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ophthalmic block

Awy Chua, M J Chua, Pca Kam
Significant surgical advances have been made recently in corneal transplantation. Penetrating keratoplasty was the dominant method from 1905, until selective lamellar keratoplasty emerged as the preferred technique over the last 20 years. Advanced techniques such as corneal limbal stem cell transplant and keratoprosthesis are also available. The major surgical complications of corneal transplantation are extrusion of ocular content and expulsive choroidal haemorrhage. It is essential for an ophthalmic anaesthetist to have a good understanding of these new surgical procedures so as to provide optimal surgical conditions...
March 2018: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Carla D Hibbs, Paul M Barrett, D Dustin Dees
PURPOSE: To determine intraocular pressure (IOP) reference intervals in eyes of healthy miniature donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) via rebound and applanation tonometry. METHODS: Complete ophthalmic and physical examinations were performed by board-certified veterinary ophthalmologists. Inclusion criteria for animals participating in this study were dictated by the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) reference interval guidelines. Intraocular pressure estimates (TonoVet® and TonoPen XL® ) were obtained in both eyes...
March 8, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Heinrich Rüschen, Kavitha Aravinth, Catey Bunce, Desta Bokre
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronidase has been used over many decades as an adjunct to local anaesthetic solution to improve the speed of onset of eye blocks and to provide better akinesia and analgesia. With the evolution of modern eye surgery techniques, fast onset and akinesia are not essential requirements anymore. The assumption that the addition of hyaluronidase to local anaesthetic injections confers better analgesia for the patient needs to be examined. There has been no recent systematic review to provide evidence that hyaluronidase actually improves analgesia...
March 2, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jorge E Miranda-Calderon, Lilia Gutierrez, Luis Ocampo, Ponciano Garcia-Gutierrez, Graciela Tapia, Hector Sumano
BACKGROUND: There is a concern about the frequent use of ciprofloxacin in veterinary medicine is linked to increased antimicrobial resistance. The corresponding fluoroquinolone for veterinary use is enrofloxacin. A new solvate form of enrofloxacin, as dihydrate-hydrochloride (enro-C) with higher water solubility than the parent compound, was formulated as an ophthalmic solution (pH 5). A multicentre, longitudinal, non-inferiority clinical study in a non-hospital environment was designed to treat 36 dogs affected by tobramycin-unresponsive conjunctivitis with either the experimental 0...
February 26, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
George J Kahaly, Michaela Riedl, Jochem König, Susanne Pitz, Katharina Ponto, Tanja Diana, Elena Kampmann, Elisa Kolbe, Anja Eckstein, Lars C Moeller, Dagmar Führer, Mario Salvi, Nicola Curro, Irene Campi, Danila Covelli, Marenza Leo, Michele Marinò, Francesca Menconi, Claudio Marcocci, Luigi Bartalena, Petros Perros, Wilmar M Wiersinga
BACKGROUND: European guidelines recommend intravenous methylprednisolone as first-line treatment for active and severe Graves' orbitopathy; however, it is common for patients to have no response or have relapse after discontinuation of treatment. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of add-on mycophenolate to methylprednisolone in comparison with methylprednisolone alone in patients with moderate-to-severe Graves' orbitopathy. METHODS: MINGO was an observer-masked, multicentre, block-randomised, centre-stratified trial done in two centres in Germany and two in Italy...
January 30, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Zhen Chen, Ninghua Ni, Yan Mei, Zhengrong Yang
Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells have crucial roles in the initiation and development of human ophthalmic diseases. Our previous study suggested that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is a potential target in the progression and pathogenesis of human proliferative vitreoretinopathy disease. The present study further analyzed the role of TAK1 inhibitor, LYTAK1, in human RPE cells and explored the potential molecular mechanism of LYTAK1-mediated proliferation of human RPE cells...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Michael Y K Mak, Peng Yan, Jonathan Park, Lavnish Joshi, Daniel Warder, Cassandra Lee, Husayn Gulamhusein, Robert G Devenyi, Wai-Ching Lam
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this randomized, single-masked clinical trial is to explore whether cefazolin mixed with 2% lidocaine can reduce pain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients naïve to ophthalmic surgery were randomized to subconjunctival injection of either a 0.5 mL cefazolin-balanced salt solution (0.3 mL cefazolin and 0.2 mL balanced salt solution) or 0.5 mL cefazolin-lidocaine solution (0.3 mL cefazolin and 0.2 mL 2% lidocaine) during retinal surgery with a retrobulbar block...
