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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346106/spatial-position-measurement-system-for-surgical-navigation-using-3-d-image-marker-based-tracking-tools-with-compact-volume
#1
Zhencheng Fan, Guowen Chen, Junchen Wang, Hongen Liao
We develop a spatial position measurement system using three-dimensional (3-D) image marker-based tracking tools targeted at surgical navigation in minimally invasive surgery. We generate 3-D image markers with spatial information encoded to 2-D images, design tracking tools with the 3-D image markers, and analyze the tracking tools' theoretical spatial errors, which are primarily limited by the spatial distribution of reconstructed fiducial 3-D markers. A pattern analysis-based positional measurement algorithm is developed to calculate the tool's spatial information using its spatial configuration...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345956/measuring-three-dimensional-strain-and-structural-defects-in-a-single-ingaas-nanowire-using-coherent-x-ray-multi-angle-bragg-projection-ptychography
#2
Megan O Hill, Irene Calvo-Almazan, Mark Allain, Martin Holt, Andrew Ulvestad, Julian Treu, Gregor Koblmueller, Chunyi Huang, Xiaojing Huang, Hanfei Yan, E Nazarestski, Yong S Chu, G Brian Stephenson, Virginie Chamard, Lincoln Lauhon, Stephan O Hruszkewycz
III-As nanowires are candidates for near infrared light emitters and detectors that can be directly integrated onto silicon. However, nanoscale to microscale variations in structure, composition, and strain within a given nanowire, as well as variations between nanowires, pose challenges to correlating microstructure with device performance. In this work, we utilize coherent nano-focused x-rays to characterize stacking defects and strain in a single InGaAs nanowire supported on Si. By reconstructing diffraction patterns from the 2-1-10 Bragg peak, we show that the lattice orientation varies along the length of the wire, while the strain field along the cross-section is largely unaffected, leaving the band structure unperturbed...
January 18, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343634/fluttering-of-growing-leaves-as-a-way-to-reach-flatness-experimental-evidence-on-persea-americana
#3
Julien Derr, Renaud Bastien, Étienne Couturier, Stéphane Douady
Simple leaves show unexpected growth motions: the midrib of the leaves swings periodically in association with buckling events of the leaf blade, giving the impression that the leaves are fluttering. The quantitative kinematic analysis of this motion provides information about the respective growth between the main vein and the lamina. Our three-dimensional reconstruction of an avocado tree leaf shows that the conductor of the motion is the midrib, presenting continuous oscillations and inducing buckling events on the blade...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342908/rapid-3d-reconstruction-for-image-sequence-acquired-from-uav-camera
#4
Yufu Qu, Jianyu Huang, Xuan Zhang
In order to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) structures from an image sequence captured by unmanned aerial vehicles' camera (UAVs) and improve the processing speed, we propose a rapid 3D reconstruction method that is based on an image queue, considering the continuity and relevance of UAV camera images. The proposed approach first compresses the feature points of each image into three principal component points by using the principal component analysis method. In order to select the key images suitable for 3D reconstruction, the principal component points are used to estimate the interrelationships between images...
January 14, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341616/stochasticity-of-pores-interconnectivity-in-li-o2-batteries-and-its-impact-on-the-variations-in-electrochemical-performance
#5
Amangeldi Torayev, José Alexis Rucci, Pieter M Magusin, Arnaud Demortiere, Vincent De Andrade, Clare P Grey, Céline Merlet, Alejandro A Franco
While large dispersions in electrochemical performance have been reported for lithium oxygen batteries in the literature, they have not been investigated in any depth. The variability in the results is often assumed to arise from differences in cell design, electrode structure, handling and cell preparation at different times. An accurate theoretical framework turns out to be needed to get a better insight into the mechanisms underneath and to interpreting experimental results. Here, we develop and use a pore network model to simulate the electrochemical performance of three-dimensionally resolved lithium-oxygen cathode mesostructures obtained from TXM nano-computed tomography images...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341375/transparency-enhancing-technology-allows-three-dimensional-assessment-of-gastrointestinal-mucosa-a-porcine-model
#6
Hiroya Mizutani, Satoshi Ono, Tetsuo Ushiku, Yotaro Kudo, Masako Ikemura, Natsuko Kageyama, Nobutake Yamamichi, Mitsuhiro Fujishiro, Takao Someya, Masashi Fukayama, Kazuhiko Koike, Hiroshi Onodera
Although high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of endoscopically resected gastrointestinal specimens can help elucidating morphological features of gastrointestinal mucosa or tumor, there are no established methods to achieve this without breaking specimens apart. We evaluated the utility of transparency-enhancing technology for three-dimensional assessment of gastrointestinal mucosa in porcine models. Esophagus, stomach, and colon mucosa samples obtained from a sacrificed swine were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, and subsequently deparaffinized for analysis...
