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Lysyl oxidase-like 2

Stefanie Stangenberg, Sonia Saad, Heidi C Schilter, Amgad Zaky, Anthony Gill, Carol A Pollock, Muh Geot Wong
Diabetic nephropathy is characterised by the excessive amount of extracellular matrix in glomeruli and tubulointerstitial space. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is elevated in renal fibrosis and known to play key roles in ECM stabilisation by facilitating collagen cross-links, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and myofibroblast activation. Thus, targeting LOXL2 may prove to be a useful strategy to prevent diabetic nephropathy. We explored the renoprotective effect of a selective small molecule LOXL2 inhibitor (PXS-S2B) in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
T Gambichler, M Mahjurian-Namari, L Reininghaus, L Schmitz, M Skrygan, H-J Schulze, J Schaller, G Girolomoni
BACKGROUND: Mid-dermal elastolysis (MDE) is a rare skin condition, characterized by selective loss of elastic fibres in the mid dermis. The pathogenesis of MDE is still unclear. AIM: To investigate expression of lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) in a reasonable sample of patients with MDE and to search for mutations in LOXL2. METHODS: We investigated archived lesional tissue of 13 patients with MDE and skin tissue samples of 10 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (HCs)...
May 29, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Ximao Cui, Guanghui Wang, Wenbin Shen, Zhenyu Huang, Hailan He, Long Cui
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer. In the present study, the expression and intracellular localization of lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) protein in CRC were examined. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis of LOXL2 mRNA and protein expression was performed for 40 pairs of CRC tumor and normal mucosa tissue samples. The immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays was performed to detect LOXL2 protein expression. LOXL2 was highly expressed in the extracellular matrix and CRC cells...
May 21, 2018: Oncology Reports
Hong-Wei Wang, Peng Sun, Yao Chen, Li-Ping Jiang, Hui-Ping Wu, Wen Zhang, Feng Gao
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness globally. It is known that the incidence of glaucoma is closely associated with inheritance. A large number of studies have suggested that genetic factors are involved in the occurrence and development of glaucoma, and even affect the drug sensitivity and prognosis of glaucoma. In the present review, 22 loci of glaucoma are presented, including the relevant genes (myocilin, interleukin 20 receptor subunit B, optineurin, ankyrin repeat‑ and SOCS box‑containing protein 10, WD repeat‑containing protein 36, EGF‑containing fibulin‑like extracellular matrix protein 1, neurotrophin 4, TANK‑binding kinase 1, cytochrome P450 subfamily I polypeptide 1, latent transforming growth factor β binding protein 2 and TEK tyrosine kinase endothelial) and 74 other genes (including toll‑like receptor 4, sine oculis homeobox Drosophila homolog of 1, doublecortin‑like kinase 1, RE repeats‑encoding gene, retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator‑interacting protein, lysyl oxidase‑like protein 1, heat‑shock 70‑kDa protein 1A, baculoviral IAP repeat‑containing protein 6, 5,10‑methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and nitric oxide synthase 3 and nanophthalmos 1) that are more closely associated with glaucoma...
May 23, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Geovana Calvo-Anguiano, Jose J Lugo-Trampe, Alberto Camacho, Salvador Said-Fernández, Roberto Mercado-Hernández, Viviana Zomosa-Signoret, Augusto Rojas-Martínez, Rocio Ortiz-López
The microenvironment plays a fundamental role in carcinogenesis: Acidity and hypoxia are actively involved in this process. It is important to have in vitro models to study these mechanisms. The models that are most commonly referred to are the hypoxia chamber and the chemical induction [Cobalt (II) chloride]. It is not yet defined if these models are interchangeable if the metabolic effect is the same, and if the results may be compared in these models. In the present study, the response to the effect of stress (hypoxia and acidity) in both models was evaluated...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Mohammad Faisal J Khan, Julian Little, Peter A Mossey, Régine Pm Steegers-Theunissen, Martina Bonsi, Rita Bassi Andreasi, Michele Rubini
To investigate possible association between functional common variants in the lysyl oxidase like 3 (LOXL3) gene and non-syndromic cleft palate (nsCP) we selected a common missense variant p.Ile615Phe (rs17010021), which was predicted to have a probably damaging effect on the LOXL3 enzyme. We genotyped 258 nsCP case-parent triads of European origin and tested genetic association using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and log-linear regression analyses of genotypic relative risks (RR) and of parent-of-origin effects...