November 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Emmy Y Li, Emily S Wong, Alex C Wong, Hunter K Yuen
Importance: Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EN-DCR) is emerging as the preferred procedure in the management of nasolacrimal duct obstructions. However, its safety and long-term efficacy in the setting of acute dacryocystitis with lacrimal sac abscess have not been well studied. Objective: To compare outcomes of EN-DCR as primary treatment with EN-DCR as a secondary treatment after percutaneous drainage of lacrimal sac abscess in acute dacryocystitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial was conducted from October 1, 2012, to October 31, 2015, at a tertiary ophthalmic center...
December 1, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
Kenneth N Maclean, Hua Jiang, Stefanos Aivazidis, Eugene Kim, Colin T Shearn, Peter S Harris, Dennis R Petersen, Robert H Allen, Sally P Stabler, James R Roede
Cystathionine β-synthase-deficient homocystinuria (HCU) is a poorly understood, life-threatening inborn error of sulfur metabolism. Analysis of hepatic glutathione (GSH) metabolism in a mouse model of HCU demonstrated significant depletion of cysteine, GSH, and GSH disulfide independent of the block in trans-sulfuration compared with wild-type controls. HCU induced the expression of the catalytic and regulatory subunits of γ-glutamyl ligase, GSH synthase (GS), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase 1, 5-oxoprolinase (OPLAH), and the GSH-dependent methylglyoxal detoxification enzyme, glyoxalase-1...
November 3, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Martyna Tomczyk-Socha, Anna Turno-Kręcicka
Glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of ophthalmic diseases leading to irreversible damage to the optic nerve. While the overall mechanism responsible for glaucoma remains obscure, the most important risk factor is elevated intraocular pressure. The current therapies, whether pharmacological or surgical, are primarily symptomatic with the aim to lower the intraocular pressure (IOP). Poorer response to treatment is associated, for example, with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, which is determined by blocking the trabecular meshwork (TM) both by pigment grains and the pseudoexfoliation material...
December 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
Ting Huang, Ruifen Ye, Chen Ouyang, Chao Hou, Yunwei Hu, Qianni Wu
PURPOSE: To investigate whether use of donors predisposed by corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) reduced myopic refractive errors for keratoconic eyes after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. METHODS: One hundred sixteen eyes of 116 patients with keratoconus from Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center were enrolled. Using stratified block randomization, we assigned eligible eyes to the CXL graft group (Group 1) or conventional graft group (Group 2)...
December 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Masoud Selk Ghaffari, Amin Sabzevari, SeyedMehdi Ghamsari, Hussein Shad
This study was conducted to establish normal reference range for the Schirmer tear test (STT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in clinically normal donkeys for use in clinical practice. Sixteen adult Ethiopian domestic donkeys were used in this study. Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed without chemical restraint. STT values were evaluated in both eyes of all donkeys using a commercial STT strip. IOP was measured in both eyes with a Tono-Pen Vet (Reichert. USA) without using regional nerve blocks...
November 25, 2017: Veterinary Record
Leticia Ortega-Evangelio, Javier Navarrete-Sanchis, Basil K Williams, Juan Miguel Tomás-Torrent
PURPOSE: Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a panuveitis syndrome that may lead to severe complications such as cystoid macular edema (CME). There is no consensus about the best treatment. We report one case of CME secondary to ARN managed with intravitreal aflibercept. CASE REPORT: A 41-year-old woman with a history of successfully treated varicella-zoster virus-associated ARN developed an epiretinal membrane (ERM) and underwent pars plana vitrectomy, ERM removal, inner limiting membrane peel, and lensectomy...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Hida Nierenburg, Morgane Swift Morris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: External nasal neuralgia is a rare syndrome of atypical facial pain for which there is limited reports in the scientific literature. We aim to review diagnosis and provide an update on treatments for this rare condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Etiology has been documented as post-traumatic due to direct trauma to the nose area and in few case reports, idiopathic. Sensory innervation of the nose arises from the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve...