January 17, 2018: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341015/in-utero-mri-of-mouse-embryos
#7
Jiangyang Zhang, Dan Wu, Daniel H Turnbull
Genetically engineered mouse models are used extensively as models of human development and developmental diseases. Conventional histological approaches are static and two-dimensional, and do not provide a full understanding of the dynamic, spatiotemporal changes in developing mouse embryos. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a noninvasive and longitudinal approach for three-dimensional in utero imaging of normal and mutant mouse embryos. In this chapter, we describe MRI approaches that have been developed for imaging the living embryonic mouse brain and vasculature...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338906/virtual-computed-tomography-morphometry-of-the-patella-for-estimation-of-sex-using-postmortem-japanese-adult-data-in-forensic-identification
#8
Tomomi Michiue, Asmaa Mohammed Hishmat, Shigeki Oritani, Kazunori Miyamoto, Mohamed Farghally Amin, Takaki Ishikawa, Hitoshi Maeda
In forensic anthropological identification of human remains and single bones, computed tomography (CT) data analysis facilitates volumetric and radiographic density analyses, and a recently developed automated analysis system markedly improved the performance, accuracy, and reproducibility of three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction. The present study aimed to investigate virtual CT morphometry of the patella for the estimation of sex using postmortem CT data of forensic autopsy cases of Japanese individuals aged ≥18 years (total n=220; 110 males and 110 females; estimated postmortem interval <88h), especially with regard to the efficacy of 3-D bone volumetry...
November 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337012/expanding-the-limits-of-endoscopic-intraorbital-tumor-resection-using-3-dimensional-reconstruction
#9
Luciano Lobato Gregorio, Nicolas Y Busaba, Marcel M Miyake, Suzanne K Freitag, Benjamin S Bleier
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic orbital surgery is a nascent field and new tools are required to assist with surgical planning and to ascertain the limits of the tumor resectability. OBJECTIVE: We purpose to utilize three-dimensional radiographic reconstruction to define the theoretical lateral limit of endoscopic resectability of primary orbital tumors and to apply these boundary conditions to surgical cases. METHODS: A three-dimensional orbital model was rendered in 4 representative patients presenting with primary orbital tumors using OsiriX open source imaging software...
December 26, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336877/sin-quadratic-model-for-chest-tomosynthesis-respiratory-signal-analysis-and-its-application-in-four-dimensional-chest-tomosynthesis-reconstruction
#10
Xi Tao, Hua Zhang, Genggeng Qin, Jianhua Ma, Qianjin Feng, Wufan Chen
Chest tomosynthesis (CTS) is a newly developed imaging technique which provides pseudo-3D volume anatomical information of thorax from limited-angle projections and contains much less of superimposed anatomy than the chest X-ray radiography. One of the relatively common problems in CTS is the patient respiratory motion during image acquisition, which negatively impacts the detectability. In this work, we propose a sin-quadratic model to analyze the respiratory motion during CTS scan, which is a real time method where the respiratory signal is generated by extracting the motion of diaphragm from projection radiographs...
January 11, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335485/electron-beam-melting-in-the-fabrication-of-three-dimensional-mesh-titanium-mandibular-prosthesis-scaffold
#11
Rongzeng Yan, Danmei Luo, Haitao Huang, Runxin Li, Niu Yu, Changkui Liu, Min Hu, Qiguo Rong
The study was designed to fulfill effective work-flow to fabricate three-dimensional mesh titanium scaffold for mandibular reconstruction. The 3D titanium mesh scaffold was designed based on a volunteer with whole mandible defect. (1) acquisition of the CT data; (2) design with computer aided design (CAD) and finite element analysis (FEA). The pore size and intervals with the best mechanic strength was also calculated using FEA. (3) fabrication of the scaffold using electron beam melting (EBM); (4) implantation surgery...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335032/-sit-and-tilt-preparation-for-subscapular-system-free-flaps
#12
J Mark, H Patwa, M S Costello, Y Patil
BACKGROUND: The ablation of advanced head and neck cancer often results in large three-dimensional defects that require free tissue transfer to optimally address functional and cosmetic issues. The subscapular system is a highly versatile donor site for flaps used for head and neck reconstruction. Traditional methods of harvesting subscapular flaps require repositioning and re-preparing, which significantly increases the operative time and prevents simultaneous harvesting of the flap...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334259/development-of-three-dimensional-brain-arteriovenous-malformation-model-for-patient-communication-and-young-neurosurgeon-education
#13
Mengqi Dong, Guangzhong Chen, Kun Qin, Xiaowen Ding, Dong Zhou, Chao Peng, Shaojian Zeng, Xianming Deng
PURPOSE: Rapid prototyping technology is used to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) models and facilitate presurgical patient communication and medical education for young surgeons. METHODS: Two intracranial AVM cases were selected for this study. Using 3D CT angiography or 3D rotational angiography images, the brain AVM models were reconstructed on personal computer and the rapid prototyping process was completed using a 3D printer...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333592/3d-models-of-female-pelvis-structures-reconstructed-and-represented-in-combination-with-anatomical-and-radiological-sections
#14