May 26, 2018: Congenital Anomalies
D Saxena, F Mahjour, A D Findlay, E A Mously, A Kantarci, P C Trackman
Gingival overgrowth is a side effect of certain medications, including calcium channel blockers, cyclosporin A, and phenytoin. Phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth is fibrotic. Lysyl oxidases are extracellular enzymes that are required for biosynthetic cross-linking of collagens, and members of this enzyme family are upregulated in fibrosis. Previous studies in humans and in a mouse model of phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth have shown that LOXL2 is elevated in the epithelium and connective tissue in gingival overgrowth tissues and not in normal tissues...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Xiao-Guang Du, Mei-Jia Zhu
Introduction: Glioma is the most frequent malignancy of the adult central nervous system with high recurrence risk and poor prognosis. Understanding the biological molecular mechanisms involved in glioma progression is critical for studying oncogenic mechanisms and improving prognosis. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is a kind of lysyl oxidase catalyzing the formation of peptidyl-lysine residues and promoting intramolecular cross-linking, especially for proteins in extracellular matrix. Our study explored the expression pattern of LOXL2 in glioma for the first time and found that its high expression was associated with larger tumor size and advanced tumor grade ( P <0...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Brian J Huang, Wendy E Brown, Thomas Keown, Jerry C Hu, Kyriacos A Athanasiou
Although numerous cartilage engineering methods have been described, few report generation of constructs greater than 4 cm2, which is the typical lesion size considered for cell-based therapies. Furthermore, current cell-based therapies only target focal lesions, while treatment of large non-isolated lesions remains an area of great demand. The objective of this study was to scale-up fabrication of self-assembled neocartilage from standard sizes of 0.2 cm2 to greater than 8 cm2. Passaged sheep articular chondrocytes were self-assembled into 5 mm or 25 mm dia...
May 16, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Dominic Cosgrove, Brianna Dufek, Daniel T Meehan, Duane Delimont, Michael Hartnett, Gina Samuelson, Michael Anne Gratton, Grady Phillips, Deidre A MacKenna, Gretchen Bain
Lysyl oxidase like-2 (LOXL2) is an amine oxidase with both intracellular and extracellular functions. Extracellularly, LOXL2 promotes collagen and elastin crosslinking, whereas intracellularly, LOXL2 has been reported to modify histone H3, stabilize SNAIL, and reduce cell polarity. Although LOXL2 promotes liver and lung fibrosis, little is known regarding its role in renal fibrosis. Here we determine whether LOXL2 influences kidney disease in COL4A3 (-/-) Alport mice. These mice were treated with a small molecule inhibitor selective for LOXL2 or with vehicle and assessed for glomerular sclerosis and fibrosis, albuminuria, blood urea nitrogen, lifespan, pro-fibrotic gene expression and ultrastructure of the glomerular basement membrane...
May 11, 2018: Kidney International
Obiageli Offor, Netanya Utay, David Reynoso, Anoma Somasunderam, Judith Currier, Jordan Lake
BACKGROUND: People with HIV are at for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and fatty liver disease, but the role of Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is poorly understood. MetS and fatty liver disease been associated with changes in adiponectin, soluble ST2 (sST2), chitinase 3-like 1 (Chi3L1), hyaluronic acid (HA), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), lysyl oxidase-like-2 (LOXL2) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) concentrations in HIV-uninfected populations. Protease (PI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) may contribute to these comorbidities, but the effects of switching from PI- or NNRTI to raltegravir (RAL) on these biomarkers is unknown...
2018: PloS One
Marion J Pollheimer, Silvia Racedo, Amanda Mikels-Vigdal, Derek Marshall, Christopher Bowlus, Carolin Lackner, Tobias Madl, Tom H Karlsen, Johannes R Hov, Susan K Lyman, Joanne Adamkewicz, Victoria Smith, Emmanuel Moreau, Gernot Zollner, Tor Jacob Eide, Tatjana Stojakovic, Hubert Scharnagl, Hans-Jürgen Gruber, Rudolf E Stauber, Michael Trauner, Peter Fickert
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The lysyl oxidase-like protein 2 (LOXL2) promotes stabilization of the extracellular matrix, chemotaxis, cell growth and cell mobility. We aimed to (i) identify stimuli of LOXL2 in cholangiopathies, (ii) characterize the effects of LOXL2 on biliary epithelial cells' (BECs) barrier function, (iii) compare LOXL2 expression in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), primary biliary cholangitis, and disease controls, and (iv) to determine LOXL2 expression and its cellular sources in four mouse models of cholangiopathies...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Go Ninomiya, Suguru Yamada, Masamichi Hayashi, Shigeomi Takeda, Masaya Suenaga, Hideki Takami, Mitsuro Kanda, Naoki Iwata, Yukiko Niwa, Chie Tanaka, Daisuke Kobayashi, Tsutomu Fujii, Goro Nakayama, Hiroyuki Sugimoto, Masahiko Koike, Michitaka Fujiwara, Yasuhiro Kodera
In the present study, we investigated the role of lysyl oxidase‑like 2 (LOXL2), the correlation between LOXL2 and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the effects of using β‑aminopropionitrile (BAPN) to inhibit LOXL2 with the aim of reducing tumor progression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression level of LOXL2 was evaluated in HCC and adjacent non‑cancerous tissues using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and clinicopathological analyses. The effects of BAPN on cell proliferation, migration and invasion were investigated in vitro...