September 13, 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Gusztáv Klenk, József Katona, Gábor Kenderfi, János Lestyán, Katalin Gombos, Andor Hirschberg
INTRODUCTION: Although orbital compartment syndrome is a rare condition, it is still the most common cause of blindness following simple or complicated facial fractures. Its pathomechanism is similar to the compartment syndrome in the limb. Little extra fluid (blood, oedema, brain, foreign body) in a non-space yielding space results with increasingly higher pressures within a short period of time. Unless urgent surgical intervention is performed the blocked circulation of the central retinal artery will result irreversible ophthalmic nerve damage and blindness...
September 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
Eric D Donnenfeld, Henry D Perry, Alanna S Nattis, Eric D Rosenberg
Dry eye disease (DED) is a common ocular disorder that can have a substantial burden on quality of life and daily activities. Lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5.0% is the first medication approved in the US for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of DED. The aim of this article is to summarize the preclinical and clinical data on lifitegrast and discuss how lifitegrast may fit into the current treatment landscape for DED. Areas covered: A literature search of published preclinical and clinical data was conducted to review the chemistry, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy/safety of lifitegrast...
October 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Sho Kobayashi, Jaeyong Lee, Toshifumi Takao, Junichi Fujii
Glutathione (GSH) plays pivotal roles in antioxidation and detoxification. The transsulfuration pathway, in conjunction with methionine metabolism, produces equimolar amounts of cysteine (Cys) and 2-oxobutyric acid (2OB). The resulting 2OB is then converted into 2-aminobutyric acid (2AB) by a transaminase and is utilized as a substitute for Cys by the GSH-synthesizing machinery to produce ophthalmic acid (OPT). By establishing a method for simultaneously measuring Cys, GSH, and OPT by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that fasting causes an elevation in OPT levels in the liver and blood plasma, even though the levels of Cys and GSH are decreased...
September 23, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Aya Kokune-Takahashi, Masahiko Ayaki, Kazuo Tsubota, Kazuno Negishi
This study aimed to identify the type of cataract opacity associated with subjective sleep quality for cataract patients. A total of 180 consecutive patients (average age 74.2 years) underwent cataract surgery with implantation of an ultraviolet-blocking or blue light-blocking intraocular lens. The participants' subjective sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) before and at 2 months after surgery. Patients were divided into two groups for analysis: normal sleepers (preoperative PSQI ≤5) and poor sleepers (preoperative PSQI ≥6)...
August 29, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
Olivia Zambrowski, Elsa Tavernier, Eric H Souied, Thomas Desmidt, Amélie Le Gouge, David Bellicaud, Béatrice Cochener, Nadège Limousin, Caroline Hommet, Elisabeth Autret-Leca, Pierre-Jean Pisella, Vincent Camus
OBJECTIVES: Both advanced age and depression are characterized by changes in sleep patterns. Light exposure is one of the main synchronizers of circadian cycles and influences sleep by inhibiting melatonin secretion, which is mostly sensitive to light of low wavelengths (blue). Blue-blocking (yellow) intraocular lenses (IOLs) have supplanted the usual UV-blocking (clear) IOLs during cataract surgery to prevent age-related macular degeneration, however, the impact of yellow IOLs on sleep and mood is unclear...
July 10, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
Yaara Forer, Colin Block, Shahar Frenkel
PURPOSE: The goal of this experiment was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of routine preoperative hand washing using commercial medicated sponge brushes versus an alcoholic hand rub, by comparing bacterial growth on ophthalmic surgeons' hands after application of each of these methods. METHODS: Twenty ophthalmic surgeons were recruited at the Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center in Jerusalem, Israel. Samples were collected twice from the hands of each surgeon after hand decontamination using two different protocols during routine surgical practice...
September 2017: Current Eye Research
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