L Asensio Romero, M Asensio Gómez, A Prats-Galino, J A Juanes Méndez
We present a computer program designed to visualize and interact with three-dimensional models of the main anatomical structures of the female pelvis. They are reconstructed from serial sections of corpse, from the Visible Human project of the Medical Library of the United States and from serial sections of high-resolution magnetic resonance. It is possible to represent these three-dimensional structures in any spatial orientation, together with sectional images of corpse and magnetic resonance imaging, in the three planes of space (axial, coronal and sagittal) that facilitates the anatomical understanding and the identification of the set of visceral structures of this body region...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332447/a-projection-quality-driven-tube-current-modulation-method-in-cone-beam-ct-for-igrt-proof-of-concept
#15
Kuo Men, Jianrong Dai
PURPOSE: To develop a projection quality-driven tube current modulation method in cone-beam computed tomography for image-guided radiotherapy based on the prior attenuation information obtained by the planning computed tomography and then evaluate its effect on a reduction in the imaging dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The QCKV-1 phantom with different thicknesses (0-400 mm) of solid water upon it was used to simulate different attenuation (μ). Projections were acquired with a series of tube current-exposure time product (mAs) settings, and a 2-dimensional contrast to noise ratio was analyzed for each projection to create a lookup table of mAs versus 2-dimensional contrast to noise ratio, μ...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331571/interdepartmental-imaging-protocol-for-clinically-based-three-dimensional-computed-tomography-can-provide-accurate-measurement-of-glenoid-version
#16
Connor L Zale, Gregory I Pace, Gregory S Lewis, John Chan, H Mike Kim
BACKGROUND: Conventional computed tomography (CT) is not accurate for glenoid version measurement. This study sought to examine the feasibility of an interdepartmental protocol implemented between orthopedic surgery and radiology departments for acquisition of anatomic axial CT images and to validate the glenoid version measured through such a protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 30 conventional CT scans of 10 normal and 20 osteoarthritic glenoids were transferred to clinical 3-dimensional imaging software by a radiology technician trained for the study...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328179/beam-shape-coefficient-calculation-for-a-gaussian-beam-localized-approximation-quadrature-and-angular-spectrum-decomposition-methods
#17
Juncheng Qiu, Jianqi Shen
Three methods for calculating the beam shape coefficients (the quadrature, the angular spectrum decomposition (ASD), and the localized approximation methods) are studied. The normalized associated Legendre function is employed in the calculation so as to prevent overflow. The two-dimensional integrations in the quadrature and the ASD methods are developed to the one-dimensional integration to speed up the calculation. The Gaussian beams reconstructed with different methods are compared, showing the difference in the remodeling effects of these methods...
January 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328140/full-color-digitized-holography-for-large-scale-holographic-3d-imaging-of-physical-and-nonphysical-objects
#18
Kyoji Matsushima, Noriaki Sonobe
Digitized holography techniques are used to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) images of physical objects using large-scale computer-generated holograms (CGHs). The object field is captured at three wavelengths over a wide area at high densities. Synthetic aperture techniques using single sensors are used for image capture in phase-shifting digital holography. The captured object field is incorporated into a virtual 3D scene that includes nonphysical objects, e.g., polygon-meshed CG models. The synthetic object field is optically reconstructed as a large-scale full-color CGH using red-green-blue color filters...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328131/low-cost-three-dimensional-millimeter-wave-holographic-imaging-system-based-on-a-frequency-scanning-antenna
#19
Vahid Amin Nili, Ehsan Mansouri, Zahra Kavehvash, Mohammad Fakharzadeh, Mahdi Shabany, Amin Khavasi
In this paper, a closed-form two-dimensional reconstruction technique for hybrid frequency and mechanical scanning millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging systems is proposed. Although being commercially implemented in many imaging systems as a low-cost real-time solution, the results of frequency scanning systems have been reconstructed numerically or have been reported as the captured raw data with no clear details. Furthermore, this paper proposes a new framework to utilize the captured data of different frequencies for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction based on novel proposed closed-form relations...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328123/on-the-fundamental-comparison-between-unfocused-and-focused-light-field-cameras
#20
Shuaishuai Zhu, Andy Lai, Katherine Eaton, Peng Jin, Liang Gao
Light field cameras have been extensively used in a variety of applications, thanks to their snapshot three-dimensional imaging capability. However, little is known regarding their pros and cons for a given application. Herein we report a fundamental comparison between two types of light field cameras-focused and unfocused. Our results indicate that the unfocused light field camera outperforms its focused counterpart in depth range and number of resolvable depth steps, while the focused light field camera has an edge in lateral resolution and reconstruction accuracy...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
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