June 2018: Oncology Reports
Eden P Go, Hee-Jung Moon, Minae Mure, Heather Desaire
Human lysyl oxidase-like 2 (hLOXL2), a glycoprotein implicated in tumor progression and organ fibrosis, is a molecular target for anticancer and antifibrosis treatment. This glycoprotein contains three predicted N-linked glycosylation sites; one is near the protein's active site, and at least one more is known to facilitate the protein's secretion. Because the glycosylation impacts the protein's biology, we sought to characterize the native, mammalian glycosylation profile and to determine how closely this profile is recapitulated when the protein is expressed in insect cells...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Kathleen Pappritz, Konstantinos Savvatis, Annika Koschel, Kapka Miteva, Carsten Tschöpe, Sophie Van Linthout
Cardiac fibroblasts play an important role in the regulation of the extracellular matrix and are newly recognized as inflammatory supporter cells. Interferon (IFN)-γ is known to counteract transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1-induced myofibroblast differentiation. This study aims at investigating in vitro how IFN-γ affects TGF-ß1-induced monocyte attraction. Therefore, C4 fibroblasts and fibroblasts obtained by outgrowth culture from the left ventricle (LV) of male C57BL6/j mice were stimulated with TGF-β1, IFN-γ and TGF-β1 + IFN-γ...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xi Zhang, Qifan Wang, Jianping Wu, Jiawei Wang, Yigong Shi, Minhao Liu
Lysyl oxidases (LOXs), a type of copper- and lysyl tyrosylquinone (LTQ) -dependent amine oxidase, catalyze the oxidative deamination of lysine residues of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as elastins and collagens and generate aldehyde groups. The oxidative deamination of lysine represents the foundational step for the cross-linking of elastin and collagen and thus is crucial for ECM modeling. Despite their physiological significance, the structure of this important family of enzymes remains elusive...
April 10, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Eva Jover, Ana Silvente, Francisco Marín, José Martínez-González, Mar Orriols, Carlos M Martinez, Carmen María Puche, Mariano Valdés, Cristina Rodriguez, Diana Hernández-Romero
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) transdifferentiate into osteoblast-like cells during vascular calcification, inducing active remodeling and calcification of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Intracellular and extracellular enzymes, such as lysyl hydroxylase 1 (PLOD1) and lysyl oxidase (LOX), contribute to ECM maturation and stabilization. We assessed the contribution of these enzymes to hyperphosphatemia (HPM)-induced calcification. Human and murine VSMCs were differentiated into functional osteoblast-like cells by HPM conditioning...
March 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Renata G M Dos Santos, Fernanda C A Pepicelli, Nilce C Batista, Cristina V de Carvalho, Maria A T Bortolini, Rodrigo A Castro
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We verified the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs2236479 of the collagen 18 (COL18A1) and rs2862296 of the lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL-4) genes and the association with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in Brazilian women and determined risk factors for POP development. METHODS: We assessed 532 postmenopausal women divided into POP (stages III and IV) and control (stages 0 and I) groups by examination and peripheral blood sample collection...
June 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Jing Xie, Demao Zhang, Yunfeng Lin, Quan Yuan, Xuedong Zhou
BACKGROUND: The meniscus plays an important role in knee joint diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA). Meniscal injuries can be accompanied by joint catabolic events initiated by inflammation, leading to articular cartilage destruction, but the cellular events responsible for intrinsic meniscal injury and the extracellular matrix changes necessary for meniscal degradation are not well known. PURPOSE: To explore the cellular and matrix-related changes of menisci based on a mouse OA model of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT)...
April 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Praveen Venkatesha Sastry, Anuj Kumar Singal
Aim. To study the outcome of cataract surgery in eyes with pseudoexfoliation without signs of glaucoma. Methods. This prospective study was done over nine months on patients with pseudoexfoliation undergoing small incision cataract surgery. Only patients with normal intraocular pressure (Central Corneal Thickness Corrected), normal cup disc ratio and open angles were included. Patients on anti-glaucoma medication were excluded. Patients underwent surgery performed by a single senior surgeon. Intraoperative and postoperative day (POD) 1 findings were noted...
July 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
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