEs have been reported including dermatological, intestinal and ophthalmic conditions, mainly with antitumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) agents. True PAEs include psoriasis, Crohn's disease and hidradenitis suppurativa. Other PAEs may be qualified as borderline and include uveitis, scleritis, sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases (granuloma annulare, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis), vasculitis, vitiligo and alopecia areata...
2016: RMD Open
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